Saros 4

Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 4

Fred Espenak

Introduction

The periodicity and recurrence of lunar eclipses is governed by the Saros cycle, a period of approximately 6,585.3 days (18 years 11 days 8 hours). When two eclipses are separated by a period of one Saros, they share a very similar geometry. The two eclipses occur at the same node with the Moon at nearly the same distance from Earth and the same time of year due to a harmonic in three cycles of the Moon's orbit. Thus, the Saros is useful for organizing eclipses into families or series. Each series typically lasts 12 to 13 centuries and contains 70 or more eclipses. Every saros series begins with a number of penumbral lunar eclipses. The series will then produce several dozen partial eclipses, followed by several dozen total eclipses. The later portion of the series produces another set of partial eclipses before ending with a final group of penumbral eclipses.

Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 4

The table below lists the concise characteristics of every lunar eclipse belonging to Saros 4 . The date and time of each eclipse is given for the instant of Greatest Eclipse. For eclipses between the years -1999 to 3000, the calendar date links to a web page containing additional details along with a diagram of the eclipse geometry and a map showing the geographic region of eclipse visibility for that eclipse. A description of each parameter in the catalog table can be found in Key to Saros Catalog of Lunar Eclipses.

Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 4
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QSE Gamma Pen Mag Um Mag Pen Dur
m
Par Dur
m
Tot Dur
m
1-40 -2646-Oct-0622:53:46 63447 6878 -57455 N a- 1.5552 0.0038-0.9947 17.1 - -
2-39 -2628-Oct-1707:32:42 62936 6779 -57232 N a- 1.5564 0.0035-0.9991 16.6 - -
3-38 -2483-Jan-1203:55:55 58918 6005 -55448 N a- 1.5577 0.0082-1.0084 25.9 - -
4-37 -2465-Jan-2311:59:34 58425 5911 -55225 N a- 1.5390 0.0427-0.9741 59.0 - -
5-36 -2447-Feb-0219:50:50 57934 5818 -55002 N h- 1.5116 0.0929-0.9239 87.0 - -
6-35 -2429-Feb-1403:33:34 57445 5726 -54779 N h- 1.4783 0.1540-0.8628111.7 - -
7-34 -2411-Feb-2411:04:09 56958 5635 -54556 N h- 1.4366 0.2307-0.7864136.3 - -
8-33 -2393-Mar-0718:25:28 56474 5544 -54333 N t- 1.3882 0.3198-0.6977159.7 - -
9-32 -2375-Mar-1801:36:03 55991 5453 -54110 N t- 1.3319 0.4235-0.5949182.7 - -
10-31 -2357-Mar-2908:39:08 55510 5364 -53887 N t- 1.2703 0.5370-0.4825204.3 - -
11-30 -2339-Apr-0815:34:09 55032 5275 -53664 N t- 1.2030 0.6613-0.3599224.8 - -
12-29 -2321-Apr-1922:22:16 54556 5187 -53441 N t- 1.1309 0.7947-0.2286244.2 - -
13-28 -2303-Apr-3005:05:20 54081 5099 -53218 N t- 1.0552 0.9349-0.0910262.1 - -
