Saros 40

Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 40

Fred Espenak

Introduction

The periodicity and recurrence of lunar eclipses is governed by the Saros cycle, a period of approximately 6,585.3 days (18 years 11 days 8 hours). When two eclipses are separated by a period of one Saros, they share a very similar geometry. The two eclipses occur at the same node with the Moon at nearly the same distance from Earth and the same time of year due to a harmonic in three cycles of the Moon's orbit. Thus, the Saros is useful for organizing eclipses into families or series. Each series typically lasts 12 to 13 centuries and contains 70 or more eclipses. Every saros series begins with a number of penumbral lunar eclipses. The series will then produce several dozen partial eclipses, followed by several dozen total eclipses. The later portion of the series produces another set of partial eclipses before ending with a final group of penumbral eclipses.

Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 40

The table below lists the concise characteristics of every lunar eclipse belonging to Saros 40 . The date and time of each eclipse is given for the instant of Greatest Eclipse. For eclipses between the years -1999 to 3000, the calendar date links to a web page containing additional details along with a diagram of the eclipse geometry and a map showing the geographic region of eclipse visibility for that eclipse. A description of each parameter in the catalog table can be found in Key to Saros Catalog of Lunar Eclipses.

Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 40
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QSE Gamma Pen Mag Um Mag Pen Dur
m
Par Dur
m
Tot Dur
m
1-39 -1369-Feb-2405:29:53 32345 1510 -41668 N a- 1.5280 0.0315-0.9233 47.4 - -
2-38 -1351-Mar-0613:28:22 31980 1459 -41445 N a- 1.4867 0.1062-0.8465 86.5 - -
3-37 -1333-Mar-1721:17:24 31617 1409 -41222 N a- 1.4382 0.1944-0.7565116.1 - -
4-36 -1315-Mar-2805:00:15 31256 1360 -40999 N a- 1.3850 0.2913-0.6582141.0 - -
5-35 -1297-Apr-0812:35:36 30897 1311 -40776 N a- 1.3258 0.3996-0.5491163.7 - -
6-34 -1279-Apr-1820:06:33 30541 1264 -40553 N a- 1.2634 0.5139-0.4345183.9 - -
7-33 -1261-Apr-3003:30:52 30186 1217 -40330 N a- 1.1959 0.6379-0.3110202.7 - -
8-32 -1243-May-1010:53:26 29833 1170 -40107 N a- 1.1273 0.7644-0.1855219.6 - -
9-31 -1225-May-2118:12:37 29483 1125 -39884 N a- 1.0559 0.8961-0.0555235.1 - -
10-30 -1207-Jun-0101:31:17 29134 1080 -39661 P a- 0.9846 1.0282 0.0742249.0 59.6 -
11-29 -1189-Jun-1208:49:40 28788 1036 -39438 P a- 0.9134 1.1604 0.2033261.5 97.2 -
