Saros 16

Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 16

Fred Espenak

Introduction

The periodicity and recurrence of lunar eclipses is governed by the Saros cycle, a period of approximately 6,585.3 days (18 years 11 days 8 hours). When two eclipses are separated by a period of one Saros, they share a very similar geometry. The two eclipses occur at the same node with the Moon at nearly the same distance from Earth and the same time of year due to a harmonic in three cycles of the Moon's orbit. Thus, the Saros is useful for organizing eclipses into families or series. Each series typically lasts 12 to 13 centuries and contains 70 or more eclipses. Every saros series begins with a number of penumbral lunar eclipses. The series will then produce several dozen partial eclipses, followed by several dozen total eclipses. The later portion of the series produces another set of partial eclipses before ending with a final group of penumbral eclipses.

Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 16

The table below lists the concise characteristics of every lunar eclipse belonging to Saros 16 . The date and time of each eclipse is given for the instant of Greatest Eclipse. For eclipses between the years -1999 to 3000, the calendar date links to a web page containing additional details along with a diagram of the eclipse geometry and a map showing the geographic region of eclipse visibility for that eclipse. A description of each parameter in the catalog table can be found in Key to Saros Catalog of Lunar Eclipses.

Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 16
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QSE Gamma Pen Mag Um Mag Pen Dur
m
Par Dur
m
Tot Dur
m
1-37 -2172-Apr-2116:20:31 50698 4484 -51598 Nb a- 1.5357 0.0207-0.9405 39.3 - -
2-36 -2154-May-0223:35:16 50241 4402 -51375 N a- 1.4688 0.1443-0.8188103.0 - -
3-35 -2136-May-1306:46:50 49785 4321 -51152 N a- 1.4000 0.2719-0.6938140.2 - -
4-34 -2118-May-2413:56:41 49332 4240 -50929 N a- 1.3304 0.4012-0.5678168.9 - -
5-33 -2100-Jun-0321:07:01 48881 4160 -50706 N a- 1.2617 0.5294-0.4435192.4 - -
6-32 -2082-Jun-1504:18:38 48432 4081 -50483 N h- 1.1942 0.6554-0.3220212.3 - -
7-31 -2064-Jun-2511:32:24 47986 4003 -50260 N h- 1.1292 0.7773-0.2052229.4 - -
8-30 -2046-Jul-0618:50:08 47541 3925 -50037 N h- 1.0679 0.8925-0.0956244.0 - -
9-29 -2028-Jul-1702:13:04 47098 3848 -49814 P h- 1.0116 0.9989 0.0048256.5 15.8 -
10-28 -2010-Jul-2809:42:26 46657 3772 -49591 P h- 0.9610 1.0948 0.0944267.0 69.4 -
11-27 -1992-Aug-0717:17:14 46219 3696 -49368 P h- 0.9156 1.1815 0.1746276.1 93.6 -
12-26 -1974-Aug-1901:00:31 45782 3621 -49145 P h- 0.8778 1.2543 0.2406283.6109.2 -
