Saros 10

Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 10

Fred Espenak

Introduction

The periodicity and recurrence of lunar eclipses is governed by the Saros cycle, a period of approximately 6,585.3 days (18 years 11 days 8 hours). When two eclipses are separated by a period of one Saros, they share a very similar geometry. The two eclipses occur at the same node with the Moon at nearly the same distance from Earth and the same time of year due to a harmonic in three cycles of the Moon's orbit. Thus, the Saros is useful for organizing eclipses into families or series. Each series typically lasts 12 to 13 centuries and contains 70 or more eclipses. Every saros series begins with a number of penumbral lunar eclipses. The series will then produce several dozen partial eclipses, followed by several dozen total eclipses. The later portion of the series produces another set of partial eclipses before ending with a final group of penumbral eclipses.

Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 10

The table below lists the concise characteristics of every lunar eclipse belonging to Saros 10 . The date and time of each eclipse is given for the instant of Greatest Eclipse. For eclipses between the years -1999 to 3000, the calendar date links to a web page containing additional details along with a diagram of the eclipse geometry and a map showing the geographic region of eclipse visibility for that eclipse. A description of each parameter in the catalog table can be found in Key to Saros Catalog of Lunar Eclipses.

Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 10
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QSE Gamma Pen Mag Um Mag Pen Dur
m
Par Dur
m
Tot Dur
m
1-37 -2454-Jun-1721:31:09 58114 5853 -55084 Nb a- 1.5270 0.0365-0.9246 52.0 - -
2-36 -2436-Jun-2804:55:31 57624 5760 -54861 N a- 1.4673 0.1485-0.8172104.2 - -
3-35 -2418-Jul-0912:24:32 57137 5668 -54638 N a- 1.4118 0.2529-0.7179135.2 - -
4-34 -2400-Jul-1920:00:17 56652 5577 -54415 N a- 1.3621 0.3467-0.6296157.5 - -
5-33 -2382-Jul-3103:40:54 56168 5487 -54192 N a- 1.3170 0.4325-0.5497175.2 - -
6-32 -2364-Aug-1011:30:15 55687 5397 -53969 N a- 1.2794 0.5045-0.4838188.8 - -
7-31 -2346-Aug-2119:25:55 55208 5308 -53746 N a- 1.2474 0.5664-0.4280199.7 - -
8-30 -2328-Sep-0103:30:30 54730 5219 -53523 N a- 1.2232 0.6139-0.3867207.8 - -
9-29 -2310-Sep-1211:41:03 54255 5131 -53300 N a- 1.2045 0.6513-0.3554214.1 - -
10-28 -2292-Sep-2220:00:05 53782 5044 -53077 N a- 1.1932 0.6749-0.3375218.4 - -
11-27 -2274-Oct-0404:24:04 53312 4958 -52854 N a- 1.1866 0.6898-0.3280221.4 - -
12-26 -2256-Oct-1412:53:19 52843 4872 -52631 N a- 1.1850 0.6953-0.3275223.1 - -
