Saros -4

Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros -4

Fred Espenak

Introduction

The periodicity and recurrence of lunar eclipses is governed by the Saros cycle, a period of approximately 6,585.3 days (18 years 11 days 8 hours). When two eclipses are separated by a period of one Saros, they share a very similar geometry. The two eclipses occur at the same node with the Moon at nearly the same distance from Earth and the same time of year due to a harmonic in three cycles of the Moon's orbit. Thus, the Saros is useful for organizing eclipses into families or series. Each series typically lasts 12 to 13 centuries and contains 70 or more eclipses. Every saros series begins with a number of penumbral lunar eclipses. The series will then produce several dozen partial eclipses, followed by several dozen total eclipses. The later portion of the series produces another set of partial eclipses before ending with a final group of penumbral eclipses.

Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros -4

The table below lists the concise characteristics of every lunar eclipse belonging to Saros -4 . The date and time of each eclipse is given for the instant of Greatest Eclipse. For eclipses between the years -1999 to 3000, the calendar date links to a web page containing additional details along with a diagram of the eclipse geometry and a map showing the geographic region of eclipse visibility for that eclipse. A description of each parameter in the catalog table can be found in Key to Saros Catalog of Lunar Eclipses.

Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros -4
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QSE Gamma Pen Mag Um Mag Pen Dur
m
Par Dur
m
Tot Dur
m
1-35 -2787-May-1012:43:02 67531 7684 -59204 N t- 1.4957 0.1437-0.9158115.5 - -
2-34 -2769-May-2119:03:46 67004 7579 -58981 N t- 1.4093 0.3014-0.7566164.6 - -
3-33 -2751-Jun-0101:25:56 66478 7474 -58758 N t- 1.3229 0.4593-0.5976199.7 - -
4-32 -2733-Jun-1207:55:34 65954 7371 -58535 N t- 1.2411 0.6091-0.4472226.2 - -
5-31 -2715-Jun-2214:30:31 65433 7268 -58312 N t- 1.1624 0.7534-0.3026247.4 - -
6-30 -2697-Jul-0321:13:57 64913 7165 -58089 N t- 1.0892 0.8878-0.1682264.3 - -
7-29 -2679-Jul-1404:05:36 64396 7064 -57866 Nx t- 1.0215 1.0120-0.0443277.9 - -
8-28 -2661-Jul-2511:08:32 63880 6963 -57643 P t- 0.9618 1.1219 0.0651288.4 61.1 -
9-27 -2643-Aug-0418:21:33 63367 6863 -57420 P t- 0.9091 1.2189 0.1615296.7 94.6 -
10-26 -2625-Aug-1601:45:41 62856 6763 -57197 P t- 0.8642 1.3016 0.2436303.0114.5 -
11-25 -2607-Aug-2609:20:53 62346 6664 -56974 P h- 0.8272 1.3696 0.3112307.6127.8 -