13-25 -1956-Aug-2908:50:41 45348 3546 -48922 P h- 0.8465 1.3150 0.2947289.8120.3 -
14-24 -1938-Sep-0916:48:47 44916 3473 -48699 P h- 0.8224 1.3626 0.3358294.8128.1 -
15-23 -1920-Sep-2000:52:52 44485 3400 -48476 P h- 0.8040 1.3995 0.3664298.9133.5 -
16-22 -1902-Oct-0109:04:16 44057 3328 -48253 P h- 0.7922 1.4240 0.3851302.1136.9 -
17-21 -1884-Oct-1117:20:41 43631 3256 -48030 P h- 0.7853 1.4395 0.3951304.5138.9 -
18-20 -1866-Oct-2301:41:07 43207 3185 -47807 P h- 0.7826 1.4469 0.3977306.3139.7 -
19-19 -1848-Nov-0210:04:38 42785 3115 -47584 P h- 0.7830 1.4482 0.3947307.7139.7 -
20-18 -1830-Nov-1318:29:12 42365 3045 -47361 P h- 0.7853 1.4458 0.3889308.7139.2 -
21-17 -1812-Nov-2402:53:05 41947 2977 -47138 P h- 0.7874 1.4433 0.3835309.6138.7 -
22-16 -1794-Dec-0511:13:22 41531 2909 -46915 P h- 0.7874 1.4444 0.3826310.7139.0 -
23-15 -1776-Dec-1519:30:19 41117 2841 -46692 P t- 0.7854 1.4488 0.3855312.1139.8 -
24-14 -1758-Dec-2703:40:48 40706 2774 -46469 P t- 0.7793 1.4603 0.3963313.8141.9 -
25-13 -1739-Jan-0611:43:26 40296 2708 -46246 P t- 0.7674 1.4825 0.4181316.3145.7 -
26-12 -1721-Jan-1719:36:52 39889 2643 -46023 P t- 0.7487 1.5166 0.4524319.5151.1 -
27-11 -1703-Jan-2803:20:33 39483 2579 -45800 P t- 0.7229 1.5637 0.4999323.5158.1 -
28-10 -1685-Feb-0810:54:02 39080 2515 -45577 P t- 0.6896 1.6245 0.5614328.1166.4 -
29 -9 -1667-Feb-1818:15:45 38678 2451 -45354 P t- 0.6477 1.7010 0.6386333.4175.7 -
30 -8 -1649-Mar-0201:27:15 38279 2389 -45131 P t- 0.5982 1.7914 0.7298339.2185.4 -
31 -7 -1631-Mar-1208:27:58 37882 2327 -44908 P t- 0.5406 1.8969 0.8359345.1195.3 -
32 -6 -1613-Mar-2315:19:12 37487 2266 -44685 P t- 0.4758 2.0154 0.9551351.0204.8 -
33 -5 -1595-Apr-0222:01:14 37094 2206 -44462 T t- 0.4041 2.1469 1.0867356.7213.5 47.1
34 -4 -1577-Apr-1404:35:57 36703 2146 -44239 T pp 0.3269 2.2885 1.2284361.8221.1 73.1
35 -3 -1559-Apr-2411:04:31 36314 2087 -44016 T+ pp 0.2452 2.4387 1.3781366.1227.3 89.2
36 -2 -1541-May-0517:27:30 35927 2029 -43793 T+ pp 0.1593 2.5966 1.5353369.4231.9 99.5
37 -1 -1523-May-1523:48:12 35543 1971 -43570 T+ pp 0.0718 2.7578 1.6952371.7234.6105.1
38 0 -1505-May-2706:06:56 35160 1915 -43347 T- pp -0.0171 2.8589 1.7949372.7235.5106.5
39 1 -1487-Jun-0612:27:21 34779 1858 -43124 T- pp -0.1042 2.7001 1.6340372.6234.4103.7
40 2 -1469-Jun-1718:47:54 34401 1803 -42901 T- pp -0.1908 2.5423 1.4739371.4231.5 96.5
Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 16
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QSE Gamma Pen Mag Um Mag Pen Dur
m
Par Dur
m
Tot Dur
m
41 3 -1451-Jun-2801:13:58 34024 1748 -42678 T pp -0.2728 2.3933 1.3221369.1226.9 84.5
