Saros 31

Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 31

Fred Espenak

Introduction

The periodicity and recurrence of lunar eclipses is governed by the Saros cycle, a period of approximately 6,585.3 days (18 years 11 days 8 hours). When two eclipses are separated by a period of one Saros, they share a very similar geometry. The two eclipses occur at the same node with the Moon at nearly the same distance from Earth and the same time of year due to a harmonic in three cycles of the Moon's orbit. Thus, the Saros is useful for organizing eclipses into families or series. Each series typically lasts 12 to 13 centuries and contains 70 or more eclipses. Every saros series begins with a number of penumbral lunar eclipses. The series will then produce several dozen partial eclipses, followed by several dozen total eclipses. The later portion of the series produces another set of partial eclipses before ending with a final group of penumbral eclipses.

Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 31

The table below lists the concise characteristics of every lunar eclipse belonging to Saros 31 . The date and time of each eclipse is given for the instant of Greatest Eclipse. For eclipses between the years -1999 to 3000, the calendar date links to a web page containing additional details along with a diagram of the eclipse geometry and a map showing the geographic region of eclipse visibility for that eclipse. A description of each parameter in the catalog table can be found in Key to Saros Catalog of Lunar Eclipses.

Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 31
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QSE Gamma Pen Mag Um Mag Pen Dur
m
Par Dur
m
Tot Dur
m
1-38 -1774-May-3021:58:10 41084 2836 -46674 Nb a- -1.5344 0.0127-0.9278 30.0 - -
2-37 -1756-Jun-1005:22:18 40673 2769 -46451 N a- -1.4650 0.1408-0.8013 99.0 - -
3-36 -1738-Jun-2112:50:55 40263 2703 -46228 N a- -1.3989 0.2631-0.6813134.1 - -
4-35 -1720-Jul-0120:21:26 39856 2638 -46005 N a- -1.3349 0.3822-0.5652160.0 - -
5-34 -1702-Jul-1303:58:43 39451 2573 -45782 N a- -1.2766 0.4909-0.4600179.8 - -
6-33 -1684-Jul-2311:40:30 39047 2510 -45559 N a- -1.2225 0.5921-0.3629196.0 - -
7-32 -1666-Aug-0319:29:46 38646 2446 -45336 N a- -1.1751 0.6813-0.2780208.9 - -
8-31 -1648-Aug-1403:25:16 38247 2384 -45113 N a- -1.1332 0.7606-0.2035219.6 - -
9-30 -1630-Aug-2511:29:40 37850 2322 -44890 N a- -1.0990 0.8258-0.1431227.9 - -
10-29 -1612-Sep-0419:41:14 37455 2261 -44667 N a- -1.0715 0.8787-0.0952234.5 - -
11-28 -1594-Sep-1604:00:15 37062 2201 -44444 N a- -1.0507 0.9195-0.0593239.6 - -
