Saros 77

Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 77

Fred Espenak

Introduction

The periodicity and recurrence of lunar eclipses is governed by the Saros cycle, a period of approximately 6,585.3 days (18 years 11 days 8 hours). When two eclipses are separated by a period of one Saros, they share a very similar geometry. The two eclipses occur at the same node with the Moon at nearly the same distance from Earth and the same time of year due to a harmonic in three cycles of the Moon's orbit. Thus, the Saros is useful for organizing eclipses into families or series. Each series typically lasts 12 to 13 centuries and contains 70 or more eclipses. Every saros series begins with a number of penumbral lunar eclipses. The series will then produce several dozen partial eclipses, followed by several dozen total eclipses. The later portion of the series produces another set of partial eclipses before ending with a final group of penumbral eclipses.

Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 77

The table below lists the concise characteristics of every lunar eclipse belonging to Saros 77 . The date and time of each eclipse is given for the instant of Greatest Eclipse. For eclipses between the years -1999 to 3000, the calendar date links to a web page containing additional details along with a diagram of the eclipse geometry and a map showing the geographic region of eclipse visibility for that eclipse. A description of each parameter in the catalog table can be found in Key to Saros Catalog of Lunar Eclipses.

Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 77
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QSE Gamma Pen Mag Um Mag Pen Dur
m
Par Dur
m
Tot Dur
m
1-36 -0190-Apr-0911:10:31 12595 323 -27084 Nb a- -1.5270 0.0466-0.9345 59.9 - -
2-35 -0172-Apr-1918:34:09 12382 317 -26861 N a- -1.4688 0.1540-0.8281108.3 - -
3-34 -0154-May-0101:49:58 12172 312 -26638 N h- -1.4050 0.2718-0.7118142.8 - -
4-33 -0136-May-1109:01:45 11967 306 -26415 N h- -1.3383 0.3952-0.5904170.9 - -
5-32 -0118-May-2216:07:01 11765 300 -26192 N h- -1.2670 0.5272-0.4610195.7 - -
6-31 -0100-Jun-0123:11:21 11566 295 -25969 N h- -1.1956 0.6599-0.3316217.1 - -
7-30 -0082-Jun-1306:12:23 11371 289 -25746 N t- -1.1225 0.7961-0.1993236.2 - -
8-29 -0064-Jun-2313:14:09 11179 284 -25523 N t- -1.0507 0.9300-0.0697252.9 - -
9-28 -0046-Jul-0420:15:28 10989 278 -25300 P t- -0.9791 1.0639 0.0593267.9 56.0 -
10-27 -0028-Jul-1503:20:21 10803 273 -25077 P t- -0.9113 1.1909 0.1810280.9 96.5 -
11-26 -0010-Jul-2610:28:06 10618 268 -24854 P t- -0.8467 1.3125 0.2967292.4122.0 -
12-25 0008-Aug-0517:40:26 10437 262 -24631 P t- -0.7867 1.4256 0.4037302.3140.5 -
13-24 0026-Aug-1700:58:33 10257 257 -24408 P t- -0.7323 1.5286 0.5003310.8154.6 -
14-23 0044-Aug-2708:23:37 10079 252 -24185 P t- -0.6845 1.6196 0.5848318.0165.4 -
15-22 0062-Sep-0715:55:45 9903 247 -23962 P t- -0.6430 1.6991 0.6577324.1173.8 -
16-21 0080-Sep-1723:35:19 9728 242 -23739 P t- -0.6084 1.7659 0.7180329.2180.3 -
17-20 0098-Sep-2907:22:18 9554 237 -23516 P t- -0.5806 1.8201 0.7659333.5185.2 -
18-19 0116-Oct-0915:16:50 9382 232 -23293 P t- -0.5596 1.8616 0.8014337.0188.8 -
19-18 0134-Oct-2023:16:36 9210 227 -23070 P t- -0.5437 1.8935 0.8279339.9191.5 -
20-17 0152-Oct-3107:23:07 9039 222 -22847 P t- -0.5337 1.9143 0.8437342.2193.3 -
21-16 0170-Nov-1115:33:08 8868 218 -22624 P t- -0.5271 1.9287 0.8537344.2194.5 -
22-15 0188-Nov-2123:46:47 8697 213 -22401 P t- -0.5241 1.9359 0.8573345.7195.3 -
23-14 0206-Dec-0307:59:39 8526 208 -22178 P t- -0.5212 1.9428 0.8613347.1196.0 -
24-13 0224-Dec-1316:13:23 8355 204 -21955 P t- -0.5195 1.9469 0.8633348.3196.6 -
25-12 0242-Dec-2500:23:30 8184 199 -21732 P t- -0.5152 1.9556 0.8706349.5197.6 -
26-11 0261-Jan-0408:29:44 8012 194 -21509 P t- -0.5083 1.9686 0.8829350.9198.9 -