12-28 -1171-Jun-2216:10:09 28444 993 -39215 P a- 0.8444 1.2888 0.3281272.6121.5 -
13-27 -1153-Jul-0323:33:36 28101 950 -38992 P a- 0.7784 1.4122 0.4472282.3139.7 -
14-26 -1135-Jul-1406:59:51 27761 909 -38769 P a- 0.7153 1.5303 0.5605290.9154.1 -
15-25 -1117-Jul-2514:31:48 27423 868 -38546 P a- 0.6575 1.6390 0.6639298.3165.4 -
16-24 -1099-Aug-0422:09:03 27087 828 -38323 P a- 0.6046 1.7388 0.7581304.7174.5 -
17-23 -1081-Aug-1605:53:28 26753 788 -38100 P a- 0.5585 1.8264 0.8397310.1181.5 -
18-22 -1063-Aug-2613:44:04 26421 749 -37877 P a- 0.5182 1.9035 0.9107314.8187.2 -
19-21 -1045-Sep-0621:43:18 26091 712 -37654 P a- 0.4857 1.9663 0.9674318.8191.5 -
20-20 -1027-Sep-1705:49:21 25763 675 -37431 T p- 0.4593 2.0177 1.0127322.1194.8 17.3
21-19 -1009-Sep-2814:02:37 25438 638 -37208 T p- 0.4397 2.0566 1.0457325.0197.2 32.6
22-18 -0991-Oct-0822:22:01 25114 618 -36985 T p- 0.4257 2.0852 1.0686327.4199.0 39.7
23-17 -0973-Oct-2006:47:49 24793 611 -36762 T p- 0.4180 2.1019 1.0802329.4200.2 42.9
24-16 -0955-Oct-3015:17:17 24473 605 -36539 T p- 0.4136 2.1123 1.0859331.1201.0 44.4
25-15 -0937-Nov-1023:49:31 24156 598 -36316 T p- 0.4123 2.1169 1.0864332.6201.6 44.6
26-14 -0919-Nov-2108:22:47 23840 591 -36093 T p- 0.4126 2.1181 1.0840334.0202.0 44.1
27-13 -0901-Dec-0216:56:23 23527 584 -35870 T p- 0.4142 2.1167 1.0797335.2202.4 43.1
28-12 -0883-Dec-1301:26:12 23216 577 -35647 T p- 0.4134 2.1193 1.0801336.5203.0 43.3
29-11 -0865-Dec-2409:52:52 22907 570 -35424 T p- 0.4109 2.1248 1.0838337.8203.8 44.4
30-10 -0846-Jan-0318:12:22 22600 563 -35201 T p- 0.4033 2.1392 1.0971339.4205.1 47.7
31 -9 -0828-Jan-1502:26:16 22295 557 -34978 T p- 0.3920 2.1603 1.1175341.2206.8 52.3
32 -8 -0810-Jan-2510:29:22 21992 550 -34755 T p- 0.3730 2.1954 1.1522343.4209.2 59.1
33 -7 -0792-Feb-0518:25:05 21691 543 -34532 T p- 0.3487 2.2400 1.1968345.8212.0 66.4
34 -6 -0774-Feb-1602:08:51 21392 536 -34309 T p- 0.3156 2.3007 1.2575348.5215.3 74.6
35 -5 -0756-Feb-2709:43:33 21095 529 -34086 T pp 0.2757 2.3738 1.3308351.3218.8 82.6
36 -4 -0738-Mar-0917:05:54 20801 522 -33863 T+ pp 0.2264 2.4642 1.4212354.2222.4 90.3
37 -3 -0720-Mar-2000:19:58 20508 516 -33640 T+ pp 0.1712 2.5655 1.5225356.9225.6 96.7
38 -2 -0702-Mar-3107:23:12 20218 509 -33417 T+ pp 0.1080 2.6817 1.6384359.3228.3101.6
39 -1 -0684-Apr-1014:17:50 19929 501 -33194 T+ pp 0.0385 2.8095 1.7657361.2230.2104.5
40 0 -0666-Apr-2121:04:11 19643 494 -32971 T- pp -0.0372 2.8124 1.7676362.4230.8104.8
Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 40
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QSE Gamma Pen Mag Um Mag Pen Dur
m
Par Dur
m
Tot Dur
m
41 1 -0648-May-0203:44:38 19359 487 -32748 T- pp -0.1170 2.6666 1.6205362.6230.0101.9
