Saros 98

Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 98

Fred Espenak

Introduction

The periodicity and recurrence of lunar eclipses is governed by the Saros cycle, a period of approximately 6,585.3 days (18 years 11 days 8 hours). When two eclipses are separated by a period of one Saros, they share a very similar geometry. The two eclipses occur at the same node with the Moon at nearly the same distance from Earth and the same time of year due to a harmonic in three cycles of the Moon's orbit. Thus, the Saros is useful for organizing eclipses into families or series. Each series typically lasts 12 to 13 centuries and contains 70 or more eclipses. Every saros series begins with a number of penumbral lunar eclipses. The series will then produce several dozen partial eclipses, followed by several dozen total eclipses. The later portion of the series produces another set of partial eclipses before ending with a final group of penumbral eclipses.

Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 98

The table below lists the concise characteristics of every lunar eclipse belonging to Saros 98 . The date and time of each eclipse is given for the instant of Greatest Eclipse. For eclipses between the years -1999 to 3000, the calendar date links to a web page containing additional details along with a diagram of the eclipse geometry and a map showing the geographic region of eclipse visibility for that eclipse. A description of each parameter in the catalog table can be found in Key to Saros Catalog of Lunar Eclipses.

Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 98
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QSE Gamma Pen Mag Um Mag Pen Dur
m
Par Dur
m
Tot Dur
m
1-39 0436-Feb-1812:09:34 6304 153 -19343 Nb a- 1.5444 0.0055-0.9574 19.9 - -
2-38 0454-Feb-2820:27:11 6126 149 -19120 N a- 1.5173 0.0543-0.9067 62.3 - -
3-37 0472-Mar-1104:34:00 5948 145 -18897 N a- 1.4823 0.1177-0.8416 91.4 - -
4-36 0490-Mar-2212:34:33 5772 141 -18674 N a- 1.4426 0.1898-0.7681115.4 - -
5-35 0508-Apr-0120:24:54 5595 138 -18451 N a- 1.3951 0.2764-0.6803138.3 - -
6-34 0526-Apr-1304:09:26 5419 134 -18228 N a- 1.3434 0.3708-0.5851159.0 - -
7-33 0544-Apr-2311:44:56 5243 130 -18005 N a- 1.2849 0.4780-0.4776179.1 - -
8-32 0562-May-0419:16:22 5069 127 -17782 N a- 1.2234 0.5909-0.3649197.4 - -
9-31 0580-May-1502:41:31 4897 123 -17559 N a- 1.1572 0.7130-0.2438214.7 - -
10-30 0598-May-2610:03:21 4725 119 -17336 N a- 1.0885 0.8396-0.1186230.6 - -
11-29 0616-Jun-0517:21:52 4555 116 -17113 P a- 1.0175 0.9711 0.0108245.3 23.0 -