27-10 0279-Jan-1516:29:07 7839 190 -21286 P t- -0.4962 1.9907 0.9049352.6201.0 -
28 -9 0297-Jan-2600:21:56 7666 186 -21063 P t- -0.4793 2.0216 0.9364354.5203.7 -
29 -8 0315-Feb-0608:06:00 7492 181 -20840 P t- -0.4555 2.0647 0.9805356.7207.1 -
30 -7 0333-Feb-1615:40:33 7317 177 -20617 T t- -0.4243 2.1213 1.0384359.3211.2 31.9
31 -6 0351-Feb-2723:05:22 7141 173 -20394 T t- -0.3853 2.1920 1.1107362.1215.7 52.9
32 -5 0369-Mar-1006:20:23 6964 168 -20171 T p- -0.3388 2.2764 1.1971365.1220.4 68.7
33 -4 0387-Mar-2113:25:00 6787 164 -19948 T pp -0.2839 2.3761 1.2986367.9225.1 81.7
34 -3 0405-Mar-3120:20:26 6609 160 -19725 T- pp -0.2217 2.4892 1.4137370.6229.3 92.1
35 -2 0423-Apr-1203:07:01 6431 156 -19502 T- pp -0.1526 2.6151 1.5413372.7232.8 99.9
36 -1 0441-Apr-2209:46:38 6253 152 -19279 T- pp -0.0780 2.7513 1.6790374.2235.1104.8
37 0 0459-May-0316:17:56 6075 148 -19056 T+ pp 0.0032 2.8879 1.8169374.7236.0106.5
38 1 0477-May-1322:45:05 5897 144 -18833 T+ pp 0.0874 2.7329 1.6629374.2235.3104.6
39 2 0495-May-2505:07:28 5721 140 -18610 T+ pp 0.1751 2.5717 1.5024372.5232.6 98.3
40 3 0513-Jun-0411:29:02 5544 137 -18387 T+ pp 0.2635 2.4093 1.3403369.6227.9 86.4
Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 77
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QSE Gamma Pen Mag Um Mag Pen Dur
m
Par Dur
m
Tot Dur
m
41 4 0531-Jun-1517:48:13 5368 133 -18164 T -t 0.3535 2.2442 1.1751365.3220.9 65.8
42 5 0549-Jun-2600:10:36 5193 129 -17941 T -t 0.4408 2.0842 1.0146359.9211.7 20.0
43 6 0567-Jul-0706:34:46 5020 125 -17718 P -t 0.5262 1.9279 0.8575353.3200.3 -
44 7 0585-Jul-1713:03:58 4847 122 -17495 P -t 0.6076 1.7793 0.7078345.8186.7 -
45 8 0603-Jul-2819:38:11 4676 118 -17272 P -t 0.6849 1.6381 0.5652337.4170.7 -
46 9 0621-Aug-0802:20:41 4507 115 -17049 P -t 0.7556 1.5093 0.4347328.7152.7 -
47 10 0639-Aug-1909:11:38 4339 111 -16826 P -t 0.8193 1.3932 0.3168319.9132.5 -
48 11 0657-Aug-2916:10:53 4172 108 -16603 P -t 0.8766 1.2890 0.2108311.0109.7 -
49 12 0675-Sep-0923:20:53 4007 105 -16380 P -t 0.9253 1.2006 0.1204302.8 83.9 -
50 13 0693-Sep-2006:40:32 3844 101 -16157 P -t 0.9666 1.1258 0.0439295.3 51.1 -
51 14 0711-Oct-0114:11:04 3684 98 -15934 Nx -t 0.9994 1.0663-0.0171288.9 - -
52 15 0729-Oct-1121:49:46 3525 95 -15711 Nx -t 1.0260 1.0182-0.0665283.3 - -
53 16 0747-Oct-2305:38:43 3369 92 -15488 N -t 1.0447 0.9843-0.1012279.1 - -
54 17 0765-Nov-0213:34:35 3216 89 -15265 N -t 1.0583 0.9595-0.1262275.7 - -
55 18 0783-Nov-1321:37:28 3066 86 -15042 N -t 1.0667 0.9439-0.1415273.3 - -
56 19 0801-Nov-2405:44:58 2919 83 -14819 N -t 1.0719 0.9337-0.1507271.5 - -
57 20 0819-Dec-0513:57:07 2776 80 -14596 N -t 1.0742 0.9287-0.1540270.2 - -
58 21 0837-Dec-1522:10:01 2635 77 -14373 N -t 1.0763 0.9236-0.1566268.8 - -
59 22 0855-Dec-2706:23:07 2499 74 -14150 N -t 1.0789 0.9173-0.1597267.2 - -
60 23 0874-Jan-0614:34:22 2366 72 -13927 N -t 1.0837 0.9065-0.1666265.0 - -
61 24 0892-Jan-1722:43:33 2238 69 -13704 N -t 1.0911 0.8906-0.1780262.2 - -
62 25 0910-Jan-2806:46:24 2114 66 -13481 N -t 1.1043 0.8638-0.1996257.9 - -
63 26 0928-Feb-0814:44:57 1994 64 -13258 N -t 1.1215 0.8293-0.2285252.5 - -
64 27 0946-Feb-1822:35:39 1878 61 -13035 N -t 1.1459 0.7816-0.2702245.3 - -
65 28 0964-Mar-0106:21:07 1767 59 -12812 N -t 1.1752 0.7247-0.3208236.5 - -
66 29 0982-Mar-1213:56:51 1660 56 -12589 N -t 1.2130 0.6520-0.3871224.9 - -
67 30 1000-Mar-2221:27:48 1559 54 -12366 N -t 1.2554 0.5709-0.4617211.1 - -
68 31 1018-Apr-0304:50:01 1461 51 -12143 N -t 1.3052 0.4764-0.5499193.7 - -
69 32 1036-Apr-1312:07:41 1368 49 -11920 N -t 1.3593 0.3741-0.6460172.5 - -
70 33 1054-Apr-2419:18:21 1280 47 -11697 N -t 1.4195 0.2606-0.7536144.8 - -
71 34 1072-May-0502:26:46 1197 45 -11474 N -t 1.4820 0.1431-0.8655107.9 - -
72 35 1090-May-1609:30:55 1118 43 -11251 Ne -t 1.5484 0.0188-0.9848 39.4 - -

