Saros 18

Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 18

Fred Espenak

Introduction

The periodicity and recurrence of lunar eclipses is governed by the Saros cycle, a period of approximately 6,585.3 days (18 years 11 days 8 hours). When two eclipses are separated by a period of one Saros, they share a very similar geometry. The two eclipses occur at the same node with the Moon at nearly the same distance from Earth and the same time of year due to a harmonic in three cycles of the Moon's orbit. Thus, the Saros is useful for organizing eclipses into families or series. Each series typically lasts 12 to 13 centuries and contains 70 or more eclipses. Every saros series begins with a number of penumbral lunar eclipses. The series will then produce several dozen partial eclipses, followed by several dozen total eclipses. The later portion of the series produces another set of partial eclipses before ending with a final group of penumbral eclipses.

Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 18

The table below lists the concise characteristics of every lunar eclipse belonging to Saros 18 . The date and time of each eclipse is given for the instant of Greatest Eclipse. For eclipses between the years -1999 to 3000, the calendar date links to a web page containing additional details along with a diagram of the eclipse geometry and a map showing the geographic region of eclipse visibility for that eclipse. A description of each parameter in the catalog table can be found in Key to Saros Catalog of Lunar Eclipses.

Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 18
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QSE Gamma Pen Mag Um Mag Pen Dur
m
Par Dur
m
Tot Dur
m
1-37 -2078-Apr-0214:18:34 48338 4065 -50436 Nb a- 1.5173 0.0653-0.9175 71.2 - -
2-36 -2060-Apr-1221:32:49 47892 3986 -50213 N a- 1.4457 0.1942-0.7836120.8 - -
3-35 -2042-Apr-2404:43:12 47447 3909 -49990 N a- 1.3695 0.3317-0.6416155.3 - -
4-34 -2024-May-0411:54:20 47005 3832 -49767 N a- 1.2930 0.4702-0.4993181.7 - -
5-33 -2006-May-1519:03:54 46565 3756 -49544 N a- 1.2141 0.6134-0.3529203.9 - -
6-32 -1988-May-2602:17:18 46127 3680 -49321 N a- 1.1373 0.7530-0.2107222.0 - -
7-31 -1970-Jun-0609:31:58 45691 3605 -49098 N a- 1.0604 0.8930-0.0688237.6 - -
8-30 -1952-Jun-1616:51:42 45257 3531 -48875 P a- 0.9870 1.0271 0.0665250.4 56.8 -
9-29 -1934-Jun-2800:15:52 44825 3457 -48652 P a- 0.9164 1.1563 0.1963261.3 95.5 -
10-28 -1916-Jul-0807:47:31 44395 3385 -48429 P a- 0.8514 1.2756 0.3157270.2118.8 -
11-27 -1898-Jul-1915:26:03 43967 3312 -48206 P a- 0.7915 1.3857 0.4253277.4135.4 -
12-26 -1880-Jul-2923:12:27 43541 3241 -47983 P a- 0.7376 1.4851 0.5239283.4147.7 -