12-28 0634-Jun-1700:39:36 4387 112 -16890 P a- 0.9460 1.1035 0.1405258.6 82.0 -
13-27 0652-Jun-2707:56:47 4220 109 -16667 P a- 0.8747 1.2361 0.2697270.7111.8 -
14-26 0670-Jul-0815:14:49 4054 106 -16444 P a- 0.8045 1.3668 0.3964281.5133.5 -
15-25 0688-Jul-1822:35:27 3891 102 -16221 P a- 0.7370 1.4931 0.5181291.0150.2 -
16-24 0706-Jul-3005:59:42 3730 99 -15998 P a- 0.6728 1.6135 0.6335299.4163.6 -
17-23 0724-Aug-0913:28:07 3571 96 -15775 P a- 0.6129 1.7261 0.7407306.7174.3 -
18-22 0742-Aug-2021:02:02 3414 93 -15552 P a- 0.5581 1.8295 0.8383313.1182.8 -
19-21 0760-Aug-3104:42:17 3260 90 -15329 P a- 0.5095 1.9217 0.9244318.5189.6 -
20-20 0778-Sep-1112:29:21 3109 87 -15106 P a- 0.4671 2.0026 0.9992323.2195.0 -
21-19 0796-Sep-2120:22:26 2961 84 -14883 T p- 0.4305 2.0731 1.0633327.2199.3 38.3
22-18 0814-Oct-0304:23:22 2816 81 -14660 T p- 0.4010 2.1302 1.1143330.6202.6 50.8
23-17 0832-Oct-1312:31:00 2675 78 -14437 T p- 0.3782 2.1751 1.1532333.6205.1 58.2
24-16 0850-Oct-2420:45:19 2538 75 -14214 T p- 0.3613 2.2089 1.1814336.1207.0 62.9
25-15 0868-Nov-0405:04:29 2404 72 -13991 T p- 0.3492 2.2338 1.2009338.3208.4 65.9
26-14 0886-Nov-1513:28:34 2274 70 -13768 T p- 0.3418 2.2497 1.2121340.1209.5 67.6
27-13 0904-Nov-2521:55:36 2149 67 -13545 T p- 0.3376 2.2597 1.2178341.8210.3 68.5
28-12 0922-Dec-0706:23:34 2028 64 -13322 T p- 0.3349 2.2663 1.2209343.3211.0 69.0
29-11 0940-Dec-1714:51:48 1911 62 -13099 T p- 0.3332 2.2710 1.2226344.7211.6 69.4
30-10 0958-Dec-2823:17:37 1798 59 -12876 T p- 0.3303 2.2775 1.2268346.1212.4 70.1
31 -9 0977-Jan-0807:40:05 1691 57 -12653 T p- 0.3253 2.2876 1.2351347.6213.3 71.4
32 -8 0995-Jan-1915:56:04 1587 54 -12430 T p- 0.3158 2.3056 1.2520349.2214.6 73.7
33 -7 1013-Jan-3000:06:20 1489 52 -12207 T p- 0.3024 2.3305 1.2762350.8216.2 76.7
34 -6 1031-Feb-1008:07:45 1395 50 -11984 T p- 0.2829 2.3665 1.3119352.7218.2 80.6
35 -5 1049-Feb-2016:00:03 1305 48 -11761 T+ pp 0.2565 2.4149 1.3603354.8220.5 85.3
36 -4 1067-Mar-0323:42:03 1220 45 -11538 T+ pp 0.2224 2.4773 1.4231357.0223.1 90.5
37 -3 1085-Mar-1407:14:28 1140 43 -11315 T+ pp 0.1812 2.5527 1.4988359.2225.7 95.5
38 -2 1103-Mar-2514:36:53 1064 41 -11092 T+ pp 0.1326 2.6417 1.5882361.2228.1 99.9
39 -1 1121-Apr-0421:48:25 992 39 -10869 T+ pp 0.0759 2.7457 1.6923363.1230.1103.3
40 0 1139-Apr-1604:51:06 925 37 -10646 T+ pp 0.0125 2.8619 1.8087364.4231.4105.0
Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 98
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QSE Gamma Pen Mag Um Mag Pen Dur
m
Par Dur
m
Tot Dur
m