14-27 -2285-May-1111:44:46 53609 5012 -52995 P t- 0.9770 1.0799 0.0509278.6 53.4 -
15-26 -2267-May-2118:21:50 53139 4926 -52772 P t- 0.8976 1.2275 0.1948293.5102.7 -
16-25 -2249-Jun-0200:58:06 52671 4841 -52549 P t- 0.8182 1.3752 0.3384306.8133.0 -
17-24 -2231-Jun-1207:35:38 52205 4756 -52326 P t- 0.7404 1.5204 0.4790318.6155.3 -
18-23 -2213-Jun-2314:16:00 51741 4672 -52103 P t- 0.6654 1.6604 0.6140328.8172.6 -
19-22 -2195-Jul-0320:59:23 51279 4588 -51880 P t- 0.5935 1.7951 0.7434337.6186.3 -
20-21 -2177-Jul-1503:48:41 50819 4506 -51657 P t- 0.5270 1.9198 0.8625345.1197.0 -
21-20 -2159-Jul-2510:43:57 50361 4424 -51434 P t- 0.4660 2.0347 0.9716351.3205.4 -
22-19 -2141-Aug-0517:47:19 49906 4342 -51211 T t- 0.4121 2.1366 1.0677356.5211.9 41.8
23-18 -2123-Aug-1600:57:33 49452 4261 -50988 T p- 0.3642 2.2274 1.1526360.8216.9 61.0
24-17 -2105-Aug-2708:17:25 49000 4181 -50765 T p- 0.3246 2.3030 1.2226364.3220.6 72.0
25-16 -2087-Sep-0615:45:21 48551 4102 -50542 T p- 0.2918 2.3659 1.2801367.1223.3 79.2
26-15 -2069-Sep-1723:21:55 48104 4023 -50319 T+ p- 0.2666 2.4146 1.3239369.4225.3 83.8
27-14 -2051-Sep-2807:05:57 47658 3946 -50096 T+ pp 0.2477 2.4515 1.3563371.2226.7 86.8
28-13 -2033-Oct-0914:57:03 47215 3868 -49873 T+ pp 0.2349 2.4769 1.3779372.6227.6 88.7
29-12 -2015-Oct-1922:53:39 46774 3792 -49650 T+ pp 0.2267 2.4935 1.3914373.7228.2 89.8
30-11 -1997-Oct-3106:52:59 46335 3716 -49427 T+ pp 0.2210 2.5051 1.4008374.5228.7 90.5
31-10 -1979-Nov-1014:55:30 45898 3641 -49204 T+ pp 0.2181 2.5111 1.4053375.1229.0 90.9
32 -9 -1961-Nov-2122:57:38 45463 3566 -48981 T+ pp 0.2157 2.5159 1.4095375.5229.3 91.3
33 -8 -1943-Dec-0206:58:19 45030 3492 -48758 T+ pp 0.2118 2.5228 1.4168375.8229.6 91.9
34 -7 -1925-Dec-1314:54:19 44599 3419 -48535 T+ pp 0.2044 2.5358 1.4309376.1230.1 92.9
35 -6 -1907-Dec-2322:46:08 44170 3347 -48312 T+ pp 0.1937 2.5545 1.4515376.2230.8 94.4
36 -5 -1888-Jan-0406:30:43 43743 3275 -48089 T+ pp 0.1773 2.5833 1.4828376.4231.6 96.3
37 -4 -1870-Jan-1414:07:19 43319 3204 -47866 T+ pp 0.1545 2.6236 1.5263376.6232.6 98.7
38 -3 -1852-Jan-2521:34:55 42896 3133 -47643 T+ pp 0.1244 2.6770 1.5833376.7233.7101.3
39 -2 -1834-Feb-0504:53:39 42476 3064 -47420 T+ pp 0.0869 2.7439 1.6541376.6234.7103.6
40 -1 -1816-Feb-1612:02:53 42057 2995 -47197 T+ pp 0.0414 2.8252 1.7397376.3235.4105.4
Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 4
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QSE Gamma Pen Mag Um Mag Pen Dur
m
Par Dur
m
Tot Dur
m
41 0 -1798-Feb-2619:02:48 41641 2927 -46974 T- pp -0.0119 2.8770 1.7959375.6235.5105.9
42 1 -1780-Mar-0901:54:16 41227 2859 -46751 T- pp -0.0724 2.7638 1.6871374.4234.8104.7
43 2 -1762-Mar-2008:38:14 40814 2792 -46528 T- pp -0.1392 2.6391 1.5666372.3233.0100.9
44 3 -1744-Mar-3015:14:30 40404 2726 -46305 T- pp -0.2128 2.5019 1.4337369.4229.6 93.5