13-25 -1862-Aug-1007:07:59 43118 3170 -47760 P a- 0.6908 1.5716 0.6091288.0156.9 -
14-24 -1844-Aug-2015:12:03 42696 3100 -47537 P a- 0.6504 1.6463 0.6824291.7163.8 -
15-23 -1826-Aug-3123:25:17 42277 3031 -47314 P a- 0.6175 1.7075 0.7420294.5168.9 -
16-22 -1808-Sep-1107:46:51 41859 2962 -47091 P a- 0.5912 1.7567 0.7895296.6172.6 -
17-21 -1790-Sep-2216:17:19 41444 2894 -46868 P a- 0.5719 1.7929 0.8241298.0175.1 -
18-20 -1772-Oct-0300:54:56 41030 2827 -46645 P a- 0.5583 1.8186 0.8484298.9176.7 -
19-19 -1754-Oct-1409:38:42 40619 2761 -46422 P a- 0.5496 1.8351 0.8638299.5177.7 -
20-18 -1736-Oct-2418:27:48 40210 2695 -46199 P a- 0.5451 1.8436 0.8715299.7178.1 -
21-17 -1718-Nov-0503:20:38 39803 2630 -45976 P a- 0.5442 1.8457 0.8732299.6178.1 -
22-16 -1700-Nov-1512:14:54 39398 2565 -45753 P a- 0.5441 1.8458 0.8734299.5178.0 -
23-15 -1682-Nov-2621:08:55 38995 2501 -45530 P a- 0.5439 1.8459 0.8740299.4178.0 -
24-14 -1664-Dec-0706:01:23 38594 2438 -45307 P a- 0.5426 1.8477 0.8768299.4178.2 -
25-13 -1646-Dec-1814:51:09 38195 2376 -45084 P a- 0.5394 1.8528 0.8833299.5178.7 -
26-12 -1628-Dec-2823:35:10 37799 2314 -44861 P a- 0.5317 1.8662 0.8985300.0179.8 -
27-11 -1609-Jan-0908:13:49 37404 2253 -44638 P a- 0.5198 1.8870 0.9212300.8181.4 -
28-10 -1591-Jan-1916:44:31 37011 2193 -44415 P a- 0.5014 1.9196 0.9561302.1183.8 -
29 -9 -1573-Jan-3101:08:40 36621 2134 -44192 T a- 0.4778 1.9617 1.0004303.7186.7 3.0
30 -8 -1555-Feb-1009:22:46 36232 2075 -43969 T a- 0.4463 2.0185 1.0595305.8190.3 35.8
31 -7 -1537-Feb-2117:30:07 35846 2017 -43746 T p- 0.4093 2.0852 1.1283308.1194.0 51.5
32 -6 -1519-Mar-0401:27:51 35462 1959 -43523 T p- 0.3646 2.1663 1.2112310.7198.1 64.5
33 -5 -1501-Mar-1509:18:14 35079 1903 -43300 T p- 0.3140 2.2584 1.3048313.3202.1 75.2
34 -4 -1483-Mar-2516:59:57 34699 1847 -43077 T+ p- 0.2563 2.3639 1.4113316.0206.0 84.3
35 -3 -1465-Apr-0600:35:40 34321 1791 -42854 T+ p- 0.1940 2.4779 1.5258318.4209.2 91.3
36 -2 -1447-Apr-1608:04:57 33945 1737 -42631 T+ pp 0.1267 2.6013 1.6492320.5211.9 96.5
37 -1 -1429-Apr-2715:28:46 33571 1683 -42408 T+ pp 0.0554 2.7324 1.7796322.1213.6 99.5
38 0 -1411-May-0722:48:52 33199 1630 -42185 T- pp -0.0185 2.8008 1.8468323.1214.3100.3
39 1 -1393-May-1906:06:29 32829 1578 -41962 T- pp -0.0942 2.6630 1.7070323.5213.9 98.6
40 2 -1375-May-2913:22:43 32462 1526 -41739 T- -p -0.1702 2.5249 1.5662323.2212.3 94.1
Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 18
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QSE Gamma Pen Mag Um Mag Pen Dur
m
Par Dur
m
Tot Dur
m
41 3 -1357-Jun-0920:38:18 32096 1475 -41516 T- -p -0.2459 2.3876 1.4256322.2209.4 86.4
