Saros 104

Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 104

Fred Espenak

Introduction

The periodicity and recurrence of lunar eclipses is governed by the Saros cycle, a period of approximately 6,585.3 days (18 years 11 days 8 hours). When two eclipses are separated by a period of one Saros, they share a very similar geometry. The two eclipses occur at the same node with the Moon at nearly the same distance from Earth and the same time of year due to a harmonic in three cycles of the Moon's orbit. Thus, the Saros is useful for organizing eclipses into families or series. Each series typically lasts 12 to 13 centuries and contains 70 or more eclipses. Every saros series begins with a number of penumbral lunar eclipses. The series will then produce several dozen partial eclipses, followed by several dozen total eclipses. The later portion of the series produces another set of partial eclipses before ending with a final group of penumbral eclipses.

Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 104

The table below lists the concise characteristics of every lunar eclipse belonging to Saros 104 . The date and time of each eclipse is given for the instant of Greatest Eclipse. For eclipses between the years -1999 to 3000, the calendar date links to a web page containing additional details along with a diagram of the eclipse geometry and a map showing the geographic region of eclipse visibility for that eclipse. A description of each parameter in the catalog table can be found in Key to Saros Catalog of Lunar Eclipses.

Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 104
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QSE Gamma Pen Mag Um Mag Pen Dur
m
Par Dur
m
Tot Dur
m
1-38 0483-Aug-0410:30:48 5836 143 -18756 N a- 1.4922 0.0939-0.8541 81.3 - -
2-37 0501-Aug-1418:18:40 5661 139 -18533 N a- 1.4367 0.1966-0.7533116.5 - -
3-36 0519-Aug-2602:13:54 5483 135 -18310 N a- 1.3871 0.2888-0.6634140.0 - -
4-35 0537-Sep-0510:15:57 5308 132 -18087 N a- 1.3430 0.3710-0.5836157.4 - -
5-34 0555-Sep-1618:26:41 5133 128 -17864 N a- 1.3059 0.4403-0.5171170.4 - -
6-33 0573-Sep-2702:44:49 4960 124 -17641 N a- 1.2752 0.4981-0.4621180.4 - -
7-32 0591-Oct-0811:11:40 4788 121 -17418 N a- 1.2515 0.5431-0.4200187.6 - -
8-31 0609-Oct-1819:44:05 4618 117 -17195 N a- 1.2324 0.5794-0.3864193.3 - -
9-30 0627-Oct-3004:24:29 4448 114 -16972 N a- 1.2201 0.6033-0.3650196.9 - -
10-29 0645-Nov-0913:09:14 4281 110 -16749 N a- 1.2116 0.6201-0.3504199.5 - -
11-28 0663-Nov-2021:59:03 4115 107 -16526 N a- 1.2074 0.6286-0.3438200.9 - -
12-27 0681-Dec-0106:50:21 3951 104 -16303 N a- 1.2049 0.6341-0.3399201.9 - -
13-26 0699-Dec-1215:43:37 3789 100 -16080 N a- 1.2043 0.6357-0.3393202.4 - -
14-25 0717-Dec-2300:35:25 3629 97 -15857 N a- 1.2030 0.6384-0.3371203.0 - -
15-24 0736-Jan-0309:25:00 3471 94 -15634 N a- 1.2005 0.6430-0.3327203.9 - -
16-23 0754-Jan-1318:10:31 3316 91 -15411 N a- 1.1953 0.6525-0.3230205.4 - -
17-22 0772-Jan-2502:51:20 3164 88 -15188 N a- 1.1871 0.6672-0.3077207.7 - -
18-21 0790-Feb-0411:24:41 3015 85 -14965 N a- 1.1733 0.6921-0.2820211.3 - -
19-20 0808-Feb-1519:51:03 2869 82 -14742 N a- 1.1544 0.7263-0.2468216.1 - -
20-19 0826-Feb-2604:08:42 2727 79 -14519 N a- 1.1291 0.7722-0.2000222.2 - -
21-18 0844-Mar-0812:19:06 2588 76 -14296 N a- 1.0986 0.8277-0.1436229.1 - -
22-17 0862-Mar-1920:18:48 2453 73 -14073 N a- 1.0599 0.8982-0.0722237.4 - -
23-16 0880-Mar-3004:11:39 2322 71 -13850 P a- 1.0162 0.9783 0.0083246.3 20.2 -
24-15 0898-Apr-1011:54:57 2195 68 -13627 P a- 0.9649 1.0724 0.1026255.9 70.3 -
25-14 0916-Apr-2019:32:04 2072 65 -13404 P a- 0.9091 1.1748 0.2048265.5 98.2 -
26-13 0934-May-0203:00:04 1953 63 -13181 P a- 0.8464 1.2902 0.3195275.5121.0 -
27-12 0952-May-1210:23:52 1839 60 -12958 P a- 0.7808 1.4112 0.4393285.0139.8 -
