Saros 34

Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 34

Fred Espenak

Introduction

The periodicity and recurrence of lunar eclipses is governed by the Saros cycle, a period of approximately 6,585.3 days (18 years 11 days 8 hours). When two eclipses are separated by a period of one Saros, they share a very similar geometry. The two eclipses occur at the same node with the Moon at nearly the same distance from Earth and the same time of year due to a harmonic in three cycles of the Moon's orbit. Thus, the Saros is useful for organizing eclipses into families or series. Each series typically lasts 12 to 13 centuries and contains 70 or more eclipses. Every saros series begins with a number of penumbral lunar eclipses. The series will then produce several dozen partial eclipses, followed by several dozen total eclipses. The later portion of the series produces another set of partial eclipses before ending with a final group of penumbral eclipses.

Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 34

The table below lists the concise characteristics of every lunar eclipse belonging to Saros 34 . The date and time of each eclipse is given for the instant of Greatest Eclipse. For eclipses between the years -1999 to 3000, the calendar date links to a web page containing additional details along with a diagram of the eclipse geometry and a map showing the geographic region of eclipse visibility for that eclipse. A description of each parameter in the catalog table can be found in Key to Saros Catalog of Lunar Eclipses.

Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 34
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QSE Gamma Pen Mag Um Mag Pen Dur
m
Par Dur
m
Tot Dur
m
1-37 -1615-May-1302:56:17 37528 2272 -44708 N a- 1.4721 0.1272-0.8141 94.3 - -
2-36 -1597-May-2410:18:33 37134 2212 -44485 N a- 1.4022 0.2560-0.6862132.3 - -
3-35 -1579-Jun-0317:40:34 36743 2152 -44262 N a- 1.3321 0.3856-0.5584160.7 - -
4-34 -1561-Jun-1501:04:42 36354 2093 -44039 N a- 1.2638 0.5121-0.4343183.3 - -
5-33 -1543-Jun-2508:31:23 35967 2035 -43816 N a- 1.1978 0.6347-0.3148202.0 - -
6-32 -1525-Jul-0616:01:28 35582 1977 -43593 N a- 1.1349 0.7519-0.2012217.9 - -
7-31 -1507-Jul-1623:37:18 35199 1920 -43370 N a- 1.0769 0.8605-0.0968231.1 - -
8-30 -1489-Jul-2807:18:48 34818 1864 -43147 N a- 1.0236 0.9605-0.0013242.3 - -
9-29 -1471-Aug-0715:07:08 34440 1809 -42924 P a- 0.9766 1.0494 0.0826251.7 62.8 -
10-28 -1453-Aug-1823:02:29 34063 1754 -42701 P a- 0.9357 1.1270 0.1550259.5 85.4 -
11-27 -1435-Aug-2907:05:58 33688 1700 -42478 P a- 0.9021 1.1913 0.2139265.8 99.7 -