Statistics for Lunar Eclipses of Saros 77

Lunar eclipses of Saros 77 all occur at the Moon’s descending node and the Moon moves northward with each eclipse. The series will begin with a penumbral eclipse near the southern edge of the penumbra on -0190 Apr 09. The series will end with a penumbral eclipse near the northern edge of the penumbra on 1090 May 16. The total duration of Saros series 77 is 1280.14 years.

Summary of Saros 77
First Eclipse -0190 Apr 09
Last Eclipse 1090 May 16
Series Duration 1280.14 Years
No. of Eclipses 72
Sequence 8N 21P 13T 8P 22N

Saros 77 is composed of 72 lunar eclipses as follows:

Lunar Eclipses of Saros 77
Eclipse Type Symbol Number Percent
All Eclipses - 72100.0%
PenumbralN 30 41.7%
PartialP 29 40.3%
TotalT 13 18.1%

The 72 lunar eclipses of Saros 77 occur in the order of 8N 21P 13T 8P 22N which corresponds to the following.

Sequence Order of Lunar Eclipses in Saros 77
Eclipse Type Symbol Number
Penumbral N 8
Partial P 21
Total T 13
Partial P 8
Penumbral N 22

The longest and shortest eclipses of Saros 77 as well as largest and smallest partial eclipses appear below.

Extreme Durations and Magnitudes of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 77
Extrema Type Date Duration Magnitude
Longest Total Lunar Eclipse 0459 May 0301h46m32s -
Shortest Total Lunar Eclipse 0549 Jun 2600h20m01s -
Longest Partial Lunar Eclipse 0315 Feb 0603h27m06s -
Shortest Partial Lunar Eclipse 0693 Sep 2000h51m08s -
Longest Penumbral Lunar Eclipse 0711 Oct 0104h48m52s -
Shortest Penumbral Lunar Eclipse 1090 May 1600h39m23s -
Largest Partial Lunar Eclipse 0315 Feb 06 - 0.98046
Smallest Partial Lunar Eclipse 0693 Sep 20 - 0.04393

Links to Additional Lunar Eclipse Predictions

Calendar

The Gregorian calendar (also called the Western calendar) is internationally the most widely used civil calendar. It is named for Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in 1582. On this website, the Gregorian calendar is used for all calendar dates from 1582 Oct 15 onwards. Before that date, the Julian calendar is used. For more information on this topic, see Calendar Dates.

The Julian calendar does not include the year 0. Thus the year 1 BCE is followed by the year 1 CE (See: BCE/CE Dating Conventions). This is awkward for arithmetic calculations. Years in this catalog are numbered astronomically and include the year 0. Historians should note there is a difference of one year between astronomical dates and BCE dates. Thus, the astronomical year 0 corresponds to 1 BCE, and astronomical year -1 corresponds to 2 BCE, etc..

Eclipse Predictions

The eclipse predictions presented here were generated using the JPL DE406 solar and lunar ephemerides. The lunar coordinates have been calculated with respect to the Moon's Center of Mass.

The largest uncertainty in the eclipse predictions is caused by fluctuations in Earth's rotation due primarily to tidal friction of the Moon. The resultant drift in apparent clock time is expressed as ΔT and is determined as follows:

  1. pre-1950's: ΔT calculated from empirical fits to historical records derived by Morrison and Stephenson (2004)
  2. 1955-present: ΔT obtained from published observations
  3. future: ΔT is extrapolated from current values weighted by the long term trend from tidal effects

A series of polynomial expressions have been derived to simplify the evaluation of ΔT for any time from -2999 to +3000. The uncertainty in ΔT over this period can be estimated from scatter in the measurements.

Acknowledgments

Some of the content on this web site is based on the books Five Millennium Canon of Lunar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 and Thousand Year Canon of Lunar Eclipses 1501 to 2500. All eclipse calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy.

Permission is granted to reproduce eclipse data when accompanied by a link to this page and an acknowledgment:

"Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak, www.EclipseWise.com"

The use of diagrams and maps is permitted provided that they are NOT altered (except for re-sizing) and the embedded credit line is NOT removed or covered.