Saros 12

Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 12

Fred Espenak

Introduction

The periodicity and recurrence of lunar eclipses is governed by the Saros cycle, a period of approximately 6,585.3 days (18 years 11 days 8 hours). When two eclipses are separated by a period of one Saros, they share a very similar geometry. The two eclipses occur at the same node with the Moon at nearly the same distance from Earth and the same time of year due to a harmonic in three cycles of the Moon's orbit. Thus, the Saros is useful for organizing eclipses into families or series. Each series typically lasts 12 to 13 centuries and contains 70 or more eclipses. Every saros series begins with a number of penumbral lunar eclipses. The series will then produce several dozen partial eclipses, followed by several dozen total eclipses. The later portion of the series produces another set of partial eclipses before ending with a final group of penumbral eclipses.

Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 12

The table below lists the concise characteristics of every lunar eclipse belonging to Saros 12 . The date and time of each eclipse is given for the instant of Greatest Eclipse. For eclipses between the years -1999 to 3000, the calendar date links to a web page containing additional details along with a diagram of the eclipse geometry and a map showing the geographic region of eclipse visibility for that eclipse. A description of each parameter in the catalog table can be found in Key to Saros Catalog of Lunar Eclipses.

Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 12
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QSE Gamma Pen Mag Um Mag Pen Dur
m
Par Dur
m
Tot Dur
m
1-37 -2360-May-2819:38:36 55586 5378 -53922 Nb a- 1.5215 0.0576-0.9250 67.1 - -
2-36 -2342-Jun-0902:46:28 55107 5289 -53699 N a- 1.4445 0.1977-0.7827122.3 - -
3-35 -2324-Jun-1909:59:35 54630 5201 -53476 N a- 1.3705 0.3326-0.6462156.1 - -
4-34 -2306-Jun-3017:20:16 54156 5113 -53253 N a- 1.3014 0.4589-0.5188180.6 - -
5-33 -2288-Jul-1100:48:21 53683 5026 -53030 N a- 1.2374 0.5760-0.4012199.4 - -
6-32 -2270-Jul-2208:24:38 53213 4940 -52807 N a- 1.1792 0.6828-0.2943214.1 - -
7-31 -2252-Aug-0116:10:17 52744 4854 -52584 N a- 1.1278 0.7773-0.2001225.7 - -
8-30 -2234-Aug-1300:05:28 52278 4769 -52361 N a- 1.0833 0.8592-0.1187234.7 - -
9-29 -2216-Aug-2308:09:41 51813 4685 -52138 N a- 1.0458 0.9284-0.0502241.6 - -
10-28 -2198-Sep-0316:23:33 51351 4601 -51915 P a- 1.0157 0.9840 0.0046246.8 15.0 -
11-27 -2180-Sep-1400:46:23 50891 4519 -51692 P a- 0.9926 1.0267 0.0466250.4 47.4 -
12-26 -2162-Sep-2509:17:54 50433 4436 -51469 P a- 0.9762 1.0570 0.0764252.8 60.3 -
