Saros 38

Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 38

Fred Espenak

Introduction

The periodicity and recurrence of lunar eclipses is governed by the Saros cycle, a period of approximately 6,585.3 days (18 years 11 days 8 hours). When two eclipses are separated by a period of one Saros, they share a very similar geometry. The two eclipses occur at the same node with the Moon at nearly the same distance from Earth and the same time of year due to a harmonic in three cycles of the Moon's orbit. Thus, the Saros is useful for organizing eclipses into families or series. Each series typically lasts 12 to 13 centuries and contains 70 or more eclipses. Every saros series begins with a number of penumbral lunar eclipses. The series will then produce several dozen partial eclipses, followed by several dozen total eclipses. The later portion of the series produces another set of partial eclipses before ending with a final group of penumbral eclipses.

Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 38

The table below lists the concise characteristics of every lunar eclipse belonging to Saros 38 . The date and time of each eclipse is given for the instant of Greatest Eclipse. For eclipses between the years -1999 to 3000, the calendar date links to a web page containing additional details along with a diagram of the eclipse geometry and a map showing the geographic region of eclipse visibility for that eclipse. A description of each parameter in the catalog table can be found in Key to Saros Catalog of Lunar Eclipses.

Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 38
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QSE Gamma Pen Mag Um Mag Pen Dur
m
Par Dur
m
Tot Dur
m
1-34 -1391-Apr-2700:54:09 32790 1572 -41938 N t- 1.5131 0.1100-0.9463100.8 - -
2-33 -1373-May-0807:19:48 32422 1521 -41715 N t- 1.4336 0.2566-0.8009152.3 - -
3-32 -1355-May-1813:42:43 32057 1470 -41492 N t- 1.3518 0.4075-0.6517189.7 - -
4-31 -1337-May-2920:03:49 31693 1420 -41269 N t- 1.2683 0.5617-0.4995220.0 - -
5-30 -1319-Jun-0902:25:05 31332 1370 -41046 N t- 1.1849 0.7159-0.3477245.3 - -
6-29 -1301-Jun-2008:47:54 30973 1322 -40823 N t- 1.1026 0.8683-0.1981266.6 - -
7-28 -1283-Jun-3015:14:53 30616 1274 -40600 Nx t- 1.0234 1.0153-0.0542284.4 - -
8-27 -1265-Jul-1121:47:12 30260 1227 -40377 P t- 0.9482 1.1551 0.0821299.5 70.0 -
9-26 -1247-Jul-2204:25:16 29907 1180 -40154 P t- 0.8772 1.2870 0.2104312.1110.1 -
10-25 -1229-Aug-0211:11:16 29556 1134 -39931 P t- 0.8125 1.4076 0.3273322.5135.0 -
11-24 -1211-Aug-1218:05:46 29208 1090 -39708 P t- 0.7545 1.5161 0.4319331.0152.7 -
