Saros 23

Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 23

Fred Espenak

Introduction

The periodicity and recurrence of lunar eclipses is governed by the Saros cycle, a period of approximately 6,585.3 days (18 years 11 days 8 hours). When two eclipses are separated by a period of one Saros, they share a very similar geometry. The two eclipses occur at the same node with the Moon at nearly the same distance from Earth and the same time of year due to a harmonic in three cycles of the Moon's orbit. Thus, the Saros is useful for organizing eclipses into families or series. Each series typically lasts 12 to 13 centuries and contains 70 or more eclipses. Every saros series begins with a number of penumbral lunar eclipses. The series will then produce several dozen partial eclipses, followed by several dozen total eclipses. The later portion of the series produces another set of partial eclipses before ending with a final group of penumbral eclipses.

Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 23

The table below lists the concise characteristics of every lunar eclipse belonging to Saros 23 . The date and time of each eclipse is given for the instant of Greatest Eclipse. For eclipses between the years -1999 to 3000, the calendar date links to a web page containing additional details along with a diagram of the eclipse geometry and a map showing the geographic region of eclipse visibility for that eclipse. A description of each parameter in the catalog table can be found in Key to Saros Catalog of Lunar Eclipses.

Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 23
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QSE Gamma Pen Mag Um Mag Pen Dur
m
Par Dur
m
Tot Dur
m
1-34 -1825-Feb-2516:58:03 42265 3029 -47308 N t- -1.5390 0.0762-1.0072 85.8 - -
2-33 -1807-Mar-0723:48:22 41848 2960 -47085 N t- -1.4803 0.1823-0.8979131.4 - -
3-32 -1789-Mar-1906:31:43 41433 2893 -46862 N t- -1.4154 0.2998-0.7771166.5 - -
4-31 -1771-Mar-2913:05:15 41019 2825 -46639 N t- -1.3421 0.4328-0.6411197.5 - -
5-30 -1753-Apr-0919:34:44 40608 2759 -46416 N t- -1.2648 0.5732-0.4979224.0 - -
6-29 -1735-Apr-2001:57:15 40199 2693 -46193 N t- -1.1815 0.7248-0.3438247.8 - -
7-28 -1717-May-0108:18:03 39792 2628 -45970 N t- -1.0958 0.8808-0.1856268.6 - -
8-27 -1699-May-1114:35:11 39387 2563 -45747 Nx t- -1.0064 1.0440-0.0206287.0 - -
9-26 -1681-May-2220:54:16 38984 2500 -45524 P t- -0.9176 1.2062 0.1430302.7 91.3 -
10-25 -1663-Jun-0203:13:57 38583 2437 -45301 P t- -0.8288 1.3687 0.3064316.1130.3 -
11-24 -1645-Jun-1309:37:13 38185 2374 -45078 P t- -0.7419 1.5277 0.4661327.3156.6 -