41 1 1157-Apr-2611:44:49 862 35 -10423 T- pp -0.0578 2.7788 1.7254365.2231.6104.4
42 2 1175-May-0718:31:11 802 33 -10200 T- pp -0.1334 2.6404 1.5866365.1230.4100.9
43 3 1193-May-1801:10:38 747 31 -9977 T- pp -0.2140 2.4930 1.4383363.9227.6 93.2
44 4 1211-May-2907:45:28 695 30 -9754 T -t -0.2977 2.3399 1.2841361.6222.9 79.8
45 5 1229-Jun-0814:17:06 646 28 -9531 T -t -0.3836 2.1832 1.1257358.1216.0 56.1
46 6 1247-Jun-1920:45:27 601 26 -9308 P -t -0.4714 2.0231 0.9637353.2206.5 -
47 7 1265-Jun-3003:14:03 559 25 -9085 P -t -0.5583 1.8648 0.8029347.1194.4 -
48 8 1283-Jul-1109:42:50 519 23 -8862 P -t -0.6444 1.7082 0.6436339.6179.1 -
49 9 1301-Jul-2116:15:34 482 22 -8639 P -t -0.7266 1.5589 0.4912331.0160.6 -
50 10 1319-Aug-0122:50:29 447 20 -8416 P -t -0.8064 1.4143 0.3432321.3137.5 -
51 11 1337-Aug-1205:32:43 415 20 -8193 P -t -0.8797 1.2815 0.2067311.1109.0 -
52 12 1355-Aug-2312:20:15 384 20 -7970 P -t -0.9483 1.1576 0.0790300.3 68.7 -
53 13 1373-Sep-0219:16:40 356 20 -7747 Nx -t -1.0091 1.0480-0.0345289.5 - -
54 14 1391-Sep-1402:19:55 329 20 -7524 N -t -1.0641 0.9491-0.1373278.8 - -
55 15 1409-Sep-2409:33:47 303 20 -7301 N -t -1.1102 0.8664-0.2237269.0 - -
56 16 1427-Oct-0516:55:32 279 20 -7078 N -t -1.1500 0.7952-0.2984259.8 - -
57 17 1445-Oct-1600:26:27 256 20 -6855 N -t -1.1823 0.7375-0.3592251.9 - -
58 18 1463-Oct-2708:05:15 235 20 -6632 N -t -1.2081 0.6914-0.4080245.1 - -
59 19 1481-Nov-0615:52:47 214 20 -6409 N -t -1.2265 0.6588-0.4428240.1 - -
60 20 1499-Nov-1723:45:52 195 20 -6186 N -t -1.2409 0.6332-0.4699235.9 - -
61 21 1517-Nov-2807:44:08 177 20 -5963 N -t -1.2510 0.6151-0.4888232.9 - -
62 22 1535-Dec-0915:45:19 161 20 -5740 N -t -1.2588 0.6007-0.5033230.3 - -
63 23 1553-Dec-1923:49:18 146 20 -5517 N -t -1.2644 0.5901-0.5131228.2 - -
64 24 1571-Dec-3107:51:30 134 20 -5294 N -t -1.2712 0.5768-0.5248225.6 - -
65 25 1590-Jan-2015:53:19 123 20 -5071 N -t -1.2784 0.5625-0.5369222.7 - -
66 26 1608-Jan-3123:50:20 109 19 -4848 N -t -1.2895 0.5406-0.5557218.4 - -
67 27 1626-Feb-1107:43:54 85 16 -4625 N -t -1.3035 0.5129-0.5797212.8 - -
68 28 1644-Feb-2215:29:25 57 13 -4402 N -t -1.3241 0.4731-0.6152204.6 - -
69 29 1662-Mar-0423:10:07 32 11 -4179 N -t -1.3487 0.4255-0.6580194.4 - -
70 30 1680-Mar-1506:41:50 14 8 -3956 N -t -1.3805 0.3646-0.7138180.4 - -
71 31 1698-Mar-2614:06:35 8 5 -3733 N -t -1.4183 0.2925-0.7805162.1 - -
72 32 1716-Apr-0621:22:31 9 4 -3510 N -t -1.4634 0.2069-0.8605136.9 - -
73 33 1734-Apr-1804:32:25 11 4 -3287 N -t -1.5137 0.1118-0.9500101.2 - -
74 34 1752-Apr-2811:35:08 13 3 -3064 Ne -t -1.5699 0.0060-1.0504 23.6 - -