42 4 -1339-Jun-2003:55:36 31732 1425 -41293 T -a -0.3196 2.2544 1.2885320.5205.3 74.9
43 5 -1321-Jul-0111:15:21 31371 1376 -41070 T -a -0.3906 2.1265 1.1560318.3200.2 57.6
44 6 -1303-Jul-1118:38:17 31011 1327 -40847 T -a -0.4581 2.0050 1.0295315.7194.0 26.1
45 7 -1285-Jul-2302:06:33 30654 1279 -40624 P -a -0.5205 1.8933 0.9122312.7187.0 -
46 8 -1267-Aug-0209:40:32 30299 1232 -40401 P -a -0.5774 1.7920 0.8051309.7179.5 -
47 9 -1249-Aug-1317:22:05 29945 1185 -40178 P -a -0.6273 1.7034 0.7103306.7171.8 -
48 10 -1231-Aug-2401:09:15 29594 1139 -39955 P -a -0.6719 1.6248 0.6255303.9163.9 -
49 11 -1213-Sep-0409:05:20 29245 1094 -39732 P -a -0.7084 1.5611 0.5554301.6156.6 -
50 12 -1195-Sep-1417:07:33 28898 1050 -39509 P -a -0.7392 1.5078 0.4958299.7149.8 -
51 13 -1177-Sep-2601:18:03 28553 1007 -39286 P -a -0.7623 1.4684 0.4503298.5144.2 -
52 14 -1159-Oct-0609:33:35 28210 964 -39063 P -a -0.7805 1.4379 0.4140297.7139.4 -
53 15 -1141-Oct-1717:56:08 27869 922 -38840 P -a -0.7923 1.4190 0.3898297.7136.2 -
54 16 -1123-Oct-2802:21:49 27530 881 -38617 P -a -0.8007 1.4060 0.3719298.0133.8 -
55 17 -1105-Nov-0810:51:02 27194 840 -38394 P -a -0.8054 1.3996 0.3612298.8132.5 -
56 18 -1087-Nov-1819:20:58 26859 801 -38171 P -a -0.8088 1.3952 0.3531299.6131.5 -
57 19 -1069-Nov-3003:51:18 26526 762 -37948 P -a -0.8107 1.3932 0.3482300.6131.1 -
58 20 -1051-Dec-1012:18:22 26196 724 -37725 P -a -0.8149 1.3867 0.3394301.2130.0 -
59 21 -1033-Dec-2120:41:39 25868 686 -37502 P -a -0.8213 1.3757 0.3266301.4128.1 -
60 22 -1014-Jan-0104:58:56 25541 650 -37279 P -a -0.8318 1.3570 0.3068301.0124.9 -
61 23 -0996-Jan-1213:10:04 25217 620 -37056 P -a -0.8465 1.3305 0.2797299.9120.1 -
62 24 -0978-Jan-2221:11:08 24895 614 -36833 P -a -0.8685 1.2901 0.2391297.5112.0 -
63 25 -0960-Feb-0305:03:55 24575 607 -36610 P -h -0.8965 1.2388 0.1878294.1100.3 -
64 26 -0942-Feb-1312:45:12 24257 600 -36387 P -h -0.9330 1.1717 0.1209289.0 81.5 -
65 27 -0924-Feb-2420:17:43 23941 593 -36164 P -t -0.9757 1.0932 0.0427282.3 49.1 -
66 28 -0906-Mar-0703:37:18 23627 586 -35941 N -t -1.0277 0.9976-0.0526273.2 - -
67 29 -0888-Mar-1710:48:31 23315 579 -35718 N -t -1.0855 0.8915-0.1585261.9 - -
68 30 -0870-Mar-2817:48:23 23005 572 -35495 N -t -1.1513 0.7708-0.2793247.2 - -
69 31 -0852-Apr-0800:40:08 22697 566 -35272 N -t -1.2225 0.6402-0.4101228.9 - -
70 32 -0834-Apr-1907:22:33 22392 559 -35049 N -t -1.3001 0.4983-0.5526205.3 - -
71 33 -0816-Apr-2913:59:23 22088 552 -34826 N -t -1.3808 0.3506-0.7013175.1 - -
72 34 -0798-May-1020:30:29 21787 545 -34603 N -t -1.4648 0.1972-0.8562133.5 - -
73 35 -0780-May-2102:57:22 21487 538 -34380 Ne -t -1.5509 0.0401-1.0150 61.2 - -