42 4 -1433-Jul-0907:43:27 33650 1694 -42455 T -t -0.3519 2.2497 1.1756365.9220.7 65.8
43 5 -1415-Jul-1914:20:37 33277 1641 -42232 T -t -0.4243 2.1184 1.0411362.0213.4 33.2
44 6 -1397-Jul-3021:03:57 32907 1589 -42009 P -t -0.4915 1.9968 0.9161357.7204.9 -
45 7 -1379-Aug-1003:57:46 32539 1537 -41786 P -t -0.5501 1.8910 0.8070353.2196.1 -
46 8 -1361-Aug-2111:00:00 32173 1486 -41563 P -t -0.6018 1.7978 0.7104348.7187.1 -
47 9 -1343-Aug-3118:12:17 31809 1435 -41340 P -t -0.6455 1.7193 0.6287344.5178.4 -
48 10 -1325-Sep-1201:34:05 31447 1386 -41117 P -t -0.6815 1.6548 0.5613340.8170.3 -
49 11 -1307-Sep-2209:06:25 31087 1337 -40894 P -t -0.7088 1.6059 0.5098337.7163.6 -
50 12 -1289-Oct-0316:46:57 30729 1289 -40671 P -t -0.7299 1.5682 0.4700335.1158.0 -
51 13 -1271-Oct-1400:35:47 30373 1242 -40448 P -t -0.7446 1.5421 0.4425333.1153.8 -
52 14 -1253-Oct-2508:31:01 30020 1195 -40225 P -t -0.7544 1.5244 0.4239331.6150.8 -
53 15 -1235-Nov-0416:32:29 29668 1149 -40002 P -t -0.7596 1.5150 0.4145330.5149.1 -
54 16 -1217-Nov-1600:35:55 29318 1104 -39779 P -t -0.7633 1.5078 0.4081329.5147.9 -
55 17 -1199-Nov-2608:42:31 28971 1059 -39556 P -t -0.7648 1.5043 0.4061328.7147.4 -
56 18 -1181-Dec-0716:47:28 28626 1016 -39333 P -t -0.7678 1.4974 0.4017327.4146.5 -
57 19 -1163-Dec-1800:51:37 28282 973 -39110 P -t -0.7721 1.4880 0.3956325.9145.2 -
58 20 -1145-Dec-2908:49:54 27941 931 -38887 P -t -0.7813 1.4690 0.3805323.6142.5 -
59 21 -1126-Jan-0816:45:05 27602 889 -38664 P -t -0.7935 1.4443 0.3604320.7138.9 -
60 22 -1108-Jan-2000:32:26 27264 849 -38441 P -t -0.8120 1.4079 0.3291316.9133.1 -
61 23 -1090-Jan-3008:13:06 26929 809 -38218 P -t -0.8366 1.3597 0.2867311.9124.7 -
62 24 -1072-Feb-1015:44:54 26596 770 -37995 P -t -0.8689 1.2976 0.2305305.7112.5 -
63 25 -1054-Feb-2023:09:51 26266 732 -37772 P -t -0.9073 1.2240 0.1631298.0 95.3 -
64 26 -1036-Mar-0306:26:40 25937 694 -37549 P -t -0.9527 1.1375 0.0829288.8 68.5 -
65 27 -1018-Mar-1413:35:56 25610 657 -37326 Nx -t -1.0047 1.0388-0.0095277.7 - -
66 28 -1000-Mar-2420:38:46 25285 622 -37103 N -t -1.0626 0.9296-0.1126264.5 - -
67 29 -0982-Apr-0503:36:17 24963 615 -36880 N -t -1.1257 0.8109-0.2254248.9 - -
68 30 -0964-Apr-1510:29:09 24642 608 -36657 N -t -1.1929 0.6847-0.3461230.6 - -
69 31 -0946-Apr-2617:18:42 24323 601 -36434 N -t -1.2635 0.5526-0.4730208.9 - -
70 32 -0928-May-0700:06:34 24007 594 -36211 N -t -1.3361 0.4171-0.6038183.0 - -
71 33 -0910-May-1806:54:27 23693 588 -35988 N -t -1.4092 0.2807-0.7360151.4 - -
72 34 -0892-May-2813:42:35 23380 581 -35765 N -t -1.4828 0.1438-0.8692109.2 - -
73 35 -0874-Jun-0820:34:04 23070 574 -35542 Ne -t -1.5542 0.0112-0.9987 30.7 - -