12-27 -1576-Sep-2612:26:34 36671 2141 -44221 N a- -1.0364 0.9481-0.0355243.3 - -
13-26 -1558-Oct-0720:59:28 36283 2082 -43998 N a- -1.0279 0.9660-0.0221245.9 - -
14-25 -1540-Oct-1805:37:45 35896 2024 -43775 N a- -1.0244 0.9745-0.0178247.5 - -
15-24 -1522-Oct-2914:19:33 35512 1967 -43552 N a- -1.0243 0.9765-0.0195248.5 - -
16-23 -1504-Nov-0823:04:22 35129 1910 -43329 N a- -1.0273 0.9726-0.0266248.9 - -
17-22 -1486-Nov-2007:49:57 34749 1854 -43106 N a- -1.0314 0.9665-0.0354249.1 - -
18-21 -1468-Nov-3016:34:23 34370 1799 -42883 N a- -1.0353 0.9605-0.0436249.2 - -
19-20 -1450-Dec-1201:16:14 33994 1744 -42660 N a- -1.0376 0.9571-0.0486249.6 - -
20-19 -1432-Dec-2209:53:33 33620 1690 -42437 N a- -1.0368 0.9591-0.0479250.5 - -
21-18 -1413-Jan-0218:24:41 33247 1637 -42214 N a- -1.0319 0.9684-0.0392252.3 - -
22-17 -1395-Jan-1302:47:55 32877 1584 -41991 N a- -1.0213 0.9881-0.0200255.1 - -
23-16 -1377-Jan-2411:02:59 32509 1533 -41768 P a- -1.0049 1.0183 0.0101258.9 22.8 -
24-15 -1359-Feb-0319:08:56 32143 1482 -41545 P a- -0.9816 1.0610 0.0527263.9 52.1 -
25-14 -1341-Feb-1503:04:02 31779 1431 -41322 P a- -0.9504 1.1183 0.1100270.1 74.9 -
26-13 -1323-Feb-2510:49:20 31418 1382 -41099 P a- -0.9121 1.1887 0.1803277.3 95.2 -
27-12 -1305-Mar-0818:24:13 31058 1333 -40876 P h- -0.8660 1.2733 0.2647285.2114.4 -
28-11 -1287-Mar-1901:50:25 30700 1285 -40653 P h- -0.8135 1.3700 0.3609293.7132.1 -
29-10 -1269-Mar-3009:05:43 30345 1238 -40430 P t- -0.7528 1.4818 0.4718302.6149.1 -
30 -9 -1251-Apr-0916:14:23 29991 1191 -40207 P t- -0.6873 1.6026 0.5913311.4164.3 -
31 -8 -1233-Apr-2023:14:29 29640 1145 -39984 P t- -0.6158 1.7347 0.7216320.0178.3 -
32 -7 -1215-May-0106:09:35 29290 1100 -39761 P t- -0.5409 1.8732 0.8579328.1190.6 -
33 -6 -1197-May-1212:58:05 28943 1056 -39538 T t- -0.4613 2.0207 1.0027335.6201.4 8.3
34 -5 -1179-May-2219:44:36 28598 1012 -39315 T t- -0.3809 2.1698 1.1484342.2210.3 58.9
35 -4 -1161-Jun-0302:28:14 28254 969 -39092 T pp -0.2992 2.3217 1.2965347.9217.6 79.4
36 -3 -1143-Jun-1309:11:21 27913 927 -38869 T- pp -0.2180 2.4728 1.4433352.7223.1 92.0
37 -2 -1125-Jun-2415:55:19 27574 886 -38646 T- pp -0.1386 2.6210 1.5867356.5226.9 99.8
38 -1 -1107-Jul-0422:42:19 27237 845 -38423 T- pp -0.0629 2.7625 1.7230359.3229.2103.7
39 0 -1089-Jul-1605:33:14 26902 806 -38200 T+ pp 0.0090 2.8642 1.8191361.3230.2104.8
40 1 -1071-Jul-2612:28:38 26570 767 -37977 T+ pp 0.0761 2.7440 1.6932362.6230.0103.3
Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 31
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QSE Gamma Pen Mag Um Mag Pen Dur
m
Par Dur
m
Tot Dur
m
41 2 -1053-Aug-0619:30:43 26239 729 -37754 T+ pp 0.1367 2.6359 1.5790363.3229.0 99.9