13-25 -2238-Oct-2521:25:27 52376 4787 -52408 N a- 1.1863 0.6950-0.3322223.9 - -
14-24 -2220-Nov-0506:00:15 51911 4703 -52185 N a- 1.1910 0.6882-0.3427223.8 - -
15-23 -2202-Nov-1614:34:05 51448 4619 -51962 N a- 1.1954 0.6817-0.3523223.8 - -
16-22 -2184-Nov-2623:06:09 50988 4536 -51739 N a- 1.1994 0.6758-0.3607223.7 - -
17-21 -2166-Dec-0807:34:15 50529 4454 -51516 N a- 1.2010 0.6737-0.3648224.2 - -
18-20 -2148-Dec-1815:57:51 50073 4372 -51293 N h- 1.2001 0.6760-0.3638225.3 - -
19-19 -2130-Dec-3000:13:00 49619 4291 -51070 N h- 1.1933 0.6890-0.3516227.9 - -
20-18 -2111-Jan-0908:20:57 49166 4211 -50847 N h- 1.1816 0.7107-0.3304231.7 - -
21-17 -2093-Jan-2016:18:17 48716 4131 -50624 N h- 1.1622 0.7464-0.2948237.4 - -
22-16 -2075-Jan-3100:07:11 48268 4052 -50401 N t- 1.1367 0.7930-0.2482244.3 - -
23-15 -2057-Feb-1107:43:20 47822 3974 -50178 N t- 1.1021 0.8564-0.1846253.1 - -
24-14 -2039-Feb-2115:10:48 47378 3897 -49955 N t- 1.0612 0.9315-0.1095262.7 - -
25-13 -2021-Mar-0422:26:06 46936 3820 -49732 Nx t- 1.0114 1.0229-0.0181273.6 - -
26-12 -2003-Mar-1505:32:17 46496 3744 -49509 P t- 0.9548 1.1268 0.0857284.9 69.1 -
27-11 -1985-Mar-2612:27:44 46058 3668 -49286 P t- 0.8903 1.2455 0.2038296.6105.2 -
28-10 -1967-Apr-0519:15:56 45622 3593 -49063 P t- 0.8205 1.3739 0.3314308.0132.1 -
29 -9 -1949-Apr-1701:56:24 45189 3519 -48840 P t- 0.7453 1.5126 0.4687319.1154.3 -
30 -8 -1931-Apr-2708:30:23 44757 3446 -48617 P t- 0.6654 1.6599 0.6145329.5173.0 -
31 -7 -1913-May-0815:00:15 44328 3373 -48394 P t- 0.5828 1.8126 0.7650339.0188.8 -
32 -6 -1895-May-1821:27:22 43900 3301 -48171 P t- 0.4983 1.9690 0.9188347.4201.8 -
33 -5 -1877-May-3003:53:29 43475 3230 -47948 T t- 0.4136 2.1258 1.0726354.6212.4 43.3
34 -4 -1859-Jun-0910:18:59 43051 3159 -47725 T tp 0.3291 2.2828 1.2261360.6220.7 72.7
35 -3 -1841-Jun-2016:47:47 42630 3089 -47502 T+ pp 0.2475 2.4343 1.3738365.4226.8 88.7
36 -2 -1823-Jun-3023:19:49 42211 3020 -47279 T+ pp 0.1689 2.5806 1.5160369.0231.1 98.3
37 -1 -1805-Jul-1205:57:08 41794 2952 -47056 T+ pp 0.0950 2.7185 1.6494371.7233.7103.6
38 0 -1787-Jul-2212:40:43 41379 2884 -46833 T+ pp 0.0265 2.8464 1.7727373.4234.9105.8
39 1 -1769-Aug-0219:32:57 40966 2817 -46610 T- pp -0.0345 2.8343 1.7559374.4235.0105.6
40 2 -1751-Aug-1302:33:38 40555 2750 -46387 T- pp -0.0885 2.7376 1.6545374.9234.3103.7
Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 10
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QSE Gamma Pen Mag Um Mag Pen Dur
m
Par Dur
m
Tot Dur
m
41 3 -1733-Aug-2409:42:25 40146 2684 -46164 T- pp -0.1356 2.6534 1.5657375.1233.1100.6
42 4 -1715-Sep-0317:00:57 39739 2619 -45941 T- pp -0.1746 2.5841 1.4920375.0231.7 97.0