13-25 -2144-Oct-0517:55:17 49977 4355 -51246 P a- 0.9642 1.0793 0.0983254.3 68.1 -
14-24 -2126-Oct-1702:39:39 49523 4274 -51023 P a- 0.9577 1.0912 0.1103255.0 71.9 -
15-23 -2108-Oct-2711:28:02 49071 4194 -50800 P a- 0.9544 1.0970 0.1165255.1 73.7 -
16-22 -2090-Nov-0720:19:43 48621 4115 -50577 P a- 0.9534 1.0984 0.1188254.7 74.3 -
17-21 -2072-Nov-1805:11:36 48174 4036 -50354 P a- 0.9524 1.0995 0.1212254.4 74.9 -
18-20 -2054-Nov-2914:03:38 47728 3958 -50131 P a- 0.9515 1.1002 0.1238254.1 75.6 -
19-19 -2036-Dec-0922:53:23 47284 3880 -49908 P a- 0.9485 1.1045 0.1304254.1 77.5 -
20-18 -2018-Dec-2107:38:56 46843 3804 -49685 P a- 0.9423 1.1146 0.1432254.5 81.0 -
21-17 -2000-Dec-3116:19:19 46404 3728 -49462 P a- 0.9318 1.1324 0.1640255.7 86.3 -
22-16 -1981-Jan-1200:53:17 45966 3652 -49239 P a- 0.9161 1.1595 0.1944257.6 93.5 -
23-15 -1963-Jan-2209:19:57 45531 3578 -49016 P a- 0.8945 1.1975 0.2358260.4102.4 -
24-14 -1945-Feb-0217:38:07 45098 3504 -48793 P a- 0.8660 1.2479 0.2896264.0112.6 -
25-13 -1927-Feb-1301:48:39 44666 3431 -48570 P a- 0.8314 1.3098 0.3548268.3123.4 -
26-12 -1909-Feb-2409:50:56 44237 3358 -48347 P a- 0.7902 1.3837 0.4318273.2134.6 -
27-11 -1891-Mar-0617:44:21 43810 3286 -48124 P a- 0.7417 1.4714 0.5222278.7146.0 -
28-10 -1873-Mar-1801:30:44 43385 3215 -47901 P a- 0.6875 1.5698 0.6230284.4157.1 -
29 -9 -1855-Mar-2809:10:03 42962 3144 -47678 P a- 0.6273 1.6791 0.7342290.2167.6 -
30 -8 -1837-Apr-0816:44:25 42542 3075 -47455 P a- 0.5633 1.7959 0.8524295.8177.1 -
31 -7 -1819-Apr-1900:12:18 42123 3006 -47232 P a- 0.4939 1.9228 0.9800301.2185.9 -
32 -6 -1801-Apr-3007:38:08 41706 2937 -47009 T a- 0.4229 2.0531 1.1103306.1193.4 48.2
33 -5 -1783-May-1015:00:25 41292 2870 -46786 T p- 0.3489 2.1893 1.2459310.5199.8 69.0
34 -4 -1765-May-2122:22:00 40879 2803 -46563 T p- 0.2746 2.3262 1.3815314.2205.0 82.1
35 -3 -1747-Jun-0105:42:34 40469 2736 -46340 T+ p- 0.1998 2.4645 1.5177317.3208.9 90.9
36 -2 -1729-Jun-1213:05:25 40060 2671 -46117 T+ pp 0.1273 2.5989 1.6495319.7211.6 96.4
37 -1 -1711-Jun-2220:30:25 39654 2606 -45894 T+ pp 0.0569 2.7298 1.7769321.5213.2 99.3
38 0 -1693-Jul-0403:58:34 39250 2542 -45671 T- pp -0.0104 2.8171 1.8603322.7213.8100.0
39 1 -1675-Jul-1411:31:57 38847 2478 -45448 T- pp -0.0727 2.7050 1.7438323.5213.6 98.9
40 2 -1657-Jul-2519:10:51 38447 2415 -45225 T- -p -0.1298 2.6027 1.6365323.9212.7 96.3
Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 12
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QSE Gamma Pen Mag Um Mag Pen Dur
m
Par Dur
m
Tot Dur
m
41 3 -1639-Aug-0502:56:34 38049 2353 -45002 T- -p -0.1806 2.5121 1.5407324.1211.4 92.6