12-23 -1627-Jun-2316:05:33 37788 2313 -44855 P t- -0.6585 1.6807 0.6193336.4175.7 -
13-22 -1609-Jul-0422:40:31 37393 2252 -44632 P t- -0.5798 1.8251 0.7636343.6190.1 -
14-21 -1591-Jul-1505:23:39 37001 2192 -44409 P t- -0.5068 1.9594 0.8974349.2200.8 -
15-20 -1573-Jul-2612:14:50 36610 2132 -44186 T t- -0.4395 2.0831 1.0205353.5208.8 23.3
16-19 -1555-Aug-0519:17:02 36222 2073 -43963 T t- -0.3806 2.1916 1.1282356.4214.5 56.2
17-18 -1537-Aug-1702:29:09 35836 2015 -43740 T t- -0.3291 2.2865 1.2222358.4218.5 71.5
18-17 -1519-Aug-2709:52:35 35451 1958 -43517 T p- -0.2860 2.3660 1.3009359.6221.2 80.6
19-16 -1501-Sep-0717:26:24 35069 1901 -43294 T- p- -0.2507 2.4312 1.3655360.1222.9 86.5
20-15 -1483-Sep-1801:11:49 34689 1845 -43071 T- p- -0.2238 2.4807 1.4145360.2223.8 90.1
21-14 -1465-Sep-2909:06:23 34311 1790 -42848 T- p- -0.2040 2.5172 1.4508359.9224.2 92.3
22-13 -1447-Oct-0917:09:26 33935 1735 -42625 T- p- -0.1903 2.5420 1.4760359.2224.2 93.6
23-12 -1429-Oct-2101:19:58 33561 1682 -42402 T- p- -0.1821 2.5567 1.4915358.4224.0 94.2
24-11 -1411-Oct-3109:37:05 33189 1629 -42179 T- p- -0.1784 2.5628 1.4991357.3223.6 94.4
25-10 -1393-Nov-1117:57:36 32820 1576 -41956 T- p- -0.1768 2.5646 1.5031356.1223.1 94.4
26 -9 -1375-Nov-2202:20:38 32452 1525 -41733 T- p- -0.1765 2.5636 1.5050354.8222.5 94.3
27 -8 -1357-Dec-0310:43:53 32086 1474 -41510 T- p- -0.1756 2.5635 1.5085353.3222.0 94.3
28 -7 -1339-Dec-1319:07:02 31723 1424 -41287 T- p- -0.1737 2.5648 1.5140351.9221.6 94.5
29 -6 -1321-Dec-2503:25:29 31361 1374 -41064 T- p- -0.1671 2.5745 1.5287350.5221.3 95.0
30 -5 -1302-Jan-0411:41:16 31002 1326 -40841 T- p- -0.1573 2.5897 1.5493349.0221.2 95.9
31 -4 -1284-Jan-1519:49:59 30644 1278 -40618 T- p- -0.1406 2.6173 1.5829347.7221.3 97.1
32 -3 -1266-Jan-2603:53:54 30289 1230 -40395 T- p- -0.1192 2.6535 1.6253346.3221.4 98.6
33 -2 -1248-Feb-0611:48:43 29936 1184 -40172 T- pp -0.0890 2.7056 1.6839344.9221.6100.1
34 -1 -1230-Feb-1619:38:24 29585 1138 -39949 T- pp -0.0536 2.7672 1.7522343.5221.6101.3
35 0 -1212-Feb-2803:19:09 29236 1093 -39726 T- pp -0.0097 2.8445 1.8360341.9221.4101.9
36 1 -1194-Mar-1010:53:47 28889 1049 -39503 T+ pp 0.0403 2.7850 1.7830340.0220.7101.5
37 2 -1176-Mar-2018:20:47 28544 1005 -39280 T+ pp 0.0975 2.6769 1.6812337.6219.3 99.6
38 3 -1158-Apr-0101:43:28 28201 963 -39057 T+ pp 0.1591 2.5609 1.5711334.8217.1 95.8
39 4 -1140-Apr-1109:00:50 27860 921 -38834 T+ pp 0.2262 2.4350 1.4507331.4213.7 89.3
40 5 -1122-Apr-2216:14:36 27521 880 -38611 T -p 0.2971 2.3023 1.3231327.2209.2 79.1
Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 23
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QSE Gamma Pen Mag Um Mag Pen Dur
m
Par Dur
m
Tot Dur