43 5 -1697-Sep-1500:28:36 39335 2555 -45718 T- pp -0.2059 2.5286 1.4324374.8230.2 93.2
44 6 -1679-Sep-2508:04:42 38932 2491 -45495 T- pp -0.2302 2.4858 1.3861374.6228.9 89.7
45 7 -1661-Oct-0615:48:29 38531 2428 -45272 T- -p -0.2480 2.4547 1.3520374.4227.8 86.8
46 8 -1643-Oct-1623:39:05 38133 2366 -45049 T- -p -0.2603 2.4333 1.3283374.2227.0 84.6
47 9 -1625-Oct-2807:35:32 37737 2305 -44826 T- -p -0.2678 2.4204 1.3139374.1226.4 83.1
48 10 -1607-Nov-0715:34:05 37342 2244 -44603 T -p -0.2734 2.4104 1.3031373.9225.9 82.0
49 11 -1589-Nov-1823:36:00 36950 2184 -44380 T -p -0.2765 2.4047 1.2975373.6225.7 81.4
50 12 -1571-Nov-2907:36:49 36560 2124 -44157 T -p -0.2801 2.3975 1.2914373.1225.3 80.7
51 13 -1553-Dec-1015:36:56 36172 2066 -43934 T -p -0.2849 2.3878 1.2835372.4224.9 79.8
52 14 -1535-Dec-2023:31:32 35786 2008 -43711 T -p -0.2943 2.3692 1.2676371.4224.1 78.0
53 15 -1516-Jan-0107:23:12 35401 1950 -43488 T -p -0.3064 2.3454 1.2471370.1223.1 75.5
54 16 -1498-Jan-1115:06:59 35020 1894 -43265 T -p -0.3248 2.3095 1.2153368.3221.5 71.3
55 17 -1480-Jan-2222:43:55 34640 1838 -43042 T -p -0.3494 2.2621 1.1724366.0219.3 64.7
56 18 -1462-Feb-0206:11:36 34262 1783 -42819 T -t -0.3817 2.2004 1.1157363.0216.1 54.0
57 19 -1444-Feb-1313:31:43 33886 1728 -42596 T -t -0.4206 2.1263 1.0469359.4211.9 35.1
58 20 -1426-Feb-2320:42:48 33513 1675 -42373 P -t -0.4672 2.0381 0.9641354.9206.2 -
59 21 -1408-Mar-0603:45:34 33141 1622 -42150 P -t -0.5208 1.9369 0.8684349.4198.8 -
60 22 -1390-Mar-1710:40:45 32772 1570 -41927 P -t -0.5811 1.8236 0.7606342.7189.2 -
61 23 -1372-Mar-2717:29:21 32404 1518 -41704 P -t -0.6472 1.6997 0.6419334.7177.0 -
62 24 -1354-Apr-0800:11:33 32039 1467 -41481 P -t -0.7189 1.5654 0.5128325.2161.1 -
63 25 -1336-Apr-1806:50:12 31675 1417 -41258 P -t -0.7940 1.4252 0.3773314.2140.8 -
64 26 -1318-Apr-2913:25:33 31314 1368 -41035 P -t -0.8725 1.2790 0.2355301.5113.3 -
65 27 -1300-May-0920:01:03 30955 1319 -40812 P -t -0.9513 1.1325 0.0929287.2 72.4 -
66 28 -1282-May-2102:35:07 30598 1271 -40589 N -t -1.0320 0.9826-0.0534270.7 - -
67 29 -1264-May-3109:13:08 30243 1224 -40366 N -t -1.1101 0.8378-0.1953252.8 - -
68 30 -1246-Jun-1115:53:14 29890 1178 -40143 N -t -1.1875 0.6946-0.3360232.6 - -
69 31 -1228-Jun-2122:39:53 29539 1132 -39920 N -t -1.2600 0.5605-0.4680210.9 - -
70 32 -1210-Jul-0305:30:54 29190 1087 -39697 N -t -1.3297 0.4318-0.5952186.7 - -
71 33 -1192-Jul-1312:31:38 28844 1043 -39474 N -t -1.3925 0.3160-0.7098160.9 - -
72 34 -1174-Jul-2419:39:34 28499 1000 -39251 N -t -1.4505 0.2093-0.8158131.7 - -
73 35 -1156-Aug-0402:57:44 28156 957 -39028 N -t -1.5010 0.1164-0.9082 98.7 - -
74 36 -1138-Aug-1510:25:09 27816 915 -38805 Ne -h -1.5449 0.0357-0.9887 54.8 - -