12-26 -1417-Sep-0915:16:42 33316 1647 -42255 P a- 0.8750 1.2439 0.2610271.0109.6 -
13-25 -1399-Sep-1923:34:09 32945 1594 -42032 P a- 0.8539 1.2853 0.2971275.2116.6 -
14-24 -1381-Oct-0107:58:48 32577 1542 -41809 P a- 0.8393 1.3146 0.3212278.4121.1 -
15-23 -1363-Oct-1116:29:42 32211 1491 -41586 P a- 0.8309 1.3325 0.3343280.7123.6 -
16-22 -1345-Oct-2301:05:18 31846 1441 -41363 P a- 0.8267 1.3425 0.3399282.5124.8 -
17-21 -1327-Nov-0209:44:18 31484 1391 -41140 P a- 0.8260 1.3458 0.3392283.7125.0 -
18-20 -1309-Nov-1318:25:24 31124 1342 -40917 P a- 0.8276 1.3444 0.3344284.6124.5 -
19-19 -1291-Nov-2403:07:25 30766 1294 -40694 P a- 0.8307 1.3403 0.3274285.3123.6 -
20-18 -1273-Dec-0511:46:57 30410 1246 -40471 P a- 0.8326 1.3378 0.3227286.1123.2 -
21-17 -1255-Dec-1520:24:26 30056 1200 -40248 P a- 0.8336 1.3370 0.3201286.9123.1 -
22-16 -1237-Dec-2704:55:58 29704 1154 -40025 P a- 0.8305 1.3433 0.3251288.3124.3 -
23-15 -1218-Jan-0613:22:21 29354 1108 -39802 P a- 0.8239 1.3559 0.3368290.2126.7 -
24-14 -1200-Jan-1721:39:12 29007 1064 -39579 P a- 0.8104 1.3808 0.3613293.0131.1 -
25-13 -1182-Jan-2805:48:53 28661 1020 -39356 P a- 0.7920 1.4148 0.3950296.3136.9 -
26-12 -1164-Feb-0813:47:40 28317 977 -39133 P a- 0.7658 1.4628 0.4429300.6144.3 -
27-11 -1146-Feb-1821:36:47 27976 935 -38910 P h- 0.7325 1.5240 0.5040305.7153.0 -
28-10 -1128-Mar-0105:14:32 27636 894 -38687 P h- 0.6908 1.6007 0.5806311.4162.8 -
29 -9 -1110-Mar-1212:43:05 27299 853 -38464 P t- 0.6425 1.6894 0.6690317.6172.8 -
30 -8 -1092-Mar-2220:01:23 26964 813 -38241 P t- 0.5867 1.7920 0.7711324.1183.0 -
31 -7 -1074-Apr-0303:10:09 26631 774 -38018 P t- 0.5241 1.9073 0.8854330.6192.9 -
32 -6 -1056-Apr-1310:10:28 26300 735 -37795 T t- 0.4554 2.0340 1.0109337.0202.1 16.6
33 -5 -1038-Apr-2417:03:49 25970 698 -37572 T t- 0.3816 2.1703 1.1454343.0210.4 58.4
34 -4 -1020-May-0423:50:57 25643 661 -37349 T pp 0.3036 2.3145 1.2875348.4217.5 78.5
35 -3 -1002-May-1606:33:23 25319 625 -37126 T+ pp 0.2226 2.4646 1.4348353.0223.1 91.6
36 -2 -0984-May-2613:13:01 24996 616 -36903 T+ pp 0.1400 2.6177 1.5848356.7227.2 99.8
37 -1 -0966-Jun-0619:51:29 24675 609 -36680 T+ pp 0.0571 2.7716 1.7350359.4229.7104.2
38 0 -0948-Jun-1702:29:01 24356 602 -36457 T- pp -0.0257 2.8314 1.7906361.2230.5105.0
39 1 -0930-Jun-2809:08:50 24040 595 -36234 T- pp -0.1059 2.6866 1.6413362.0229.9102.3
40 2 -0912-Jul-0815:50:48 23725 588 -36011 T- pp -0.1834 2.5468 1.4965361.9227.7 96.3
Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 34
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QSE Gamma Pen Mag Um Mag Pen Dur
m
Par Dur
m
Tot Dur
m