m
41 6 -1104-May-0223:26:10 27185 839 -38388 T -p 0.3706 2.1653 1.1904322.2203.2 63.4
42 7 -1086-May-1406:36:44 26850 800 -38165 T -a 0.4455 2.0259 1.0548316.5195.7 35.4
43 8 -1068-May-2413:47:31 26518 761 -37942 P -a 0.5210 1.8857 0.9179309.9186.6 -
44 9 -1050-Jun-0420:59:50 26187 723 -37719 P -a 0.5961 1.7468 0.7815302.6175.8 -
45 10 -1032-Jun-1504:15:38 25859 685 -37496 P -a 0.6688 1.6123 0.6489294.7163.3 -
46 11 -1014-Jun-2611:36:08 25533 649 -37273 P -a 0.7382 1.4844 0.5223286.3149.1 -
47 12 -0996-Jul-0619:01:18 25208 620 -37050 P -a 0.8043 1.3627 0.4013277.5132.8 -
48 13 -0978-Jul-1802:33:56 24886 613 -36827 P -a 0.8648 1.2516 0.2903268.7114.5 -
49 14 -0960-Jul-2810:13:07 24566 607 -36604 P -a 0.9204 1.1498 0.1882260.0 93.3 -
50 15 -0942-Aug-0818:01:27 24248 600 -36381 P -a 0.9690 1.0611 0.0987251.7 68.3 -
51 16 -0924-Aug-1901:56:49 23932 593 -36158 P -a 1.0123 0.9822 0.0187243.8 30.0 -
52 17 -0906-Aug-3010:02:25 23618 586 -35935 N -a 1.0475 0.9183-0.0466237.0 - -
53 18 -0888-Sep-0918:15:51 23306 579 -35712 N -a 1.0767 0.8654-0.1010231.1 - -
54 19 -0870-Sep-2102:38:35 22997 572 -35489 N -a 1.0988 0.8256-0.1423226.4 - -
55 20 -0852-Oct-0111:08:42 22689 565 -35266 N -a 1.1153 0.7961-0.1733222.7 - -
56 21 -0834-Oct-1219:46:41 22383 559 -35043 N -a 1.1260 0.7772-0.1934220.3 - -
57 22 -0816-Oct-2304:30:24 22080 552 -34820 N -a 1.1321 0.7665-0.2051218.9 - -
58 23 -0798-Nov-0313:18:32 21778 545 -34597 N -a 1.1351 0.7613-0.2110218.1 - -
59 24 -0780-Nov-1322:10:31 21479 538 -34374 N -a 1.1354 0.7609-0.2116218.0 - -
60 25 -0762-Nov-2507:04:23 21182 531 -34151 N -a 1.1349 0.7617-0.2106217.9 - -
61 26 -0744-Dec-0515:58:21 20886 524 -33928 N -a 1.1344 0.7622-0.2095217.9 - -
62 27 -0726-Dec-1700:50:11 20593 518 -33705 N -a 1.1362 0.7584-0.2122217.3 - -
63 28 -0708-Dec-2709:39:18 20302 511 -33482 N -a 1.1405 0.7498-0.2193216.2 - -
64 29 -0689-Jan-0718:24:05 20013 504 -33259 N -a 1.1488 0.7336-0.2337214.2 - -
65 30 -0671-Jan-1803:02:15 19726 496 -33036 N -a 1.1627 0.7070-0.2582210.8 - -
66 31 -0653-Jan-2911:33:58 19441 489 -32813 N -a 1.1822 0.6701-0.2928205.9 - -
67 32 -0635-Feb-0819:57:36 19159 482 -32590 N -a 1.2084 0.6210-0.3396199.2 - -
68 33 -0617-Feb-2004:13:36 18878 475 -32367 N -a 1.2408 0.5603-0.3979190.4 - -
69 34 -0599-Mar-0212:20:06 18599 468 -32144 N -a 1.2810 0.4855-0.4707178.6 - -
70 35 -0581-Mar-1320:19:05 18322 461 -31921 N -a 1.3273 0.3996-0.5546163.5 - -
71 36 -0563-Mar-2404:09:40 18048 454 -31698 N -a 1.3801 0.3018-0.6509143.6 - -
72 37 -0545-Apr-0411:52:33 17775 447 -31475 N -a 1.4391 0.1930-0.7585116.1 - -
73 38 -0527-Apr-1419:28:38 17505 441 -31252 Ne -a 1.5031 0.0753-0.8757 73.4 - -