45 4 -1726-Apr-1021:46:05 39996 2660 -46082 T pp -0.2906 2.3573 1.2928365.4224.6 81.1
46 5 -1708-Apr-2104:12:56 39590 2596 -45859 T -t -0.3728 2.2047 1.1439360.1217.5 59.8
47 6 -1690-May-0210:38:53 39186 2532 -45636 P -t -0.4559 2.0505 0.9928353.7208.2 -
48 7 -1672-May-1217:01:30 38784 2468 -45413 P -t -0.5422 1.8907 0.8358345.9196.2 -
49 8 -1654-May-2323:26:54 38385 2405 -45190 P -t -0.6268 1.7345 0.6819336.9181.6 -
50 9 -1636-Jun-0305:53:00 37987 2343 -44967 P -t -0.7114 1.5782 0.5276326.6163.4 -
51 10 -1618-Jun-1412:24:51 37591 2282 -44744 P -t -0.7917 1.4301 0.3809315.4141.7 -
52 11 -1600-Jun-2419:00:21 37198 2222 -44521 P -t -0.8696 1.2868 0.2386303.2114.3 -
53 12 -1582-Jul-0601:45:08 36806 2162 -44298 P -t -0.9407 1.1559 0.1085290.7 78.3 -
54 13 -1564-Jul-1608:37:05 36417 2103 -44075 Nx -t -1.0067 1.0347-0.0125277.8 - -
55 14 -1546-Jul-2715:38:58 36029 2044 -43852 N -t -1.0655 0.9266-0.1204265.1 - -
56 15 -1528-Aug-0622:50:04 35644 1986 -43629 N -t -1.1176 0.8311-0.2161252.7 - -
57 16 -1510-Aug-1806:13:02 35261 1929 -43406 N -t -1.1609 0.7518-0.2956241.6 - -
58 17 -1492-Aug-2813:46:14 34880 1873 -43183 N -t -1.1970 0.6856-0.3620231.5 - -
59 18 -1474-Sep-0821:30:13 34501 1818 -42960 N -t -1.2254 0.6337-0.4141223.1 - -
60 19 -1456-Sep-1905:24:23 34124 1763 -42737 N -h -1.2465 0.5950-0.4528216.3 - -
61 20 -1438-Sep-3013:28:50 33749 1709 -42514 N -h -1.2602 0.5697-0.4778211.5 - -
62 21 -1420-Oct-1021:40:58 33376 1655 -42291 N -h -1.2685 0.5541-0.4926208.2 - -
63 22 -1402-Oct-2206:00:41 33005 1602 -42068 N -h -1.2714 0.5481-0.4974206.5 - -
64 23 -1384-Nov-0114:25:31 32636 1550 -41845 N -h -1.2712 0.5476-0.4961205.7 - -
65 24 -1366-Nov-1222:55:02 32270 1499 -41622 N -a -1.2679 0.5523-0.4889205.8 - -
66 25 -1348-Nov-2307:25:08 31905 1449 -41399 N -a -1.2650 0.5562-0.4820205.6 - -
67 26 -1330-Dec-0415:57:07 31542 1399 -41176 N -a -1.2613 0.5611-0.4733205.7 - -
68 27 -1312-Dec-1500:26:49 31182 1350 -40953 N -a -1.2597 0.5618-0.4684205.0 - -
69 28 -1294-Dec-2608:53:59 30824 1302 -40730 N -a -1.2613 0.5565-0.4688203.3 - -
70 29 -1275-Jan-0517:15:32 30467 1254 -40507 N -a -1.2681 0.5413-0.4786199.9 - -
71 30 -1257-Jan-1701:32:45 30113 1207 -40284 N -a -1.2791 0.5181-0.4959195.2 - -
72 31 -1239-Jan-2709:43:06 29761 1161 -40061 N -a -1.2963 0.4836-0.5245188.4 - -
73 32 -1221-Feb-0717:46:11 29411 1116 -39838 N -a -1.3200 0.4369-0.5649179.0 - -
74 33 -1203-Feb-1801:41:53 29063 1071 -39615 N -a -1.3503 0.3782-0.6174166.8 - -
75 34 -1185-Mar-0109:30:29 28717 1027 -39392 N -a -1.3872 0.3074-0.6819150.7 - -
76 35 -1167-Mar-1117:11:55 28373 984 -39169 N -a -1.4303 0.2252-0.7580129.4 - -
77 36 -1149-Mar-2300:46:19 28031 942 -38946 N -a -1.4795 0.1320-0.8455 99.5 - -
78 37 -1131-Apr-0208:15:38 27691 900 -38723 Ne -a -1.5334 0.0304-0.9418 48.0 - -

