Saros 28

Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 28

Fred Espenak

Introduction

The periodicity and recurrence of lunar eclipses is governed by the Saros cycle, a period of approximately 6,585.3 days (18 years 11 days 8 hours). When two eclipses are separated by a period of one Saros, they share a very similar geometry. The two eclipses occur at the same node with the Moon at nearly the same distance from Earth and the same time of year due to a harmonic in three cycles of the Moon's orbit. Thus, the Saros is useful for organizing eclipses into families or series. Each series typically lasts 12 to 13 centuries and contains 70 or more eclipses. Every saros series begins with a number of penumbral lunar eclipses. The series will then produce several dozen partial eclipses, followed by several dozen total eclipses. The later portion of the series produces another set of partial eclipses before ending with a final group of penumbral eclipses.

Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 28

The table below lists the concise characteristics of every lunar eclipse belonging to Saros 28 . The date and time of each eclipse is given for the instant of Greatest Eclipse. For eclipses between the years -1999 to 3000, the calendar date links to a web page containing additional details along with a diagram of the eclipse geometry and a map showing the geographic region of eclipse visibility for that eclipse. A description of each parameter in the catalog table can be found in Key to Saros Catalog of Lunar Eclipses.

Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 28
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QSE Gamma Pen Mag Um Mag Pen Dur
m
Par Dur
m
Tot Dur
m
1-38 -1897-Jul-0908:14:26 43944 3309 -48194 N a- 1.4842 0.1078-0.8389 87.0 - -
2-37 -1879-Jul-1915:56:57 43518 3237 -47971 N a- 1.4297 0.2096-0.7405120.3 - -
3-36 -1861-Jul-3023:45:31 43095 3167 -47748 N a- 1.3804 0.3019-0.6519143.4 - -
4-35 -1843-Aug-1007:41:49 42673 3097 -47525 N a- 1.3375 0.3827-0.5752160.5 - -
5-34 -1825-Aug-2115:45:55 42254 3027 -47302 N a- 1.3013 0.4513-0.5110173.5 - -
6-33 -1807-Aug-3123:58:38 41837 2959 -47079 N a- 1.2722 0.5069-0.4598183.4 - -
7-32 -1789-Sep-1208:17:51 41421 2891 -46856 N a- 1.2487 0.5523-0.4189191.0 - -
8-31 -1771-Sep-2216:45:49 41008 2823 -46633 N a- 1.2327 0.5838-0.3916196.3 - -
9-30 -1753-Oct-0401:19:56 40597 2757 -46410 N a- 1.2221 0.6053-0.3744200.0 - -
10-29 -1735-Oct-1410:00:21 40188 2691 -46187 N a- 1.2171 0.6164-0.3670202.1 - -
11-28 -1717-Oct-2518:44:09 39781 2626 -45964 N a- 1.2155 0.6212-0.3657203.3 - -
12-27 -1699-Nov-0503:31:37 39376 2562 -45741 N a- 1.2173 0.6194-0.3704203.6 - -