Statistics for Lunar Eclipses of Saros 23

Lunar eclipses of Saros 23 all occur at the Moon’s descending node and the Moon moves northward with each eclipse. The series will begin with a penumbral eclipse near the southern edge of the penumbra on -1825 Feb 25. The series will end with a penumbral eclipse near the northern edge of the penumbra on -0527 Apr 14. The total duration of Saros series 23 is 1298.17 years.

Summary of Saros 23
First Eclipse -1825 Feb 25
Last Eclipse -0527 Apr 14
Series Duration 1298.17 Years
No. of Eclipses 73
Sequence 8N 6P 28T 9P 22N

Saros 23 is composed of 73 lunar eclipses as follows:

Lunar Eclipses of Saros 23
Eclipse Type Symbol Number Percent
All Eclipses - 73100.0%
PenumbralN 30 41.1%
PartialP 15 20.5%
TotalT 28 38.4%

The 73 lunar eclipses of Saros 23 occur in the order of 8N 6P 28T 9P 22N which corresponds to the following.

Sequence Order of Lunar Eclipses in Saros 23
Eclipse Type Symbol Number
Penumbral N 8
Partial P 6
Total T 28
Partial P 9
Penumbral N 22

The longest and shortest eclipses of Saros 23 as well as largest and smallest partial eclipses appear below.

Extreme Durations and Magnitudes of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 23
Extrema Type Date Duration Magnitude
Longest Total Lunar Eclipse -1212 Feb 2801h41m57s -
Shortest Total Lunar Eclipse -1573 Jul 2600h23m19s -
Longest Partial Lunar Eclipse -1591 Jul 1503h20m48s -
Shortest Partial Lunar Eclipse -0924 Aug 1900h29m58s -
Longest Penumbral Lunar Eclipse -1699 May 1104h47m02s -
Shortest Penumbral Lunar Eclipse -0527 Apr 1401h13m24s -
Largest Partial Lunar Eclipse -1068 May 24 - 0.91789
Smallest Partial Lunar Eclipse -0924 Aug 19 - 0.01868

Links to Additional Lunar Eclipse Predictions

Calendar

The Gregorian calendar (also called the Western calendar) is internationally the most widely used civil calendar. It is named for Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in 1582. On this website, the Gregorian calendar is used for all calendar dates from 1582 Oct 15 onwards. Before that date, the Julian calendar is used. For more information on this topic, see Calendar Dates.

The Julian calendar does not include the year 0. Thus the year 1 BCE is followed by the year 1 CE (See: BCE/CE Dating Conventions). This is awkward for arithmetic calculations. Years in this catalog are numbered astronomically and include the year 0. Historians should note there is a difference of one year between astronomical dates and BCE dates. Thus, the astronomical year 0 corresponds to 1 BCE, and astronomical year -1 corresponds to 2 BCE, etc..

Eclipse Predictions

The eclipse predictions presented here were generated using the JPL DE406 solar and lunar ephemerides. The lunar coordinates have been calculated with respect to the Moon's Center of Mass.

The largest uncertainty in the eclipse predictions is caused by fluctuations in Earth's rotation due primarily to tidal friction of the Moon. The resultant drift in apparent clock time is expressed as ΔT and is determined as follows:

  1. pre-1950's: ΔT calculated from empirical fits to historical records derived by Morrison and Stephenson (2004)
  2. 1955-present: ΔT obtained from published observations
  3. future: ΔT is extrapolated from current values weighted by the long term trend from tidal effects

A series of polynomial expressions have been derived to simplify the evaluation of ΔT for any time from -2999 to +3000. The uncertainty in ΔT over this period can be estimated from scatter in the measurements.

Acknowledgments

Some of the content on this web site is based on the books Five Millennium Canon of Lunar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 and Thousand Year Canon of Lunar Eclipses 1501 to 2500. All eclipse calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy.

Permission is granted to reproduce eclipse data when accompanied by a link to this page and an acknowledgment:

"Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak, www.EclipseWise.com"

The use of diagrams and maps is permitted provided that they are NOT altered (except for re-sizing) and the embedded credit line is NOT removed or covered.