42 3 -1035-Aug-1702:40:04 25910 691 -37531 T+ pp 0.1903 2.5405 1.4776363.7227.3 95.0
43 4 -1017-Aug-2809:56:42 25584 654 -37308 T+ -p 0.2372 2.4576 1.3886363.8225.3 89.0
44 5 -0999-Sep-0717:21:59 25259 621 -37085 T -p 0.2763 2.3887 1.3138363.8223.1 82.4
45 6 -0981-Sep-1900:55:30 24937 614 -36862 T -p 0.3082 2.3330 1.2526363.8221.1 75.6
46 7 -0963-Sep-2908:37:42 24616 608 -36639 T -p 0.3322 2.2917 1.2060364.0219.4 69.5
47 8 -0945-Oct-1016:25:14 24298 601 -36416 T -p 0.3512 2.2592 1.1688364.2218.0 63.8
48 9 -0927-Oct-2100:20:29 23982 594 -36193 T -p 0.3634 2.2389 1.1444364.7217.1 59.6
49 10 -0909-Nov-0108:19:35 23667 587 -35970 T -t 0.3721 2.2245 1.1267365.1216.5 56.2
50 11 -0891-Nov-1116:22:59 23355 580 -35747 T -t 0.3768 2.2171 1.1168365.7216.2 54.2
51 12 -0873-Nov-2300:26:09 23045 573 -35524 T -t 0.3813 2.2098 1.1076366.1216.0 52.2
52 13 -0855-Dec-0308:30:39 22737 567 -35301 T -t 0.3845 2.2045 1.1015366.4215.9 50.8
53 14 -0837-Dec-1416:31:58 22431 560 -35078 T -t 0.3899 2.1946 1.0914366.4215.5 48.4
54 15 -0819-Dec-2500:29:47 22127 553 -34855 T -t 0.3980 2.1795 1.0770366.2214.9 44.7
55 16 -0800-Jan-0508:21:23 21826 546 -34632 T -t 0.4110 2.1549 1.0538365.4213.7 37.7
56 17 -0782-Jan-1516:06:48 21526 539 -34409 T -t 0.4289 2.1210 1.0220364.2211.9 24.4
57 18 -0764-Jan-2623:43:21 21228 532 -34186 P -t 0.4539 2.0738 0.9775362.3209.1 -
58 19 -0746-Feb-0607:11:23 20933 525 -33963 P -t 0.4859 2.0135 0.9203359.6205.1 -
59 20 -0728-Feb-1714:29:53 20639 519 -33740 P -t 0.5256 1.9388 0.8490356.1199.7 -
60 21 -0710-Feb-2721:39:39 20348 512 -33517 P -t 0.5726 1.8508 0.7646351.4192.3 -
61 22 -0692-Mar-1004:38:36 20058 505 -33294 P -t 0.6284 1.7466 0.6641345.4182.3 -
62 23 -0674-Mar-2111:29:51 19771 498 -33071 P -t 0.6903 1.6312 0.5524338.0169.3 -
63 24 -0656-Mar-3118:12:19 19486 490 -32848 P -t 0.7593 1.5027 0.4276328.9151.9 -
64 25 -0638-Apr-1200:49:29 19203 483 -32625 P -t 0.8328 1.3661 0.2945318.0128.5 -
65 26 -0620-Apr-2207:18:43 18922 476 -32402 P -t 0.9125 1.2181 0.1497304.7 93.5 -
66 27 -0602-May-0313:46:00 18643 469 -32179 P -t 0.9938 1.0675 0.0020289.3 11.1 -
67 28 -0584-May-1320:08:55 18366 462 -31956 N -t 1.0782 0.9114-0.1516271.2 - -
68 29 -0566-May-2502:32:11 18091 455 -31733 N -t 1.1624 0.7559-0.3049250.3 - -
69 30 -0548-Jun-0408:54:17 17818 448 -31510 N -t 1.2475 0.5987-0.4603225.8 - -
70 31 -0530-Jun-1515:20:37 17547 442 -31287 N -t 1.3293 0.4480-0.6097197.7 - -
71 32 -0512-Jun-2521:50:03 17279 435 -31064 N -t 1.4084 0.3024-0.7544164.2 - -
72 33 -0494-Jul-0704:25:04 16991 428 -30841 N -t 1.4833 0.1647-0.8914122.4 - -
73 34 -0476-Jul-1711:07:07 16675 422 -30618 Ne -t 1.5527 0.0373-1.0187 58.8 - -