41 3 -0894-Jul-1922:38:29 23412 581 -35788 T- -p -0.2555 2.4171 1.3616361.1224.4 86.9
42 4 -0876-Jul-3005:29:42 23102 575 -35565 T -t -0.3238 2.2946 1.2335359.7219.9 73.3
43 5 -0858-Aug-1012:29:39 22794 568 -35342 T -t -0.3844 2.1863 1.1196357.9214.8 54.6
44 6 -0840-Aug-2019:35:30 22487 561 -35119 T -t -0.4395 2.0880 1.0157355.8209.1 20.5
45 7 -0822-Sep-0102:50:59 22183 554 -34896 P -t -0.4859 2.0058 0.9279353.9203.6 -
46 8 -0804-Sep-1110:13:19 21881 547 -34673 P -t -0.5260 1.9348 0.8516351.9198.1 -
47 9 -0786-Sep-2217:45:37 21581 540 -34450 P -t -0.5575 1.8796 0.7913350.4193.3 -
48 10 -0768-Oct-0301:24:44 21283 534 -34227 P -t -0.5831 1.8350 0.7421349.1189.0 -
49 11 -0750-Oct-1409:11:20 20987 527 -34004 P -t -0.6022 1.8019 0.7049348.2185.7 -
50 12 -0732-Oct-2417:03:49 20693 520 -33781 P -t -0.6162 1.7780 0.6776347.7183.1 -
51 13 -0714-Nov-0501:02:09 20401 513 -33558 P -t -0.6247 1.7638 0.6607347.5181.5 -
52 14 -0696-Nov-1509:02:54 20111 506 -33335 P -t -0.6313 1.7525 0.6476347.3180.2 -
53 15 -0678-Nov-2617:05:19 19824 499 -33112 P -t -0.6363 1.7439 0.6379347.2179.3 -
54 16 -0660-Dec-0701:07:08 19538 492 -32889 P -t -0.6416 1.7344 0.6282346.8178.3 -
55 17 -0642-Dec-1809:07:37 19255 485 -32666 P -t -0.6476 1.7230 0.6174346.3177.1 -
56 18 -0624-Dec-2817:02:40 18973 477 -32443 P -t -0.6577 1.7038 0.5996345.1175.1 -
57 19 -0605-Jan-0900:53:19 18694 470 -32220 P -t -0.6710 1.6782 0.5762343.4172.4 -
58 20 -0587-Jan-1908:35:49 18416 463 -31997 P -t -0.6909 1.6403 0.5411340.8168.0 -
59 21 -0569-Jan-3016:11:39 18141 457 -31774 P -t -0.7160 1.5925 0.4967337.3162.1 -
60 22 -0551-Feb-0923:37:00 17868 450 -31551 P -t -0.7494 1.5294 0.4372332.6153.5 -
61 23 -0533-Feb-2106:54:55 17597 443 -31328 P -t -0.7888 1.4550 0.3670326.7142.1 -
62 24 -0515-Mar-0314:02:34 17328 436 -31105 P -t -0.8362 1.3660 0.2821319.2126.1 -
63 25 -0497-Mar-1421:01:49 17051 429 -30882 P -t -0.8906 1.2639 0.1845309.9103.3 -
64 26 -0479-Mar-2503:52:13 16733 423 -30659 P -t -0.9522 1.1488 0.0737298.5 66.3 -
65 27 -0461-Apr-0510:36:11 16424 416 -30436 Nx -t -1.0191 1.0238-0.0470284.9 - -
66 28 -0443-Apr-1517:14:03 16123 410 -30213 N -t -1.0910 0.8899-0.1769268.7 - -
67 29 -0425-Apr-2623:46:10 15831 403 -29990 N -t -1.1675 0.7476-0.3155249.2 - -
68 30 -0407-May-0706:15:23 15546 397 -29767 N -t -1.2466 0.6008-0.4589226.0 - -
69 31 -0389-May-1812:42:28 15269 390 -29544 N -t -1.3277 0.4505-0.6061198.0 - -
70 32 -0371-May-2819:09:40 14998 384 -29321 N -t -1.4086 0.3007-0.7533163.6 - -
71 33 -0353-Jun-0901:37:22 14734 378 -29098 N -t -1.4892 0.1517-0.9000117.4 - -
72 34 -0335-Jun-1908:09:13 14476 371 -28875 Ne -t -1.5667 0.0085-1.0415 28.1 - -