12-24 -2589-Sep-0617:07:33 61839 6566 -56751 P h- 0.7985 1.4226 0.3638310.7136.7 -
13-23 -2571-Sep-1701:03:31 61334 6468 -56528 P a- 0.7765 1.4629 0.4042312.7142.8 -
14-22 -2553-Sep-2809:09:00 60831 6371 -56305 P a- 0.7613 1.4905 0.4322313.7146.6 -
15-21 -2535-Oct-0817:21:56 60330 6275 -56082 P a- 0.7513 1.5084 0.4511313.9148.9 -
16-20 -2517-Oct-2001:41:53 59832 6179 -55859 P a- 0.7461 1.5171 0.4613313.4149.9 -
17-19 -2499-Oct-3010:04:49 59335 6085 -55636 P a- 0.7426 1.5225 0.4690312.7150.5 -
18-18 -2481-Nov-1018:31:53 58840 5990 -55413 P a- 0.7417 1.5227 0.4720311.5150.4 -
19-17 -2463-Nov-2102:58:58 58348 5897 -55190 P a- 0.7405 1.5230 0.4760310.3150.5 -
20-16 -2445-Dec-0211:25:33 57857 5804 -54967 P a- 0.7378 1.5258 0.4830309.2151.0 -
21-15 -2427-Dec-1219:47:59 57369 5712 -54744 P a- 0.7310 1.5358 0.4979308.5152.5 -
22-14 -2409-Dec-2404:07:24 56882 5620 -54521 P a- 0.7210 1.5514 0.5190308.1154.8 -
23-13 -2390-Jan-0312:20:55 56398 5529 -54298 P a- 0.7055 1.5769 0.5504308.3158.1 -
24-12 -2372-Jan-1420:27:48 55915 5439 -54075 P a- 0.6837 1.6137 0.5935309.0162.6 -
25-11 -2354-Jan-2504:27:29 55435 5350 -53852 P a- 0.6552 1.6627 0.6489310.3168.0 -
26-10 -2336-Feb-0512:19:57 54957 5261 -53629 P a- 0.6197 1.7245 0.7173312.1174.1 -
27 -9 -2318-Feb-1520:04:56 54481 5173 -53406 P a- 0.5772 1.7992 0.7986314.2180.6 -
28 -8 -2300-Feb-2703:42:15 54007 5086 -53183 P a- 0.5275 1.8871 0.8930316.6187.4 -
29 -7 -2282-Mar-0911:13:41 53535 4999 -52960 P a- 0.4719 1.9860 0.9980319.0193.8 -
30 -6 -2264-Mar-1918:39:04 53065 4913 -52737 T a- 0.4105 2.0957 1.1136321.3199.8 50.2
31 -5 -2246-Mar-3101:59:12 52597 4827 -52514 T a- 0.3437 2.2155 1.2388323.4205.0 69.7
32 -4 -2228-Apr-1009:15:48 52132 4743 -52291 T p- 0.2731 2.3426 1.3708325.0209.4 82.8
33 -3 -2210-Apr-2116:29:45 51668 4659 -52068 T+ p- 0.1993 2.4759 1.5084326.0212.6 91.8
34 -2 -2192-May-0123:42:54 51207 4575 -51845 T+ p- 0.1242 2.6118 1.6479326.3214.7 97.5
35 -1 -2174-May-1306:54:35 50747 4493 -51622 T+ pp 0.0471 2.7518 1.7910326.0215.5100.3
36 0 -2156-May-2314:09:02 50290 4411 -51399 T- pp -0.0285 2.7848 1.8263325.0215.2100.5
37 1 -2138-Jun-0321:25:15 49834 4329 -51176 T- pp -0.1036 2.6461 1.6893323.4213.6 98.1
38 2 -2120-Jun-1404:46:19 49381 4249 -50953 T- pp -0.1750 2.5145 1.5587321.2211.1 93.4
39 3 -2102-Jun-2512:11:31 48930 4169 -50730 T- -p -0.2437 2.3883 1.4329318.4207.7 86.2
40 4 -2084-Jul-0519:44:18 48481 4090 -50507 T -p -0.3067 2.2729 1.3173315.4203.6 76.8
Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros -4
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QSE Gamma Pen Mag Um Mag Pen Dur
m
Par Dur
m
Tot Dur
m