28-11 0970-May-2317:41:22 1730 58 -12735 P a- 0.7103 1.5415 0.5677294.3156.3 -
29-10 0988-Jun-0300:55:36 1625 55 -12512 P a- 0.6378 1.6756 0.6995303.0170.3 -
30 -9 1006-Jun-1408:06:19 1524 53 -12289 P a- 0.5630 1.8144 0.8353311.0182.5 -
31 -8 1024-Jun-2415:16:38 1429 51 -12066 P a- 0.4886 1.9527 0.9701318.2192.6 -
32 -7 1042-Jul-0522:26:32 1338 48 -11843 T a- 0.4145 2.0907 1.1038324.5201.0 48.5
33 -6 1060-Jul-1605:36:55 1251 46 -11620 T p- 0.3418 2.2266 1.2351330.1207.9 70.1
34 -5 1078-Jul-2712:50:18 1169 44 -11397 T+ p- 0.2722 2.3569 1.3601334.8213.2 83.3
35 -4 1096-Aug-0620:07:03 1091 42 -11174 T+ pp 0.2060 2.4811 1.4787338.7217.3 91.9
36 -3 1114-Aug-1803:29:00 1018 40 -10951 T+ pp 0.1452 2.5958 1.5874342.0220.1 97.3
37 -2 1132-Aug-2810:55:50 949 38 -10728 T+ pp 0.0891 2.7018 1.6872344.7222.1100.6
38 -1 1150-Sep-0818:30:23 885 36 -10505 T+ pp 0.0402 2.7949 1.7739347.0223.3102.1
39 0 1168-Sep-1902:11:24 824 34 -10282 T- pp -0.0027 2.8669 1.8394348.9224.0102.6
40 1 1186-Sep-3009:59:15 767 32 -10059 T- pp -0.0392 2.8032 1.7693350.6224.4102.2
Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 104
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QSE Gamma Pen Mag Um Mag Pen Dur
m
Par Dur
m
Tot Dur
m
41 2 1204-Oct-1017:54:12 714 30 -9836 T- pp -0.0691 2.7515 1.7114352.1224.5101.4
42 3 1222-Oct-2201:56:25 664 29 -9613 T- pp -0.0918 2.7127 1.6666353.5224.6100.5
43 4 1240-Nov-0110:04:23 617 27 -9390 T- pp -0.1095 2.6830 1.6315354.9224.7 99.6
44 5 1258-Nov-1218:16:55 574 25 -9167 T- -p -0.1226 2.6615 1.6049356.3224.8 98.9
45 6 1276-Nov-2302:33:26 533 24 -8944 T- -p -0.1315 2.6474 1.5864357.6225.1 98.3
46 7 1294-Dec-0410:52:53 495 22 -8721 T- -p -0.1372 2.6390 1.5742358.9225.4 98.0
47 8 1312-Dec-1419:11:54 460 21 -8498 T- -p -0.1424 2.6310 1.5631360.1225.7 97.7
48 9 1330-Dec-2603:30:38 427 20 -8275 T- -p -0.1470 2.6237 1.5533361.2226.1 97.5
49 10 1349-Jan-0511:45:37 395 20 -8052 T- -p -0.1541 2.6116 1.5396362.2226.3 97.1
50 11 1367-Jan-1619:57:31 366 20 -7829 T- -p -0.1629 2.5960 1.5228363.0226.5 96.5
51 12 1385-Jan-2704:01:22 339 20 -7606 T- -p -0.1775 2.5695 1.4958363.6226.5 95.3
52 13 1403-Feb-0712:00:01 312 20 -7383 T- -p -0.1957 2.5360 1.4623364.0226.2 93.6
53 14 1421-Feb-1719:48:25 288 20 -7160 T- -p -0.2216 2.4883 1.4150363.9225.5 90.7
54 15 1439-Mar-0103:28:52 265 20 -6937 T- -p -0.2536 2.4293 1.3568363.5224.2 86.2
55 16 1457-Mar-1110:57:50 242 20 -6714 T -p -0.2944 2.3539 1.2824362.6221.9 79.1
56 17 1475-Mar-2218:18:37 222 20 -6491 T -t -0.3413 2.2673 1.1969360.9218.7 68.2
57 18 1493-Apr-0201:28:32 202 20 -6268 T -t -0.3964 2.1656 1.0963358.4214.0 49.5
58 19 1511-Apr-1308:29:05 184 20 -6045 P -t -0.4585 2.0511 0.9828354.9207.5 -
59 20 1529-Apr-2315:20:26 167 20 -5822 P -t -0.5277 1.9238 0.8564350.0198.6 -
60 21 1547-May-0422:04:30 152 20 -5599 P -t -0.6022 1.7867 0.7199343.8186.8 -
61 22 1565-May-1504:41:15 138 20 -5376 P -t -0.6820 1.6401 0.5737335.8171.1 -
62 23 1583-Jun-0511:12:21 127 20 -5153 P -t -0.7656 1.4867 0.4204326.0150.3 -
63 24 1601-Jun-1517:39:33 117 20 -4930 P -t -0.8517 1.3288 0.2622314.2121.7 -
64 25 1619-Jun-2700:04:47 94 17 -4707 P -t -0.9390 1.1691 0.1018300.3 77.7 -
65 26 1637-Jul-0706:28:08 67 14 -4484 Nx -t -1.0271 1.0080-0.0604284.0 - -
66 27 1655-Jul-1812:53:09 41 12 -4261 N -t -1.1132 0.8507-0.2191265.4 - -
67 28 1673-Jul-2819:20:13 20 9 -4038 N -t -1.1971 0.6976-0.3739244.3 - -
68 29 1691-Aug-0901:52:20 8 6 -3815 N -t -1.2766 0.5527-0.5209220.7 - -
69 30 1709-Aug-2008:27:56 9 5 -3592 N -t -1.3530 0.4138-0.6621193.6 - -
70 31 1727-Aug-3115:12:02 10 4 -3369 N -t -1.4223 0.2879-0.7905163.4 - -
71 32 1745-Sep-1022:02:30 12 3 -3146 N -t -1.4863 0.1718-0.9093127.6 - -
72 33 1763-Sep-2205:03:02 15 2 -2923 N -t -1.5421 0.0708-1.0129 82.7 - -