Statistics for Lunar Eclipses of Saros 10

Lunar eclipses of Saros 10 all occur at the Moon’s ascending node and the Moon moves southward with each eclipse. The series will begin with a penumbral eclipse near the northern edge of the penumbra on -2454 Jun 17. The series will end with a penumbral eclipse near the southern edge of the penumbra on -1138 Aug 15. The total duration of Saros series 10 is 1316.20 years.

Summary of Saros 10
First Eclipse -2454 Jun 17
Last Eclipse -1138 Aug 15
Series Duration 1316.20 Years
No. of Eclipses 74
Sequence 25N 7P 25T 8P 9N

Saros 10 is composed of 74 lunar eclipses as follows:

Lunar Eclipses of Saros 10
Eclipse Type Symbol Number Percent
All Eclipses - 74100.0%
PenumbralN 34 45.9%
PartialP 15 20.3%
TotalT 25 33.8%

The 74 lunar eclipses of Saros 10 occur in the order of 25N 7P 25T 8P 9N which corresponds to the following.

Sequence Order of Lunar Eclipses in Saros 10
Eclipse Type Symbol Number
Penumbral N 25
Partial P 7
Total T 25
Partial P 8
Penumbral N 9

The longest and shortest eclipses of Saros 10 as well as largest and smallest partial eclipses appear below.

Extreme Durations and Magnitudes of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 10
Extrema Type Date Duration Magnitude
Longest Total Lunar Eclipse -1787 Jul 2201h45m46s -
Shortest Total Lunar Eclipse -1444 Feb 1300h35m07s -
Longest Partial Lunar Eclipse -1426 Feb 2303h26m12s -
Shortest Partial Lunar Eclipse -2003 Mar 1501h09m09s -
Longest Penumbral Lunar Eclipse -2021 Mar 0404h33m35s -
Shortest Penumbral Lunar Eclipse -2454 Jun 1700h51m58s -
Largest Partial Lunar Eclipse -1426 Feb 23 - 0.96412
Smallest Partial Lunar Eclipse -2003 Mar 15 - 0.08565

Links to Additional Lunar Eclipse Predictions

Calendar

The Gregorian calendar (also called the Western calendar) is internationally the most widely used civil calendar. It is named for Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in 1582. On this website, the Gregorian calendar is used for all calendar dates from 1582 Oct 15 onwards. Before that date, the Julian calendar is used. For more information on this topic, see Calendar Dates.

The Julian calendar does not include the year 0. Thus the year 1 BCE is followed by the year 1 CE (See: BCE/CE Dating Conventions). This is awkward for arithmetic calculations. Years in this catalog are numbered astronomically and include the year 0. Historians should note there is a difference of one year between astronomical dates and BCE dates. Thus, the astronomical year 0 corresponds to 1 BCE, and astronomical year -1 corresponds to 2 BCE, etc..

Eclipse Predictions

The eclipse predictions presented here were generated using the JPL DE406 solar and lunar ephemerides. The lunar coordinates have been calculated with respect to the Moon's Center of Mass.

The largest uncertainty in the eclipse predictions is caused by fluctuations in Earth's rotation due primarily to tidal friction of the Moon. The resultant drift in apparent clock time is expressed as ΔT and is determined as follows:

  1. pre-1950's: ΔT calculated from empirical fits to historical records derived by Morrison and Stephenson (2004)
  2. 1955-present: ΔT obtained from published observations
  3. future: ΔT is extrapolated from current values weighted by the long term trend from tidal effects

A series of polynomial expressions have been derived to simplify the evaluation of ΔT for any time from -2999 to +3000. The uncertainty in ΔT over this period can be estimated from scatter in the measurements.

Acknowledgments

Some of the content on this web site is based on the books Five Millennium Canon of Lunar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 and Thousand Year Canon of Lunar Eclipses 1501 to 2500. All eclipse calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy.

Permission is granted to reproduce eclipse data when accompanied by a link to this page and an acknowledgment:

"Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak, www.EclipseWise.com"

The use of diagrams and maps is permitted provided that they are NOT altered (except for re-sizing) and the embedded credit line is NOT removed or covered.