41 5 -2066-Jul-1703:23:43 48034 4011 -50284 T -p -0.3648 2.1666 1.2103312.2199.0 64.7
42 6 -2048-Jul-2711:10:43 47589 3933 -50061 T -p -0.4171 2.0711 1.1137308.9194.1 48.9
43 7 -2030-Aug-0719:06:25 47146 3856 -49838 T -a -0.4627 1.9884 1.0294305.8189.3 25.4
44 8 -2012-Aug-1803:11:03 46705 3780 -49615 P -a -0.5011 1.9187 0.9580303.0184.7 -
45 9 -1994-Aug-2911:24:55 46266 3704 -49392 P -a -0.5324 1.8622 0.8995300.5180.6 -
46 10 -1976-Sep-0819:46:18 45829 3629 -49169 P -a -0.5579 1.8165 0.8519298.4177.0 -
47 11 -1958-Sep-2004:17:01 45395 3554 -48946 P -a -0.5759 1.7845 0.8179296.9174.3 -
48 12 -1940-Sep-3012:54:13 44962 3481 -48723 P -a -0.5888 1.7617 0.7933295.7172.2 -
49 13 -1922-Oct-1121:38:19 44531 3408 -48500 P -a -0.5962 1.7489 0.7790295.1171.0 -
50 14 -1904-Oct-2206:26:21 44103 3335 -48277 P -a -0.6004 1.7416 0.7706294.7170.2 -
51 15 -1886-Nov-0215:18:57 43677 3264 -48054 P -a -0.6012 1.7406 0.7688294.7170.0 -
52 16 -1868-Nov-1300:12:36 43252 3193 -47831 P -a -0.6012 1.7408 0.7687294.7170.0 -
53 17 -1850-Nov-2409:06:47 42830 3122 -47608 P -a -0.6009 1.7412 0.7693294.7170.1 -
54 18 -1832-Dec-0417:59:10 42410 3053 -47385 P -a -0.6022 1.7386 0.7674294.6169.9 -
55 19 -1814-Dec-1602:49:24 41992 2984 -47162 P -a -0.6050 1.7329 0.7626294.4169.6 -
56 20 -1796-Dec-2611:33:45 41576 2916 -46939 P -a -0.6129 1.7176 0.7488293.7168.6 -
57 21 -1777-Jan-0620:12:52 41162 2848 -46716 P -a -0.6254 1.6940 0.7268292.6166.8 -
58 22 -1759-Jan-1704:44:15 40750 2782 -46493 P -a -0.6439 1.6590 0.6937291.0164.0 -
59 23 -1741-Jan-2813:09:16 40340 2716 -46270 P -a -0.6676 1.6145 0.6511288.8160.2 -
60 24 -1723-Feb-0721:23:44 39932 2650 -46047 P -a -0.6999 1.5544 0.5929285.7154.5 -
61 25 -1705-Feb-1905:31:10 39527 2586 -45824 P -a -0.7377 1.4841 0.5244281.8147.1 -
62 26 -1687-Mar-0113:28:09 39123 2522 -45601 P -a -0.7840 1.3984 0.4401276.6136.7 -
63 27 -1669-Mar-1221:18:30 38722 2458 -45378 P -a -0.8354 1.3035 0.3465270.4123.2 -
64 28 -1651-Mar-2304:58:24 38322 2396 -45155 P -a -0.8948 1.1941 0.2378262.5103.9 -
65 29 -1633-Apr-0312:33:25 37925 2334 -44932 P -a -0.9578 1.0784 0.1224253.2 75.9 -
66 30 -1615-Apr-1320:00:08 37529 2273 -44709 N -a -1.0271 0.9513-0.0050241.6 - -
67 31 -1597-Apr-2503:22:56 37136 2212 -44486 N -a -1.0991 0.8198-0.1375228.0 - -
68 32 -1579-May-0510:40:13 36745 2152 -44263 N -a -1.1749 0.6814-0.2774211.4 - -
69 33 -1561-May-1617:55:56 36356 2093 -44040 N -a -1.2513 0.5424-0.4186191.8 - -
70 34 -1543-May-2701:09:14 35969 2035 -43817 N -a -1.3288 0.4017-0.5623167.9 - -
71 35 -1525-Jun-0708:22:12 35584 1977 -43594 N -a -1.4057 0.2623-0.7051138.0 - -
72 36 -1507-Jun-1715:36:26 35201 1921 -43371 N -a -1.4808 0.1267-0.8449 97.5 - -