Statistics for Lunar Eclipses of Saros 18

Lunar eclipses of Saros 18 all occur at the Moon’s ascending node and the Moon moves southward with each eclipse. The series will begin with a penumbral eclipse near the northern edge of the penumbra on -2078 Apr 02. The series will end with a penumbral eclipse near the southern edge of the penumbra on -0780 May 21. The total duration of Saros series 18 is 1298.17 years.

Summary of Saros 18
First Eclipse -2078 Apr 02
Last Eclipse -0780 May 21
Series Duration 1298.17 Years
No. of Eclipses 73
Sequence 7N 21P 16T 21P 8N

Saros 18 is composed of 73 lunar eclipses as follows:

Lunar Eclipses of Saros 18
Eclipse Type Symbol Number Percent
All Eclipses - 73100.0%
PenumbralN 15 20.5%
PartialP 42 57.5%
TotalT 16 21.9%

The 73 lunar eclipses of Saros 18 occur in the order of 7N 21P 16T 21P 8N which corresponds to the following.

Sequence Order of Lunar Eclipses in Saros 18
Eclipse Type Symbol Number
Penumbral N 7
Partial P 21
Total T 16
Partial P 21
Penumbral N 8

The longest and shortest eclipses of Saros 18 as well as largest and smallest partial eclipses appear below.

Extreme Durations and Magnitudes of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 18
Extrema Type Date Duration Magnitude
Longest Total Lunar Eclipse -1411 May 0701h40m18s -
Shortest Total Lunar Eclipse -1573 Jan 3100h03m01s -
Longest Partial Lunar Eclipse -1285 Jul 2303h06m59s -
Shortest Partial Lunar Eclipse -0924 Feb 2400h49m07s -
Longest Penumbral Lunar Eclipse -0906 Mar 0704h33m15s -
Shortest Penumbral Lunar Eclipse -0780 May 2101h01m13s -
Largest Partial Lunar Eclipse -1591 Jan 19 - 0.95614
Smallest Partial Lunar Eclipse -0924 Feb 24 - 0.04268

Links to Additional Lunar Eclipse Predictions

Calendar

The Gregorian calendar (also called the Western calendar) is internationally the most widely used civil calendar. It is named for Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in 1582. On this website, the Gregorian calendar is used for all calendar dates from 1582 Oct 15 onwards. Before that date, the Julian calendar is used. For more information on this topic, see Calendar Dates.

The Julian calendar does not include the year 0. Thus the year 1 BCE is followed by the year 1 CE (See: BCE/CE Dating Conventions). This is awkward for arithmetic calculations. Years in this catalog are numbered astronomically and include the year 0. Historians should note there is a difference of one year between astronomical dates and BCE dates. Thus, the astronomical year 0 corresponds to 1 BCE, and astronomical year -1 corresponds to 2 BCE, etc..

Eclipse Predictions

The eclipse predictions presented here were generated using the JPL DE406 solar and lunar ephemerides. The lunar coordinates have been calculated with respect to the Moon's Center of Mass.

The largest uncertainty in the eclipse predictions is caused by fluctuations in Earth's rotation due primarily to tidal friction of the Moon. The resultant drift in apparent clock time is expressed as ΔT and is determined as follows:

  1. pre-1950's: ΔT calculated from empirical fits to historical records derived by Morrison and Stephenson (2004)
  2. 1955-present: ΔT obtained from published observations
  3. future: ΔT is extrapolated from current values weighted by the long term trend from tidal effects

A series of polynomial expressions have been derived to simplify the evaluation of ΔT for any time from -2999 to +3000. The uncertainty in ΔT over this period can be estimated from scatter in the measurements.

Acknowledgments

Some of the content on this web site is based on the books Five Millennium Canon of Lunar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 and Thousand Year Canon of Lunar Eclipses 1501 to 2500. All eclipse calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy.

Permission is granted to reproduce eclipse data when accompanied by a link to this page and an acknowledgment:

"Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak, www.EclipseWise.com"

The use of diagrams and maps is permitted provided that they are NOT altered (except for re-sizing) and the embedded credit line is NOT removed or covered.