Statistics for Lunar Eclipses of Saros 34

Lunar eclipses of Saros 34 all occur at the Moon’s ascending node and the Moon moves southward with each eclipse. The series will begin with a penumbral eclipse near the northern edge of the penumbra on -1615 May 13. The series will end with a penumbral eclipse near the southern edge of the penumbra on -0335 Jun 19. The total duration of Saros series 34 is 1280.14 years.

Summary of Saros 34
First Eclipse -1615 May 13
Last Eclipse -0335 Jun 19
Series Duration 1280.14 Years
No. of Eclipses 72
Sequence 8N 23P 13T 20P 8N

Saros 34 is composed of 72 lunar eclipses as follows:

Lunar Eclipses of Saros 34
Eclipse Type Symbol Number Percent
All Eclipses - 72100.0%
PenumbralN 16 22.2%
PartialP 43 59.7%
TotalT 13 18.1%

The 72 lunar eclipses of Saros 34 occur in the order of 8N 23P 13T 20P 8N which corresponds to the following.

Sequence Order of Lunar Eclipses in Saros 34
Eclipse Type Symbol Number
Penumbral N 8
Partial P 23
Total T 13
Partial P 20
Penumbral N 8

The longest and shortest eclipses of Saros 34 as well as largest and smallest partial eclipses appear below.

Extreme Durations and Magnitudes of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 34
Extrema Type Date Duration Magnitude
Longest Total Lunar Eclipse -0948 Jun 1701h44m58s -
Shortest Total Lunar Eclipse -1056 Apr 1300h16m37s -
Longest Partial Lunar Eclipse -0822 Sep 0103h23m34s -
Shortest Partial Lunar Eclipse -1471 Aug 0701h02m49s -
Longest Penumbral Lunar Eclipse -0461 Apr 0504h44m54s -
Shortest Penumbral Lunar Eclipse -0335 Jun 1900h28m06s -
Largest Partial Lunar Eclipse -0822 Sep 01 - 0.92791
Smallest Partial Lunar Eclipse -0479 Mar 25 - 0.07366

Links to Additional Lunar Eclipse Predictions

Calendar

The Gregorian calendar (also called the Western calendar) is internationally the most widely used civil calendar. It is named for Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in 1582. On this website, the Gregorian calendar is used for all calendar dates from 1582 Oct 15 onwards. Before that date, the Julian calendar is used. For more information on this topic, see Calendar Dates.

The Julian calendar does not include the year 0. Thus the year 1 BCE is followed by the year 1 CE (See: BCE/CE Dating Conventions). This is awkward for arithmetic calculations. Years in this catalog are numbered astronomically and include the year 0. Historians should note there is a difference of one year between astronomical dates and BCE dates. Thus, the astronomical year 0 corresponds to 1 BCE, and astronomical year -1 corresponds to 2 BCE, etc..

Eclipse Predictions

The eclipse predictions presented here were generated using the JPL DE406 solar and lunar ephemerides. The lunar coordinates have been calculated with respect to the Moon's Center of Mass.

The largest uncertainty in the eclipse predictions is caused by fluctuations in Earth's rotation due primarily to tidal friction of the Moon. The resultant drift in apparent clock time is expressed as ΔT and is determined as follows:

  1. pre-1950's: ΔT calculated from empirical fits to historical records derived by Morrison and Stephenson (2004)
  2. 1955-present: ΔT obtained from published observations
  3. future: ΔT is extrapolated from current values weighted by the long term trend from tidal effects

A series of polynomial expressions have been derived to simplify the evaluation of ΔT for any time from -2999 to +3000. The uncertainty in ΔT over this period can be estimated from scatter in the measurements.

Acknowledgments

Some of the content on this web site is based on the books Five Millennium Canon of Lunar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 and Thousand Year Canon of Lunar Eclipses 1501 to 2500. All eclipse calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy.

Permission is granted to reproduce eclipse data when accompanied by a link to this page and an acknowledgment:

"Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak, www.EclipseWise.com"

The use of diagrams and maps is permitted provided that they are NOT altered (except for re-sizing) and the embedded credit line is NOT removed or covered.