12-23 -1193-Aug-2401:09:53 28861 1045 -39485 P t- 0.7039 1.6108 0.5228337.8165.6 -
13-22 -1175-Sep-0308:22:43 28516 1002 -39262 P t- 0.6602 1.6928 0.6012343.3175.3 -
14-21 -1157-Sep-1415:45:52 28173 959 -39039 P t- 0.6246 1.7598 0.6649347.4182.4 -
15-20 -1139-Sep-2423:18:09 27833 917 -38816 P t- 0.5962 1.8135 0.7156350.5187.5 -
16-19 -1121-Oct-0606:58:45 27494 876 -38593 P t- 0.5745 1.8544 0.7542352.7191.2 -
17-18 -1103-Oct-1614:47:17 27158 836 -38370 P t- 0.5590 1.8839 0.7818354.1193.6 -
18-17 -1085-Oct-2722:41:53 26823 796 -38147 P t- 0.5482 1.9041 0.8010355.0195.1 -
19-16 -1067-Nov-0706:42:00 26491 758 -37924 P t- 0.5415 1.9166 0.8131355.3196.0 -
20-15 -1049-Nov-1814:43:34 26161 720 -37701 P t- 0.5357 1.9270 0.8240355.4196.7 -
21-14 -1031-Nov-2822:48:11 25832 682 -37478 P t- 0.5319 1.9333 0.8315355.1197.1 -
22-13 -1013-Dec-1006:51:15 25506 646 -37255 P t- 0.5271 1.9411 0.8415354.8197.7 -
23-12 -0995-Dec-2014:52:46 25182 620 -37032 P t- 0.5200 1.9526 0.8560354.5198.6 -
24-11 -0977-Dec-3122:48:49 24860 613 -36809 P t- 0.5081 1.9725 0.8796354.5200.2 -
25-10 -0958-Jan-1106:41:01 24540 606 -36586 P t- 0.4925 1.9990 0.9104354.6202.2 -
26 -9 -0940-Jan-2214:25:50 24222 599 -36363 P t- 0.4703 2.0372 0.9536355.0204.9 -
27 -8 -0922-Feb-0122:03:27 23907 592 -36140 T t- 0.4418 2.0868 1.0086355.7208.2 15.1
28 -7 -0904-Feb-1305:32:38 23593 585 -35917 T t- 0.4058 2.1499 1.0775356.5212.0 44.4
29 -6 -0886-Feb-2312:54:19 23281 579 -35694 T t- 0.3629 2.2257 1.1592357.5215.9 61.9
30 -5 -0868-Mar-0520:07:22 22972 572 -35471 T t- 0.3122 2.3157 1.2552358.5219.8 75.7
31 -4 -0850-Mar-1703:13:05 22664 565 -35248 T+ p- 0.2548 2.4180 1.3635359.3223.4 86.7
32 -3 -0832-Mar-2710:11:55 22359 558 -35025 T+ pp 0.1908 2.5324 1.4838359.7226.3 95.2
33 -2 -0814-Apr-0717:05:48 22056 551 -34802 T+ pp 0.1220 2.6557 1.6127359.6228.3101.0
34 -1 -0796-Apr-1723:53:40 21754 544 -34579 T+ pp 0.0473 2.7902 1.7526358.8229.3104.2
35 0 -0778-Apr-2906:39:47 21455 538 -34356 T- pp -0.0299 2.8196 1.7870357.2228.8104.4
36 1 -0760-May-0913:23:02 21158 531 -34133 T- pp -0.1106 2.6692 1.6411354.7226.9101.4
37 2 -0742-May-2020:08:02 20863 524 -33910 T- pp -0.1907 2.5201 1.4961351.3223.5 95.0
38 3 -0724-May-3102:51:46 20570 517 -33687 T pp -0.2730 2.3674 1.3469347.0218.5 84.0
39 4 -0706-Jun-1109:40:37 20279 510 -33464 T -p -0.3521 2.2207 1.2032341.8212.0 67.5
40 5 -0688-Jun-2116:32:01 19990 503 -33241 T -t -0.4304 2.0758 1.0608335.8204.0 38.5
Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 38
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QSE Gamma Pen Mag Um Mag Pen Dur
m
Par Dur
m
Tot Dur
m