Statistics for Lunar Eclipses of Saros 98

Lunar eclipses of Saros 98 all occur at the Moon’s ascending node and the Moon moves southward with each eclipse. The series will begin with a penumbral eclipse near the northern edge of the penumbra on 0436 Feb 18. The series will end with a penumbral eclipse near the southern edge of the penumbra on 1752 Apr 28. The total duration of Saros series 98 is 1316.20 years.

Summary of Saros 98
First Eclipse 0436 Feb 18
Last Eclipse 1752 Apr 28
Series Duration 1316.20 Years
No. of Eclipses 74
Sequence 10N 10P 25T 7P 22N

Saros 98 is composed of 74 lunar eclipses as follows:

Lunar Eclipses of Saros 98
Eclipse Type Symbol Number Percent
All Eclipses - 74100.0%
PenumbralN 32 43.2%
PartialP 17 23.0%
TotalT 25 33.8%

The 74 lunar eclipses of Saros 98 occur in the order of 10N 10P 25T 7P 22N which corresponds to the following.

Sequence Order of Lunar Eclipses in Saros 98
Eclipse Type Symbol Number
Penumbral N 10
Partial P 10
Total T 25
Partial P 7
Penumbral N 22

The longest and shortest eclipses of Saros 98 as well as largest and smallest partial eclipses appear below.

Extreme Durations and Magnitudes of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 98
Extrema Type Date Duration Magnitude
Longest Total Lunar Eclipse 1139 Apr 1601h45m00s -
Shortest Total Lunar Eclipse 0796 Sep 2100h38m21s -
Longest Partial Lunar Eclipse 1247 Jun 1903h26m31s -
Shortest Partial Lunar Eclipse 0616 Jun 0500h23m02s -
Longest Penumbral Lunar Eclipse 1373 Sep 0204h49m33s -
Shortest Penumbral Lunar Eclipse 0436 Feb 1800h19m56s -
Largest Partial Lunar Eclipse 0778 Sep 11 - 0.99915
Smallest Partial Lunar Eclipse 0616 Jun 05 - 0.01076

Links to Additional Lunar Eclipse Predictions

Calendar

The Gregorian calendar (also called the Western calendar) is internationally the most widely used civil calendar. It is named for Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in 1582. On this website, the Gregorian calendar is used for all calendar dates from 1582 Oct 15 onwards. Before that date, the Julian calendar is used. For more information on this topic, see Calendar Dates.

The Julian calendar does not include the year 0. Thus the year 1 BCE is followed by the year 1 CE (See: BCE/CE Dating Conventions). This is awkward for arithmetic calculations. Years in this catalog are numbered astronomically and include the year 0. Historians should note there is a difference of one year between astronomical dates and BCE dates. Thus, the astronomical year 0 corresponds to 1 BCE, and astronomical year -1 corresponds to 2 BCE, etc..

Eclipse Predictions

The eclipse predictions presented here were generated using the JPL DE406 solar and lunar ephemerides. The lunar coordinates have been calculated with respect to the Moon's Center of Mass.

The largest uncertainty in the eclipse predictions is caused by fluctuations in Earth's rotation due primarily to tidal friction of the Moon. The resultant drift in apparent clock time is expressed as ΔT and is determined as follows:

  1. pre-1950's: ΔT calculated from empirical fits to historical records derived by Morrison and Stephenson (2004)
  2. 1955-present: ΔT obtained from published observations
  3. future: ΔT is extrapolated from current values weighted by the long term trend from tidal effects

A series of polynomial expressions have been derived to simplify the evaluation of ΔT for any time from -2999 to +3000. The uncertainty in ΔT over this period can be estimated from scatter in the measurements.

Acknowledgments

Some of the content on this web site is based on the books Five Millennium Canon of Lunar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 and Thousand Year Canon of Lunar Eclipses 1501 to 2500. All eclipse calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy.

Permission is granted to reproduce eclipse data when accompanied by a link to this page and an acknowledgment:

"Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak, www.EclipseWise.com"

The use of diagrams and maps is permitted provided that they are NOT altered (except for re-sizing) and the embedded credit line is NOT removed or covered.