42 2 -0630-May-1310:19:29 19076 480 -32525 T- pp -0.2004 2.5144 1.4665361.8227.5 94.8
43 3 -0612-May-2316:49:54 18796 473 -32302 T -t -0.2865 2.3575 1.3075359.9222.9 82.1
44 4 -0594-Jun-0323:18:37 18518 466 -32079 T -t -0.3733 2.1997 1.1470356.7216.3 60.1
45 5 -0576-Jun-1405:46:48 18242 459 -31856 P -t -0.4597 2.0426 0.9869352.3207.4 -
46 6 -0558-Jun-2512:15:20 17968 452 -31633 P -t -0.5450 1.8878 0.8287346.8196.0 -
47 7 -0540-Jul-0518:47:00 17696 445 -31410 P -t -0.6269 1.7395 0.6765340.2182.1 -
48 8 -0522-Jul-1701:22:48 17427 439 -31187 P -t -0.7047 1.5988 0.5318332.7165.6 -
49 9 -0504-Jul-2708:05:01 17159 432 -30964 P -t -0.7767 1.4690 0.3976324.7146.5 -
50 10 -0486-Aug-0714:52:13 16848 425 -30741 P -t -0.8440 1.3476 0.2717316.1123.6 -
51 11 -0468-Aug-1721:48:37 16536 419 -30518 P -t -0.9035 1.2409 0.1604307.7 96.6 -
52 12 -0450-Aug-2904:52:41 16233 412 -30295 P -t -0.9563 1.1462 0.0611299.5 60.6 -
53 13 -0432-Sep-0812:06:34 15937 405 -30072 Nx -t -1.0009 1.0667-0.0227291.9 - -
54 14 -0414-Sep-1919:28:32 15650 399 -29849 N -t -1.0385 0.9996-0.0939285.1 - -
55 15 -0396-Sep-3003:00:37 15370 393 -29626 N -t -1.0680 0.9474-0.1498279.4 - -
56 16 -0378-Oct-1110:40:32 15097 386 -29403 N -t -1.0909 0.9071-0.1935274.9 - -
57 17 -0360-Oct-2118:27:18 14830 380 -29180 N -t -1.1080 0.8769-0.2262271.3 - -
58 18 -0342-Nov-0202:20:37 14570 374 -28957 N -t -1.1199 0.8563-0.2489268.8 - -
59 19 -0324-Nov-1210:18:33 14316 367 -28734 N -t -1.1274 0.8430-0.2633267.1 - -
60 20 -0306-Nov-2318:19:42 14067 361 -28511 N -t -1.1327 0.8335-0.2732265.8 - -
61 21 -0288-Dec-0402:20:47 13824 355 -28288 N -t -1.1379 0.8238-0.2825264.3 - -
62 22 -0270-Dec-1510:22:34 13586 349 -28065 N -t -1.1424 0.8148-0.2902262.9 - -
63 23 -0252-Dec-2518:21:26 13353 343 -27842 N -t -1.1490 0.8018-0.3012260.8 - -
64 24 -0233-Jan-0602:16:07 13124 337 -27619 N -t -1.1591 0.7816-0.3184257.6 - -
65 25 -0215-Jan-1610:04:55 12901 331 -27396 N -t -1.1740 0.7526-0.3439253.0 - -
66 26 -0197-Jan-2717:47:27 12681 325 -27173 N -t -1.1941 0.7135-0.3789246.8 - -
67 27 -0179-Feb-0701:22:33 12466 320 -26950 N -t -1.2203 0.6631-0.4246238.5 - -
68 28 -0161-Feb-1808:49:04 12255 314 -26727 N -t -1.2535 0.5999-0.4829227.6 - -
69 29 -0143-Feb-2816:07:42 12048 308 -26504 N -t -1.2931 0.5244-0.5531213.7 - -
70 30 -0125-Mar-1123:17:52 11845 303 -26281 N -t -1.3397 0.4362-0.6360195.9 - -
71 31 -0107-Mar-2206:19:54 11645 297 -26058 N -t -1.3930 0.3356-0.7311172.9 - -
72 32 -0089-Apr-0213:14:51 11448 291 -25835 N -t -1.4521 0.2245-0.8369142.4 - -
73 33 -0071-Apr-1220:03:43 11255 286 -25612 Ne -t -1.5162 0.1044-0.9518 97.7 - -