42 4 -1621-Aug-1610:48:10 37653 2292 -44779 T- -p -0.2259 2.4319 1.4549324.2209.8 88.0
43 5 -1603-Aug-2618:48:27 37259 2231 -44556 T- -p -0.2634 2.3660 1.3833324.3208.2 83.1
44 6 -1585-Sep-0702:55:27 36867 2171 -44333 T -p -0.2949 2.3111 1.3227324.4206.6 78.0
45 7 -1567-Sep-1711:10:31 36478 2112 -44110 T -p -0.3189 2.2698 1.2759324.8205.3 73.4
46 8 -1549-Sep-2819:31:52 36090 2053 -43887 T -p -0.3372 2.2389 1.2395325.4204.3 69.4
47 9 -1531-Oct-0904:00:38 35704 1995 -43664 T -p -0.3488 2.2203 1.2158326.2203.8 66.5
48 10 -1513-Oct-2012:33:36 35321 1938 -43441 T -p -0.3564 2.2086 1.1994327.2203.6 64.4
49 11 -1495-Oct-3021:10:23 34939 1882 -43218 T -p -0.3604 2.2034 1.1900328.3203.7 63.1
50 12 -1477-Nov-1105:49:09 34560 1826 -42995 T -p -0.3621 2.2021 1.1851329.5204.0 62.5
51 13 -1459-Nov-2114:29:13 34183 1771 -42772 T -p -0.3617 2.2044 1.1843330.8204.5 62.6
52 14 -1441-Dec-0223:06:45 33807 1717 -42549 T -p -0.3631 2.2031 1.1806331.9204.8 62.2
53 15 -1423-Dec-1307:41:42 33434 1663 -42326 T -a -0.3657 2.1993 1.1747333.0205.1 61.4
54 16 -1405-Dec-2416:10:49 33063 1611 -42103 T -a -0.3724 2.1878 1.1619333.8205.1 59.5
55 17 -1386-Jan-0400:34:55 32694 1559 -41880 T -a -0.3824 2.1699 1.1431334.4204.9 56.5
56 18 -1368-Jan-1508:49:03 32327 1507 -41657 T -a -0.3995 2.1387 1.1114334.5203.9 50.5
57 19 -1350-Jan-2516:55:59 31962 1457 -41434 T -a -0.4217 2.0981 1.0704334.3202.3 40.8
58 20 -1332-Feb-0600:51:25 31599 1407 -41211 T -a -0.4526 2.0415 1.0138333.4199.6 18.4
59 21 -1314-Feb-1608:38:28 31238 1358 -40988 P -a -0.4894 1.9739 0.9462331.9195.9 -
60 22 -1296-Feb-2716:12:52 30880 1309 -40765 P -a -0.5357 1.8890 0.8611329.4190.4 -
61 23 -1278-Mar-0923:39:04 30523 1261 -40542 P -h -0.5879 1.7935 0.7654326.0183.2 -
62 24 -1260-Mar-2006:53:35 30168 1214 -40319 P -h -0.6485 1.6825 0.6539321.3173.1 -
63 25 -1242-Mar-3113:59:43 29816 1168 -40096 P -t -0.7150 1.5608 0.5315315.2159.7 -
64 26 -1224-Apr-1020:56:20 29465 1123 -39873 P -t -0.7884 1.4268 0.3963307.2141.3 -
65 27 -1206-Apr-2203:46:45 29117 1078 -39650 P -t -0.8657 1.2857 0.2537297.5115.9 -
66 28 -1188-May-0210:30:40 28771 1034 -39427 P -t -0.9471 1.1374 0.1034285.5 75.8 -
67 29 -1170-May-1317:09:21 28427 991 -39204 N -t -1.0314 0.9840-0.0525270.9 - -
68 30 -1152-May-2323:45:07 28084 948 -38981 N -t -1.1169 0.8286-0.2108253.6 - -
69 31 -1134-Jun-0406:19:01 27744 907 -38758 N -t -1.2027 0.6729-0.3700233.0 - -
70 32 -1116-Jun-1412:52:31 27406 866 -38535 N -t -1.2874 0.5194-0.5273208.6 - -
71 33 -1098-Jun-2519:27:17 27070 826 -38312 N -t -1.3697 0.3705-0.6805179.3 - -
72 34 -1080-Jul-0602:05:27 26737 786 -38089 N -t -1.4482 0.2289-0.8268143.3 - -
73 35 -1062-Jul-1708:48:24 26405 748 -37866 Ne -t -1.5218 0.0964-0.9642 94.4 - -