41 6 -0670-Jul-0223:30:28 19703 496 -33018 P -t -0.5037 1.9404 0.9274329.3194.8 -
42 7 -0652-Jul-1306:34:07 19418 489 -32795 P -t -0.5736 1.8113 0.7998322.3184.4 -
43 8 -0634-Jul-2413:47:31 19136 482 -32572 P -t -0.6365 1.6954 0.6850315.2173.4 -
44 9 -0616-Aug-0321:08:53 18855 474 -32349 P -h -0.6938 1.5899 0.5802308.1161.8 -
45 10 -0598-Aug-1504:39:43 18577 467 -32126 P -h -0.7443 1.4970 0.4877301.2150.0 -
46 11 -0580-Aug-2512:20:00 18300 461 -31903 P -a -0.7878 1.4171 0.4080294.8138.4 -
47 12 -0562-Sep-0520:10:55 18026 454 -31680 P -a -0.8233 1.3520 0.3429289.2127.7 -
48 13 -0544-Sep-1604:11:39 17754 447 -31457 P -a -0.8518 1.2997 0.2906284.4118.1 -
49 14 -0526-Sep-2712:21:21 17483 440 -31234 P -a -0.8737 1.2594 0.2505280.3110.0 -
50 15 -0508-Oct-0720:40:31 17215 433 -31011 P -a -0.8888 1.2315 0.2229277.2103.8 -
51 16 -0490-Oct-1905:07:37 16915 427 -30788 P -a -0.8983 1.2138 0.2058274.9 99.8 -
52 17 -0472-Oct-2913:41:17 16601 420 -30565 P -a -0.9031 1.2044 0.1974273.3 97.5 -
53 18 -0454-Nov-0922:20:06 16296 413 -30342 P -a -0.9045 1.2011 0.1955272.2 96.8 -
54 19 -0436-Nov-2007:02:50 15999 407 -30119 P -a -0.9036 1.2020 0.1982271.5 97.2 -
55 20 -0418-Dec-0115:47:28 15710 400 -29896 P -a -0.9017 1.2042 0.2029270.8 98.1 -
56 21 -0400-Dec-1200:31:40 15428 394 -29673 P -a -0.9009 1.2042 0.2058270.0 98.5 -
57 22 -0382-Dec-2309:15:01 15154 388 -29450 P -a -0.9013 1.2016 0.2067268.9 98.5 -
58 23 -0363-Jan-0217:55:23 14886 381 -29227 P -a -0.9045 1.1939 0.2029267.4 97.4 -
59 24 -0345-Jan-1402:30:43 14624 375 -29004 P -a -0.9125 1.1769 0.1903265.2 94.3 -
60 25 -0327-Jan-2411:00:13 14369 369 -28781 P -a -0.9258 1.1503 0.1682262.1 88.7 -
61 26 -0309-Feb-0419:23:16 14119 363 -28558 P -a -0.9447 1.1131 0.1359258.1 80.0 -
62 27 -0291-Feb-1503:39:42 13875 356 -28335 P -a -0.9695 1.0651 0.0928253.0 66.4 -
63 28 -0273-Feb-2611:47:23 13636 350 -28112 P -a -1.0018 1.0033 0.0360246.5 41.6 -
64 29 -0255-Mar-0819:48:37 13401 344 -27889 N -a -1.0399 0.9311-0.0315238.6 - -
65 30 -0237-Mar-2003:41:44 13172 338 -27666 N -a -1.0853 0.8455-0.1125228.8 - -
66 31 -0219-Mar-3011:28:51 12948 333 -27443 N -a -1.1358 0.7507-0.2032217.2 - -
67 32 -0201-Apr-1019:08:31 12727 327 -27220 N -a -1.1928 0.6442-0.3060202.9 - -
68 33 -0183-Apr-2102:44:24 12511 321 -26997 N -a -1.2533 0.5315-0.4154186.0 - -
69 34 -0165-May-0210:15:18 12300 315 -26774 N -a -1.3183 0.4109-0.5333165.2 - -
70 35 -0147-May-1217:43:16 12092 309 -26551 N -a -1.3860 0.2858-0.6564139.2 - -
71 36 -0129-May-2401:09:11 11887 304 -26328 N -a -1.4555 0.1576-0.7832104.5 - -
72 37 -0111-Jun-0308:34:41 11687 298 -26105 Ne -a -1.5255 0.0286-0.9114 45.0 - -