Statistics for Lunar Eclipses of Saros 104

Lunar eclipses of Saros 104 all occur at the Moon’s ascending node and the Moon moves southward with each eclipse. The series will begin with a penumbral eclipse near the northern edge of the penumbra on 0483 Aug 04. The series will end with a penumbral eclipse near the southern edge of the penumbra on 1763 Sep 22. The total duration of Saros series 104 is 1280.14 years.

Summary of Saros 104
First Eclipse 0483 Aug 04
Last Eclipse 1763 Sep 22
Series Duration 1280.14 Years
No. of Eclipses 72
Sequence 22N 9P 26T 7P 8N

Saros 104 is composed of 72 lunar eclipses as follows:

Lunar Eclipses of Saros 104
Eclipse Type Symbol Number Percent
All Eclipses - 72100.0%
PenumbralN 30 41.7%
PartialP 16 22.2%
TotalT 26 36.1%

The 72 lunar eclipses of Saros 104 occur in the order of 22N 9P 26T 7P 8N which corresponds to the following.

Sequence Order of Lunar Eclipses in Saros 104
Eclipse Type Symbol Number
Penumbral N 22
Partial P 9
Total T 26
Partial P 7
Penumbral N 8

The longest and shortest eclipses of Saros 104 as well as largest and smallest partial eclipses appear below.

Extreme Durations and Magnitudes of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 104
Extrema Type Date Duration Magnitude
Longest Total Lunar Eclipse 1168 Sep 1901h42m34s -
Shortest Total Lunar Eclipse 1042 Jul 0500h48m30s -
Longest Partial Lunar Eclipse 1511 Apr 1303h27m32s -
Shortest Partial Lunar Eclipse 0880 Mar 3000h20m15s -
Longest Penumbral Lunar Eclipse 1637 Jul 0704h44m01s -
Shortest Penumbral Lunar Eclipse 0483 Aug 0401h21m18s -
Largest Partial Lunar Eclipse 1511 Apr 13 - 0.98282
Smallest Partial Lunar Eclipse 0880 Mar 30 - 0.00833

Links to Additional Lunar Eclipse Predictions

Calendar

The Gregorian calendar (also called the Western calendar) is internationally the most widely used civil calendar. It is named for Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in 1582. On this website, the Gregorian calendar is used for all calendar dates from 1582 Oct 15 onwards. Before that date, the Julian calendar is used. For more information on this topic, see Calendar Dates.

The Julian calendar does not include the year 0. Thus the year 1 BCE is followed by the year 1 CE (See: BCE/CE Dating Conventions). This is awkward for arithmetic calculations. Years in this catalog are numbered astronomically and include the year 0. Historians should note there is a difference of one year between astronomical dates and BCE dates. Thus, the astronomical year 0 corresponds to 1 BCE, and astronomical year -1 corresponds to 2 BCE, etc..

Eclipse Predictions

The eclipse predictions presented here were generated using the JPL DE406 solar and lunar ephemerides. The lunar coordinates have been calculated with respect to the Moon's Center of Mass.

The largest uncertainty in the eclipse predictions is caused by fluctuations in Earth's rotation due primarily to tidal friction of the Moon. The resultant drift in apparent clock time is expressed as ΔT and is determined as follows:

  1. pre-1950's: ΔT calculated from empirical fits to historical records derived by Morrison and Stephenson (2004)
  2. 1955-present: ΔT obtained from published observations
  3. future: ΔT is extrapolated from current values weighted by the long term trend from tidal effects

A series of polynomial expressions have been derived to simplify the evaluation of ΔT for any time from -2999 to +3000. The uncertainty in ΔT over this period can be estimated from scatter in the measurements.

Acknowledgments

Some of the content on this web site is based on the books Five Millennium Canon of Lunar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 and Thousand Year Canon of Lunar Eclipses 1501 to 2500. All eclipse calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy.

Permission is granted to reproduce eclipse data when accompanied by a link to this page and an acknowledgment:

"Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak, www.EclipseWise.com"

The use of diagrams and maps is permitted provided that they are NOT altered (except for re-sizing) and the embedded credit line is NOT removed or covered.