13-26 -1681-Nov-1612:19:51 38973 2498 -45518 N a- 1.2203 0.6150-0.3773203.5 - -
14-25 -1663-Nov-2621:07:19 38573 2435 -45295 N a- 1.2237 0.6098-0.3844203.3 - -
15-24 -1645-Dec-0805:52:42 38174 2373 -45072 N a- 1.2260 0.6063-0.3894203.3 - -
16-23 -1627-Dec-1814:34:09 37777 2311 -44849 N a- 1.2262 0.6063-0.3903203.8 - -
17-22 -1609-Dec-2923:09:52 37383 2250 -44626 N a- 1.2225 0.6135-0.3836205.4 - -
18-21 -1590-Jan-0907:38:11 36990 2190 -44403 N a- 1.2135 0.6301-0.3672208.4 - -
19-20 -1572-Jan-2015:58:55 36600 2130 -44180 N a- 1.1993 0.6561-0.3413212.7 - -
20-19 -1554-Jan-3100:11:01 36211 2072 -43957 N a- 1.1792 0.6929-0.3043218.4 - -
21-18 -1536-Feb-1108:12:40 35825 2014 -43734 N a- 1.1514 0.7439-0.2532225.9 - -
22-17 -1518-Feb-2116:05:11 35441 1956 -43511 N a- 1.1169 0.8071-0.1899234.5 - -
23-16 -1500-Mar-0323:47:18 35059 1900 -43288 N a- 1.0748 0.8845-0.1127244.3 - -
24-15 -1482-Mar-1507:20:54 34679 1844 -43065 N a- 1.0265 0.9732-0.0242254.8 - -
25-14 -1464-Mar-2514:43:35 34301 1788 -42842 P h- 0.9704 1.0766 0.0784266.0 63.6 -
26-13 -1446-Apr-0521:59:20 33925 1734 -42619 P h- 0.9093 1.1892 0.1898277.2 97.7 -
27-12 -1428-Apr-1605:06:37 33551 1680 -42396 P t- 0.8421 1.3133 0.3123288.4123.6 -
28-11 -1410-Apr-2712:07:59 33179 1627 -42173 P t- 0.7709 1.4450 0.4419299.2144.7 -
29-10 -1392-May-0719:03:35 32810 1575 -41950 P t- 0.6958 1.5842 0.5783309.4162.6 -
30 -9 -1374-May-1901:56:07 32442 1523 -41727 P t- 0.6190 1.7268 0.7177318.8177.7 -
31 -8 -1356-May-2908:46:09 32076 1472 -41504 P t- 0.5410 1.8719 0.8588327.4190.4 -
32 -7 -1338-Jun-0915:34:23 31713 1422 -41281 T t- 0.4624 2.0183 1.0010335.0201.0 5.0
33 -6 -1320-Jun-1922:24:00 31351 1373 -41058 T t- 0.3857 2.1615 1.1393341.6209.6 57.2
34 -5 -1302-Jul-0105:15:20 30992 1324 -40835 T p- 0.3110 2.3013 1.2737347.2216.3 76.8
35 -4 -1284-Jul-1112:11:04 30635 1276 -40612 T+ pp 0.2408 2.4329 1.3996351.9221.4 88.7
36 -3 -1266-Jul-2219:10:17 30280 1229 -40389 T+ pp 0.1743 2.5580 1.5187355.7225.1 96.4
37 -2 -1248-Aug-0202:17:14 29926 1183 -40166 T+ pp 0.1148 2.6703 1.6247358.8227.6100.9
38 -1 -1230-Aug-1309:29:49 29575 1137 -39943 T+ pp 0.0606 2.7731 1.7211361.3229.2103.4
39 0 -1212-Aug-2316:50:23 29226 1092 -39720 T+ pp 0.0137 2.8623 1.8039363.3230.1104.2
40 1 -1194-Sep-0400:17:55 28879 1048 -39497 T- pp -0.0268 2.8414 1.7767364.9230.5104.1
Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 28
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QSE Gamma Pen Mag Um Mag Pen Dur
m
Par Dur
m
Tot Dur
m
41 2 -1176-Sep-1407:54:41 28534 1004 -39274 T- pp -0.0588 2.7858 1.7151366.4230.5103.4
42 3 -1158-Sep-2515:38:17 28192 962 -39051 T- pp -0.0847 2.7410 1.6646367.6230.5102.3