Statistics for Lunar Eclipses of Saros 12

Lunar eclipses of Saros 12 all occur at the Moon’s ascending node and the Moon moves southward with each eclipse. The series will begin with a penumbral eclipse near the northern edge of the penumbra on -2360 May 28. The series will end with a penumbral eclipse near the southern edge of the penumbra on -1062 Jul 17. The total duration of Saros series 12 is 1298.17 years.

Summary of Saros 12
First Eclipse -2360 May 28
Last Eclipse -1062 Jul 17
Series Duration 1298.17 Years
No. of Eclipses 73
Sequence 9N 22P 27T 8P 7N

Saros 12 is composed of 73 lunar eclipses as follows:

Lunar Eclipses of Saros 12
Eclipse Type Symbol Number Percent
All Eclipses - 73100.0%
PenumbralN 16 21.9%
PartialP 30 41.1%
TotalT 27 37.0%

The 73 lunar eclipses of Saros 12 occur in the order of 9N 22P 27T 8P 7N which corresponds to the following.

Sequence Order of Lunar Eclipses in Saros 12
Eclipse Type Symbol Number
Penumbral N 9
Partial P 22
Total T 27
Partial P 8
Penumbral N 7

The longest and shortest eclipses of Saros 12 as well as largest and smallest partial eclipses appear below.

Extreme Durations and Magnitudes of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 12
Extrema Type Date Duration Magnitude
Longest Total Lunar Eclipse -1693 Jul 0401h40m02s -
Shortest Total Lunar Eclipse -1332 Feb 0600h18m25s -
Longest Partial Lunar Eclipse -1314 Feb 1603h15m56s -
Shortest Partial Lunar Eclipse -2198 Sep 0300h15m00s -
Longest Penumbral Lunar Eclipse -1170 May 1304h30m56s -
Shortest Penumbral Lunar Eclipse -2360 May 2801h07m05s -
Largest Partial Lunar Eclipse -1819 Apr 19 - 0.98000
Smallest Partial Lunar Eclipse -2198 Sep 03 - 0.00459

Links to Additional Lunar Eclipse Predictions

Calendar

The Gregorian calendar (also called the Western calendar) is internationally the most widely used civil calendar. It is named for Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in 1582. On this website, the Gregorian calendar is used for all calendar dates from 1582 Oct 15 onwards. Before that date, the Julian calendar is used. For more information on this topic, see Calendar Dates.

The Julian calendar does not include the year 0. Thus the year 1 BCE is followed by the year 1 CE (See: BCE/CE Dating Conventions). This is awkward for arithmetic calculations. Years in this catalog are numbered astronomically and include the year 0. Historians should note there is a difference of one year between astronomical dates and BCE dates. Thus, the astronomical year 0 corresponds to 1 BCE, and astronomical year -1 corresponds to 2 BCE, etc..

Eclipse Predictions

The eclipse predictions presented here were generated using the JPL DE406 solar and lunar ephemerides. The lunar coordinates have been calculated with respect to the Moon's Center of Mass.

The largest uncertainty in the eclipse predictions is caused by fluctuations in Earth's rotation due primarily to tidal friction of the Moon. The resultant drift in apparent clock time is expressed as ΔT and is determined as follows:

  1. pre-1950's: ΔT calculated from empirical fits to historical records derived by Morrison and Stephenson (2004)
  2. 1955-present: ΔT obtained from published observations
  3. future: ΔT is extrapolated from current values weighted by the long term trend from tidal effects

A series of polynomial expressions have been derived to simplify the evaluation of ΔT for any time from -2999 to +3000. The uncertainty in ΔT over this period can be estimated from scatter in the measurements.

Acknowledgments

Some of the content on this web site is based on the books Five Millennium Canon of Lunar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 and Thousand Year Canon of Lunar Eclipses 1501 to 2500. All eclipse calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy.

Permission is granted to reproduce eclipse data when accompanied by a link to this page and an acknowledgment:

"Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak, www.EclipseWise.com"

The use of diagrams and maps is permitted provided that they are NOT altered (except for re-sizing) and the embedded credit line is NOT removed or covered.