Statistics for Lunar Eclipses of Saros 38

Lunar eclipses of Saros 38 all occur at the Moon’s ascending node and the Moon moves southward with each eclipse. The series will begin with a penumbral eclipse near the northern edge of the penumbra on -1391 Apr 27. The series will end with a penumbral eclipse near the southern edge of the penumbra on -0111 Jun 03. The total duration of Saros series 38 is 1280.14 years.

Summary of Saros 38
First Eclipse -1391 Apr 27
Last Eclipse -0111 Jun 03
Series Duration 1280.14 Years
No. of Eclipses 72
Sequence 7N 19P 14T 23P 9N

Saros 38 is composed of 72 lunar eclipses as follows:

Lunar Eclipses of Saros 38
Eclipse Type Symbol Number Percent
All Eclipses - 72100.0%
PenumbralN 16 22.2%
PartialP 42 58.3%
TotalT 14 19.4%

The 72 lunar eclipses of Saros 38 occur in the order of 7N 19P 14T 23P 9N which corresponds to the following.

Sequence Order of Lunar Eclipses in Saros 38
Eclipse Type Symbol Number
Penumbral N 7
Partial P 19
Total T 14
Partial P 23
Penumbral N 9

The longest and shortest eclipses of Saros 38 as well as largest and smallest partial eclipses appear below.

Extreme Durations and Magnitudes of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 38
Extrema Type Date Duration Magnitude
Longest Total Lunar Eclipse -0778 Apr 2901h44m24s -
Shortest Total Lunar Eclipse -0922 Feb 0100h15m07s -
Longest Partial Lunar Eclipse -0940 Jan 2203h24m56s -
Shortest Partial Lunar Eclipse -0273 Feb 2600h41m33s -
Longest Penumbral Lunar Eclipse -1283 Jun 3004h44m27s -
Shortest Penumbral Lunar Eclipse -0111 Jun 0300h45m02s -
Largest Partial Lunar Eclipse -0940 Jan 22 - 0.95356
Smallest Partial Lunar Eclipse -0273 Feb 26 - 0.03595

Links to Additional Lunar Eclipse Predictions

Calendar

The Gregorian calendar (also called the Western calendar) is internationally the most widely used civil calendar. It is named for Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in 1582. On this website, the Gregorian calendar is used for all calendar dates from 1582 Oct 15 onwards. Before that date, the Julian calendar is used. For more information on this topic, see Calendar Dates.

The Julian calendar does not include the year 0. Thus the year 1 BCE is followed by the year 1 CE (See: BCE/CE Dating Conventions). This is awkward for arithmetic calculations. Years in this catalog are numbered astronomically and include the year 0. Historians should note there is a difference of one year between astronomical dates and BCE dates. Thus, the astronomical year 0 corresponds to 1 BCE, and astronomical year -1 corresponds to 2 BCE, etc..

Eclipse Predictions

The eclipse predictions presented here were generated using the JPL DE406 solar and lunar ephemerides. The lunar coordinates have been calculated with respect to the Moon's Center of Mass.

The largest uncertainty in the eclipse predictions is caused by fluctuations in Earth's rotation due primarily to tidal friction of the Moon. The resultant drift in apparent clock time is expressed as ΔT and is determined as follows:

  1. pre-1950's: ΔT calculated from empirical fits to historical records derived by Morrison and Stephenson (2004)
  2. 1955-present: ΔT obtained from published observations
  3. future: ΔT is extrapolated from current values weighted by the long term trend from tidal effects

A series of polynomial expressions have been derived to simplify the evaluation of ΔT for any time from -2999 to +3000. The uncertainty in ΔT over this period can be estimated from scatter in the measurements.

Acknowledgments

Some of the content on this web site is based on the books Five Millennium Canon of Lunar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 and Thousand Year Canon of Lunar Eclipses 1501 to 2500. All eclipse calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy.

Permission is granted to reproduce eclipse data when accompanied by a link to this page and an acknowledgment:

"Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak, www.EclipseWise.com"

The use of diagrams and maps is permitted provided that they are NOT altered (except for re-sizing) and the embedded credit line is NOT removed or covered.