Statistics for Lunar Eclipses of Saros -4

Lunar eclipses of Saros -4 all occur at the Moon’s ascending node and the Moon moves southward with each eclipse. The series will begin with a penumbral eclipse near the northern edge of the penumbra on -2787 May 10. The series will end with a penumbral eclipse near the southern edge of the penumbra on -1507 Jun 17. The total duration of Saros series -4 is 1280.14 years.

Summary of Saros -4
First Eclipse -2787 May 10
Last Eclipse -1507 Jun 17
Series Duration 1280.14 Years
No. of Eclipses 72
Sequence 7N 22P 14T 22P 7N

Saros -4 is composed of 72 lunar eclipses as follows:

Lunar Eclipses of Saros -4
Eclipse Type Symbol Number Percent
All Eclipses - 72100.0%
PenumbralN 14 19.4%
PartialP 44 61.1%
TotalT 14 19.4%

The 72 lunar eclipses of Saros -4 occur in the order of 7N 22P 14T 22P 7N which corresponds to the following.

Sequence Order of Lunar Eclipses in Saros -4
Eclipse Type Symbol Number
Penumbral N 7
Partial P 22
Total T 14
Partial P 22
Penumbral N 7

The longest and shortest eclipses of Saros -4 as well as largest and smallest partial eclipses appear below.

Extreme Durations and Magnitudes of Lunar Eclipses of Saros -4
Extrema Type Date Duration Magnitude
Longest Total Lunar Eclipse -2156 May 2301h40m29s -
Shortest Total Lunar Eclipse -2030 Aug 0700h25m27s -
Longest Partial Lunar Eclipse -2282 Mar 0903h13m48s -
Shortest Partial Lunar Eclipse -2661 Jul 2501h01m05s -
Longest Penumbral Lunar Eclipse -2679 Jul 1404h37m52s -
Shortest Penumbral Lunar Eclipse -1507 Jun 1701h37m28s -
Largest Partial Lunar Eclipse -2282 Mar 09 - 0.99802
Smallest Partial Lunar Eclipse -2661 Jul 25 - 0.06514

Links to Additional Lunar Eclipse Predictions

Calendar

The Gregorian calendar (also called the Western calendar) is internationally the most widely used civil calendar. It is named for Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in 1582. On this website, the Gregorian calendar is used for all calendar dates from 1582 Oct 15 onwards. Before that date, the Julian calendar is used. For more information on this topic, see Calendar Dates.

The Julian calendar does not include the year 0. Thus the year 1 BCE is followed by the year 1 CE (See: BCE/CE Dating Conventions). This is awkward for arithmetic calculations. Years in this catalog are numbered astronomically and include the year 0. Historians should note there is a difference of one year between astronomical dates and BCE dates. Thus, the astronomical year 0 corresponds to 1 BCE, and astronomical year -1 corresponds to 2 BCE, etc..

Eclipse Predictions

The eclipse predictions presented here were generated using the JPL DE406 solar and lunar ephemerides. The lunar coordinates have been calculated with respect to the Moon's Center of Mass.

The largest uncertainty in the eclipse predictions is caused by fluctuations in Earth's rotation due primarily to tidal friction of the Moon. The resultant drift in apparent clock time is expressed as ΔT and is determined as follows:

  1. pre-1950's: ΔT calculated from empirical fits to historical records derived by Morrison and Stephenson (2004)
  2. 1955-present: ΔT obtained from published observations
  3. future: ΔT is extrapolated from current values weighted by the long term trend from tidal effects

A series of polynomial expressions have been derived to simplify the evaluation of ΔT for any time from -2999 to +3000. The uncertainty in ΔT over this period can be estimated from scatter in the measurements.

Acknowledgments

Some of the content on this web site is based on the books Five Millennium Canon of Lunar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 and Thousand Year Canon of Lunar Eclipses 1501 to 2500. All eclipse calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy.

Permission is granted to reproduce eclipse data when accompanied by a link to this page and an acknowledgment:

"Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak, www.EclipseWise.com"

The use of diagrams and maps is permitted provided that they are NOT altered (except for re-sizing) and the embedded credit line is NOT removed or covered.