Statistics for Lunar Eclipses of Saros 4

Lunar eclipses of Saros 4 all occur at the Moon’s ascending node and the Moon moves southward with each eclipse. The series will begin with a penumbral eclipse near the northern edge of the penumbra on -2646 Oct 06. The series will end with a penumbral eclipse near the southern edge of the penumbra on -1131 Apr 02. The total duration of Saros series 4 is 1514.53 years.

Summary of Saros 4
First Eclipse -2646 Oct 06
Last Eclipse -1131 Apr 02
Series Duration 1514.53 Years
No. of Eclipses 78
Sequence 13N 8P 25T 7P 25N

Saros 4 is composed of 78 lunar eclipses as follows:

Lunar Eclipses of Saros 4
Eclipse Type Symbol Number Percent
All Eclipses - 78100.0%
PenumbralN 38 48.7%
PartialP 15 19.2%
TotalT 25 32.1%

The 78 lunar eclipses of Saros 4 occur in the order of 13N 8P 25T 7P 25N which corresponds to the following.

Sequence Order of Lunar Eclipses in Saros 4
Eclipse Type Symbol Number
Penumbral N 13
Partial P 8
Total T 25
Partial P 7
Penumbral N 25

The longest and shortest eclipses of Saros 4 as well as largest and smallest partial eclipses appear below.

Extreme Durations and Magnitudes of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 4
Extrema Type Date Duration Magnitude
Longest Total Lunar Eclipse -1798 Feb 2601h45m55s -
Shortest Total Lunar Eclipse -2141 Aug 0500h41m46s -
Longest Partial Lunar Eclipse -1690 May 0203h28m15s -
Shortest Partial Lunar Eclipse -2285 May 1100h53m23s -
Longest Penumbral Lunar Eclipse -1564 Jul 1604h37m46s -
Shortest Penumbral Lunar Eclipse -2628 Oct 1700h16m34s -
Largest Partial Lunar Eclipse -1690 May 02 - 0.99280
Smallest Partial Lunar Eclipse -2285 May 11 - 0.05089

Links to Additional Lunar Eclipse Predictions

Calendar

The Gregorian calendar (also called the Western calendar) is internationally the most widely used civil calendar. It is named for Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in 1582. On this website, the Gregorian calendar is used for all calendar dates from 1582 Oct 15 onwards. Before that date, the Julian calendar is used. For more information on this topic, see Calendar Dates.

The Julian calendar does not include the year 0. Thus the year 1 BCE is followed by the year 1 CE (See: BCE/CE Dating Conventions). This is awkward for arithmetic calculations. Years in this catalog are numbered astronomically and include the year 0. Historians should note there is a difference of one year between astronomical dates and BCE dates. Thus, the astronomical year 0 corresponds to 1 BCE, and astronomical year -1 corresponds to 2 BCE, etc..

Eclipse Predictions

The eclipse predictions presented here were generated using the JPL DE406 solar and lunar ephemerides. The lunar coordinates have been calculated with respect to the Moon's Center of Mass.

The largest uncertainty in the eclipse predictions is caused by fluctuations in Earth's rotation due primarily to tidal friction of the Moon. The resultant drift in apparent clock time is expressed as ΔT and is determined as follows:

  1. pre-1950's: ΔT calculated from empirical fits to historical records derived by Morrison and Stephenson (2004)
  2. 1955-present: ΔT obtained from published observations
  3. future: ΔT is extrapolated from current values weighted by the long term trend from tidal effects

A series of polynomial expressions have been derived to simplify the evaluation of ΔT for any time from -2999 to +3000. The uncertainty in ΔT over this period can be estimated from scatter in the measurements.

Acknowledgments

Some of the content on this web site is based on the books Five Millennium Canon of Lunar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 and Thousand Year Canon of Lunar Eclipses 1501 to 2500. All eclipse calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy.

Permission is granted to reproduce eclipse data when accompanied by a link to this page and an acknowledgment:

"Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak, www.EclipseWise.com"

The use of diagrams and maps is permitted provided that they are NOT altered (except for re-sizing) and the embedded credit line is NOT removed or covered.