43 4 -1140-Oct-0523:28:45 27851 920 -38828 T- pp -0.1044 2.7077 1.6260368.8230.4101.3
44 5 -1122-Oct-1707:25:17 27512 879 -38605 T- pp -0.1183 2.6844 1.5981369.9230.4100.5
45 6 -1104-Oct-2715:27:37 27176 838 -38382 T- pp -0.1267 2.6711 1.5808371.0230.5 99.9
46 7 -1086-Nov-0723:32:09 26841 798 -38159 T- pp -0.1329 2.6613 1.5678371.9230.6 99.5
47 8 -1068-Nov-1807:39:01 26509 760 -37936 T- pp -0.1365 2.6560 1.5600372.8230.8 99.2
48 9 -1050-Nov-2915:45:00 26178 722 -37713 T- pp -0.1404 2.6496 1.5520373.5231.0 99.0
49 10 -1032-Dec-0923:50:27 25850 684 -37490 T- pp -0.1443 2.6428 1.5444374.1231.2 98.8
50 11 -1014-Dec-2107:50:11 25524 648 -37267 T- pp -0.1523 2.6282 1.5298374.4231.3 98.2
51 12 -0996-Dec-3115:46:34 25200 620 -37044 T- pp -0.1627 2.6087 1.5110374.6231.2 97.5
52 13 -0977-Jan-1123:34:15 24878 613 -36821 T- pp -0.1796 2.5769 1.4806374.4230.8 96.0
53 14 -0959-Jan-2207:15:26 24557 606 -36598 T- pp -0.2018 2.5353 1.4409373.9230.0 93.6
54 15 -0941-Feb-0214:45:25 24239 600 -36375 T- pp -0.2328 2.4772 1.3853372.9228.6 89.7
55 16 -0923-Feb-1222:08:04 23924 593 -36152 T- -p -0.2695 2.4085 1.3193371.4226.6 83.9
56 17 -0905-Feb-2405:19:17 23610 586 -35929 T -t -0.3149 2.3238 1.2375369.2223.4 74.7
57 18 -0887-Mar-0612:21:18 23298 579 -35706 T -t -0.3677 2.2253 1.1421366.2219.0 59.8
58 19 -0869-Mar-1719:13:10 22988 572 -35483 T -t -0.4285 2.1122 1.0321362.1212.8 29.4
59 20 -0851-Mar-2801:57:07 22681 565 -35260 P -t -0.4957 1.9873 0.9103356.9204.5 -
60 21 -0833-Apr-0808:33:13 22375 558 -35037 P -t -0.5689 1.8515 0.7773350.2193.5 -
61 22 -0815-Apr-1815:02:28 22072 552 -34814 P -t -0.6475 1.7061 0.6345342.0179.1 -
62 23 -0797-Apr-2921:27:10 21770 545 -34591 P -t -0.7297 1.5541 0.4849332.0160.3 -
63 24 -0779-May-1003:48:39 21471 538 -34368 P -t -0.8145 1.3974 0.3302320.2135.4 -
64 25 -0761-May-2110:08:01 21174 531 -34145 P -t -0.9010 1.2379 0.1723306.4100.0 -
65 26 -0743-May-3116:27:47 20879 524 -33922 P -t -0.9871 1.0793 0.0149290.6 30.1 -
66 27 -0725-Jun-1122:49:07 20585 517 -33699 N -t -1.0721 0.9229-0.1406272.7 - -
67 28 -0707-Jun-2205:14:30 20294 510 -33476 N -t -1.1540 0.7725-0.2906252.9 - -
68 29 -0689-Jul-0311:43:29 20005 503 -33253 N -t -1.2332 0.6271-0.4359230.8 - -
69 30 -0671-Jul-1318:20:03 19719 496 -33030 N -t -1.3064 0.4928-0.5705206.9 - -
70 31 -0653-Jul-2501:03:35 19434 489 -32807 N -t -1.3746 0.3681-0.6957180.6 - -
71 32 -0635-Aug-0407:57:00 19151 482 -32584 N -t -1.4350 0.2575-0.8070152.3 - -
72 33 -0617-Aug-1514:58:52 18870 475 -32361 N -t -1.4891 0.1588-0.9067120.4 - -
73 34 -0599-Aug-2522:12:22 18592 468 -32138 N -t -1.5346 0.0758-0.9905 83.6 - -
74 35 -0581-Sep-0605:35:27 18315 461 -31915 Ne -t -1.5730 0.0058-1.0615 23.3 - -