Statistics for Lunar Eclipses of Saros 16

Lunar eclipses of Saros 16 all occur at the Moon’s ascending node and the Moon moves southward with each eclipse. The series will begin with a penumbral eclipse near the northern edge of the penumbra on -2172 Apr 21. The series will end with a penumbral eclipse near the southern edge of the penumbra on -0874 Jun 08. The total duration of Saros series 16 is 1298.17 years.

Summary of Saros 16
First Eclipse -2172 Apr 21
Last Eclipse -0874 Jun 08
Series Duration 1298.17 Years
No. of Eclipses 73
Sequence 8N 24P 11T 21P 9N

Saros 16 is composed of 73 lunar eclipses as follows:

Lunar Eclipses of Saros 16
Eclipse Type Symbol Number Percent
All Eclipses - 73100.0%
PenumbralN 17 23.3%
PartialP 45 61.6%
TotalT 11 15.1%

The 73 lunar eclipses of Saros 16 occur in the order of 8N 24P 11T 21P 9N which corresponds to the following.

Sequence Order of Lunar Eclipses in Saros 16
Eclipse Type Symbol Number
Penumbral N 8
Partial P 24
Total T 11
Partial P 21
Penumbral N 9

The longest and shortest eclipses of Saros 16 as well as largest and smallest partial eclipses appear below.

Extreme Durations and Magnitudes of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 16
Extrema Type Date Duration Magnitude
Longest Total Lunar Eclipse -1505 May 2701h46m28s -
Shortest Total Lunar Eclipse -1415 Jul 1900h33m14s -
Longest Partial Lunar Eclipse -1397 Jul 3003h24m56s -
Shortest Partial Lunar Eclipse -2028 Jul 1700h15m47s -
Longest Penumbral Lunar Eclipse -1018 Mar 1404h37m40s -
Shortest Penumbral Lunar Eclipse -0874 Jun 0800h30m44s -
Largest Partial Lunar Eclipse -1613 Mar 23 - 0.95509
Smallest Partial Lunar Eclipse -2028 Jul 17 - 0.00479

Links to Additional Lunar Eclipse Predictions

Calendar

The Gregorian calendar (also called the Western calendar) is internationally the most widely used civil calendar. It is named for Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in 1582. On this website, the Gregorian calendar is used for all calendar dates from 1582 Oct 15 onwards. Before that date, the Julian calendar is used. For more information on this topic, see Calendar Dates.

The Julian calendar does not include the year 0. Thus the year 1 BCE is followed by the year 1 CE (See: BCE/CE Dating Conventions). This is awkward for arithmetic calculations. Years in this catalog are numbered astronomically and include the year 0. Historians should note there is a difference of one year between astronomical dates and BCE dates. Thus, the astronomical year 0 corresponds to 1 BCE, and astronomical year -1 corresponds to 2 BCE, etc..

Eclipse Predictions

The eclipse predictions presented here were generated using the JPL DE406 solar and lunar ephemerides. The lunar coordinates have been calculated with respect to the Moon's Center of Mass.

The largest uncertainty in the eclipse predictions is caused by fluctuations in Earth's rotation due primarily to tidal friction of the Moon. The resultant drift in apparent clock time is expressed as ΔT and is determined as follows:

  1. pre-1950's: ΔT calculated from empirical fits to historical records derived by Morrison and Stephenson (2004)
  2. 1955-present: ΔT obtained from published observations
  3. future: ΔT is extrapolated from current values weighted by the long term trend from tidal effects

A series of polynomial expressions have been derived to simplify the evaluation of ΔT for any time from -2999 to +3000. The uncertainty in ΔT over this period can be estimated from scatter in the measurements.

Acknowledgments

Some of the content on this web site is based on the books Five Millennium Canon of Lunar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 and Thousand Year Canon of Lunar Eclipses 1501 to 2500. All eclipse calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy.

Permission is granted to reproduce eclipse data when accompanied by a link to this page and an acknowledgment:

"Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak, www.EclipseWise.com"

The use of diagrams and maps is permitted provided that they are NOT altered (except for re-sizing) and the embedded credit line is NOT removed or covered.