Statistics for Lunar Eclipses of Saros 40

Lunar eclipses of Saros 40 all occur at the Moon’s ascending node and the Moon moves southward with each eclipse. The series will begin with a penumbral eclipse near the northern edge of the penumbra on -1369 Feb 24. The series will end with a penumbral eclipse near the southern edge of the penumbra on -0071 Apr 12. The total duration of Saros series 40 is 1298.17 years.

Summary of Saros 40
First Eclipse -1369 Feb 24
Last Eclipse -0071 Apr 12
Series Duration 1298.17 Years
No. of Eclipses 73
Sequence 9N 10P 25T 8P 21N

Saros 40 is composed of 73 lunar eclipses as follows:

Lunar Eclipses of Saros 40
Eclipse Type Symbol Number Percent
All Eclipses - 73100.0%
PenumbralN 30 41.1%
PartialP 18 24.7%
TotalT 25 34.2%

The 73 lunar eclipses of Saros 40 occur in the order of 9N 10P 25T 8P 21N which corresponds to the following.

Sequence Order of Lunar Eclipses in Saros 40
Eclipse Type Symbol Number
Penumbral N 9
Partial P 10
Total T 25
Partial P 8
Penumbral N 21

The longest and shortest eclipses of Saros 40 as well as largest and smallest partial eclipses appear below.

Extreme Durations and Magnitudes of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 40
Extrema Type Date Duration Magnitude
Longest Total Lunar Eclipse -0666 Apr 2101h44m48s -
Shortest Total Lunar Eclipse -1027 Sep 1700h17m16s -
Longest Partial Lunar Eclipse -0576 Jun 1403h27m22s -
Shortest Partial Lunar Eclipse -1207 Jun 0100h59m38s -
Longest Penumbral Lunar Eclipse -0432 Sep 0804h51m54s -
Shortest Penumbral Lunar Eclipse -1369 Feb 2400h47m24s -
Largest Partial Lunar Eclipse -0576 Jun 14 - 0.98691
Smallest Partial Lunar Eclipse -0450 Aug 29 - 0.06114

Links to Additional Lunar Eclipse Predictions

Calendar

The Gregorian calendar (also called the Western calendar) is internationally the most widely used civil calendar. It is named for Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in 1582. On this website, the Gregorian calendar is used for all calendar dates from 1582 Oct 15 onwards. Before that date, the Julian calendar is used. For more information on this topic, see Calendar Dates.

The Julian calendar does not include the year 0. Thus the year 1 BCE is followed by the year 1 CE (See: BCE/CE Dating Conventions). This is awkward for arithmetic calculations. Years in this catalog are numbered astronomically and include the year 0. Historians should note there is a difference of one year between astronomical dates and BCE dates. Thus, the astronomical year 0 corresponds to 1 BCE, and astronomical year -1 corresponds to 2 BCE, etc..

Eclipse Predictions

The eclipse predictions presented here were generated using the JPL DE406 solar and lunar ephemerides. The lunar coordinates have been calculated with respect to the Moon's Center of Mass.

The largest uncertainty in the eclipse predictions is caused by fluctuations in Earth's rotation due primarily to tidal friction of the Moon. The resultant drift in apparent clock time is expressed as ΔT and is determined as follows:

  1. pre-1950's: ΔT calculated from empirical fits to historical records derived by Morrison and Stephenson (2004)
  2. 1955-present: ΔT obtained from published observations
  3. future: ΔT is extrapolated from current values weighted by the long term trend from tidal effects

A series of polynomial expressions have been derived to simplify the evaluation of ΔT for any time from -2999 to +3000. The uncertainty in ΔT over this period can be estimated from scatter in the measurements.

Acknowledgments

Some of the content on this web site is based on the books Five Millennium Canon of Lunar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 and Thousand Year Canon of Lunar Eclipses 1501 to 2500. All eclipse calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy.

Permission is granted to reproduce eclipse data when accompanied by a link to this page and an acknowledgment:

"Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak, www.EclipseWise.com"

The use of diagrams and maps is permitted provided that they are NOT altered (except for re-sizing) and the embedded credit line is NOT removed or covered.