Statistics for Lunar Eclipses of Saros 28

Lunar eclipses of Saros 28 all occur at the Moon’s ascending node and the Moon moves southward with each eclipse. The series will begin with a penumbral eclipse near the northern edge of the penumbra on -1897 Jul 09. The series will end with a penumbral eclipse near the southern edge of the penumbra on -0581 Sep 06. The total duration of Saros series 28 is 1316.20 years.

Summary of Saros 28
First Eclipse -1897 Jul 09
Last Eclipse -0581 Sep 06
Series Duration 1316.20 Years
No. of Eclipses 74
Sequence 24N 7P 27T 7P 9N

Saros 28 is composed of 74 lunar eclipses as follows:

Lunar Eclipses of Saros 28
Eclipse Type Symbol Number Percent
All Eclipses - 74100.0%
PenumbralN 33 44.6%
PartialP 14 18.9%
TotalT 27 36.5%

The 74 lunar eclipses of Saros 28 occur in the order of 24N 7P 27T 7P 9N which corresponds to the following.

Sequence Order of Lunar Eclipses in Saros 28
Eclipse Type Symbol Number
Penumbral N 24
Partial P 7
Total T 27
Partial P 7
Penumbral N 9

The longest and shortest eclipses of Saros 28 as well as largest and smallest partial eclipses appear below.

Extreme Durations and Magnitudes of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 28
Extrema Type Date Duration Magnitude
Longest Total Lunar Eclipse -1212 Aug 2301h44m15s -
Shortest Total Lunar Eclipse -1338 Jun 0900h05m02s -
Longest Partial Lunar Eclipse -0851 Mar 2803h24m31s -
Shortest Partial Lunar Eclipse -0743 May 3100h30m03s -
Longest Penumbral Lunar Eclipse -0725 Jun 1104h32m44s -
Shortest Penumbral Lunar Eclipse -0581 Sep 0600h23m16s -
Largest Partial Lunar Eclipse -0851 Mar 28 - 0.91030
Smallest Partial Lunar Eclipse -0743 May 31 - 0.01493

Links to Additional Lunar Eclipse Predictions

Calendar

The Gregorian calendar (also called the Western calendar) is internationally the most widely used civil calendar. It is named for Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in 1582. On this website, the Gregorian calendar is used for all calendar dates from 1582 Oct 15 onwards. Before that date, the Julian calendar is used. For more information on this topic, see Calendar Dates.

The Julian calendar does not include the year 0. Thus the year 1 BCE is followed by the year 1 CE (See: BCE/CE Dating Conventions). This is awkward for arithmetic calculations. Years in this catalog are numbered astronomically and include the year 0. Historians should note there is a difference of one year between astronomical dates and BCE dates. Thus, the astronomical year 0 corresponds to 1 BCE, and astronomical year -1 corresponds to 2 BCE, etc..

Eclipse Predictions

The eclipse predictions presented here were generated using the JPL DE406 solar and lunar ephemerides. The lunar coordinates have been calculated with respect to the Moon's Center of Mass.

The largest uncertainty in the eclipse predictions is caused by fluctuations in Earth's rotation due primarily to tidal friction of the Moon. The resultant drift in apparent clock time is expressed as ΔT and is determined as follows:

  1. pre-1950's: ΔT calculated from empirical fits to historical records derived by Morrison and Stephenson (2004)
  2. 1955-present: ΔT obtained from published observations
  3. future: ΔT is extrapolated from current values weighted by the long term trend from tidal effects

A series of polynomial expressions have been derived to simplify the evaluation of ΔT for any time from -2999 to +3000. The uncertainty in ΔT over this period can be estimated from scatter in the measurements.

Acknowledgments

Some of the content on this web site is based on the books Five Millennium Canon of Lunar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 and Thousand Year Canon of Lunar Eclipses 1501 to 2500. All eclipse calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy.

Permission is granted to reproduce eclipse data when accompanied by a link to this page and an acknowledgment:

"Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak, www.EclipseWise.com"

The use of diagrams and maps is permitted provided that they are NOT altered (except for re-sizing) and the embedded credit line is NOT removed or covered.