Statistics for Lunar Eclipses of Saros 31

Lunar eclipses of Saros 31 all occur at the Moon’s descending node and the Moon moves northward with each eclipse. The series will begin with a penumbral eclipse near the southern edge of the penumbra on -1774 May 30. The series will end with a penumbral eclipse near the northern edge of the penumbra on -0476 Jul 17. The total duration of Saros series 31 is 1298.17 years.

Summary of Saros 31
First Eclipse -1774 May 30
Last Eclipse -0476 Jul 17
Series Duration 1298.17 Years
No. of Eclipses 73
Sequence 22N 10P 24T 10P 7N

Saros 31 is composed of 73 lunar eclipses as follows:

Lunar Eclipses of Saros 31
Eclipse Type Symbol Number Percent
All Eclipses - 73100.0%
PenumbralN 29 39.7%
PartialP 20 27.4%
TotalT 24 32.9%

The 73 lunar eclipses of Saros 31 occur in the order of 22N 10P 24T 10P 7N which corresponds to the following.

Sequence Order of Lunar Eclipses in Saros 31
Eclipse Type Symbol Number
Penumbral N 22
Partial P 10
Total T 24
Partial P 10
Penumbral N 7

The longest and shortest eclipses of Saros 31 as well as largest and smallest partial eclipses appear below.

Extreme Durations and Magnitudes of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 31
Extrema Type Date Duration Magnitude
Longest Total Lunar Eclipse -1089 Jul 1601h44m47s -
Shortest Total Lunar Eclipse -1197 May 1200h08m16s -
Longest Partial Lunar Eclipse -0764 Jan 2603h29m06s -
Shortest Partial Lunar Eclipse -0602 May 0300h11m04s -
Longest Penumbral Lunar Eclipse -0584 May 1304h31m11s -
Shortest Penumbral Lunar Eclipse -1774 May 3000h30m01s -
Largest Partial Lunar Eclipse -0764 Jan 26 - 0.97747
Smallest Partial Lunar Eclipse -0602 May 03 - 0.00202

Links to Additional Lunar Eclipse Predictions

Calendar

The Gregorian calendar (also called the Western calendar) is internationally the most widely used civil calendar. It is named for Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in 1582. On this website, the Gregorian calendar is used for all calendar dates from 1582 Oct 15 onwards. Before that date, the Julian calendar is used. For more information on this topic, see Calendar Dates.

The Julian calendar does not include the year 0. Thus the year 1 BCE is followed by the year 1 CE (See: BCE/CE Dating Conventions). This is awkward for arithmetic calculations. Years in this catalog are numbered astronomically and include the year 0. Historians should note there is a difference of one year between astronomical dates and BCE dates. Thus, the astronomical year 0 corresponds to 1 BCE, and astronomical year -1 corresponds to 2 BCE, etc..

Eclipse Predictions

The eclipse predictions presented here were generated using the JPL DE406 solar and lunar ephemerides. The lunar coordinates have been calculated with respect to the Moon's Center of Mass.

The largest uncertainty in the eclipse predictions is caused by fluctuations in Earth's rotation due primarily to tidal friction of the Moon. The resultant drift in apparent clock time is expressed as ΔT and is determined as follows:

  1. pre-1950's: ΔT calculated from empirical fits to historical records derived by Morrison and Stephenson (2004)
  2. 1955-present: ΔT obtained from published observations
  3. future: ΔT is extrapolated from current values weighted by the long term trend from tidal effects

A series of polynomial expressions have been derived to simplify the evaluation of ΔT for any time from -2999 to +3000. The uncertainty in ΔT over this period can be estimated from scatter in the measurements.

Acknowledgments

Some of the content on this web site is based on the books Five Millennium Canon of Lunar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 and Thousand Year Canon of Lunar Eclipses 1501 to 2500. All eclipse calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy.

Permission is granted to reproduce eclipse data when accompanied by a link to this page and an acknowledgment:

"Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak, www.EclipseWise.com"

The use of diagrams and maps is permitted provided that they are NOT altered (except for re-sizing) and the embedded credit line is NOT removed or covered.