Saros 116

Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 116

Fred Espenak

Introduction

The periodicity and recurrence of lunar eclipses is governed by the Saros cycle, a period of approximately 6,585.3 days (18 years 11 days 8 hours). When two eclipses are separated by a period of one Saros, they share a very similar geometry. The two eclipses occur at the same node with the Moon at nearly the same distance from Earth and the same time of year due to a harmonic in three cycles of the Moon's orbit. Thus, the Saros is useful for organizing eclipses into families or series. Each series typically lasts 12 to 13 centuries and contains 70 or more eclipses. Every saros series begins with a number of penumbral lunar eclipses. The series will then produce several dozen partial eclipses, followed by several dozen total eclipses. The later portion of the series produces another set of partial eclipses before ending with a final group of penumbral eclipses.

Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 116

The table below lists the concise characteristics of every lunar eclipse belonging to Saros 116 . The date and time of each eclipse is given for the instant of Greatest Eclipse. For eclipses between the years -1999 to 3000, the calendar date links to a web page containing additional details along with a diagram of the eclipse geometry and a map showing the geographic region of eclipse visibility for that eclipse. A description of each parameter in the catalog table can be found in Key to Saros Catalog of Lunar Eclipses.

Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 116
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QSE Gamma Pen Mag Um Mag Pen Dur
m
Par Dur
m
Tot Dur
m
1-38 0993-Mar-1100:08:24 1598 55 -12453 Nb a- 1.5409 0.0098-0.9489 26.6 - -
2-37 1011-Mar-2208:13:03 1499 52 -12230 N a- 1.5000 0.0829-0.8720 76.6 - -
3-36 1029-Apr-0116:09:17 1404 50 -12007 N a- 1.4524 0.1685-0.7829108.2 - -
4-35 1047-Apr-1300:00:16 1314 48 -11784 N a- 1.4006 0.2620-0.6862133.6 - -
5-34 1065-Apr-2307:42:33 1229 46 -11561 N a- 1.3417 0.3687-0.5768156.8 - -
6-33 1083-May-0415:21:42 1148 43 -11338 N a- 1.2800 0.4808-0.4626177.0 - -
7-32 1101-May-1422:54:37 1072 41 -11115 N a- 1.2129 0.6031-0.3386195.8 - -
8-31 1119-May-2606:25:52 1000 39 -10892 N a- 1.1444 0.7282-0.2124212.4 - -
9-30 1137-Jun-0513:52:55 932 37 -10669 N a- 1.0724 0.8602-0.0801227.8 - -
10-29 1155-Jun-1621:20:44 868 35 -10446 P a- 1.0009 0.9916 0.0510241.3 48.9 -
11-28 1173-Jun-2704:47:37 808 33 -10223 P a- 0.9283 1.1252 0.1836253.5 91.1 -
12-27 1191-Jul-0812:16:19 752 32 -10000 P a- 0.8573 1.2563 0.3132264.3117.0 -
13-26 1209-Jul-1819:47:11 700 30 -9777 P a- 0.7881 1.3844 0.4390273.7136.0 -
14-25 1227-Jul-3003:22:18 651 28 -9554 P a- 0.7225 1.5061 0.5580281.9150.7 -
15-24 1245-Aug-0911:02:07 606 26 -9331 P a- 0.6611 1.6205 0.6690288.9162.4 -
16-23 1263-Aug-2018:46:58 563 25 -9108 P a- 0.6042 1.7269 0.7716295.0171.6 -
17-22 1281-Aug-3102:38:33 523 23 -8885 P a- 0.5531 1.8226 0.8632300.1179.0 -
18-21 1299-Sep-1110:36:33 486 22 -8662 P a- 0.5077 1.9082 0.9443304.4184.8 -
19-20 1317-Sep-2118:41:53 451 20 -8439 T a- 0.4691 1.9814 1.0129308.1189.3 17.0
20-19 1335-Oct-0302:54:03 418 20 -8216 T p- 0.4365 2.0436 1.0704311.2192.8 39.1
21-18 1353-Oct-1311:14:08 388 20 -7993 T p- 0.4110 2.0927 1.1148313.7195.4 49.3
22-17 1371-Oct-2419:40:28 359 20 -7770 T p- 0.3912 2.1314 1.1489315.9197.4 55.6
23-16 1389-Nov-0404:12:44 332 20 -7547 T p- 0.3767 2.1600 1.1733317.7198.9 59.6
24-15 1407-Nov-1512:50:08 306 20 -7324 T p- 0.3670 2.1798 1.1891319.3200.0 62.1
25-14 1425-Nov-2521:31:50 282 20 -7101 T p- 0.3618 2.1913 1.1970320.6200.7 63.3
26-13 1443-Dec-0706:15:28 259 20 -6878 T p- 0.3582 2.1994 1.2020321.8201.3 64.1
27-12 1461-Dec-1714:59:58 237 20 -6655 T p- 0.3560 2.2048 1.2048323.0201.9 64.6
28-11 1479-Dec-2823:43:30 216 20 -6432 T p- 0.3536 2.2103 1.2082324.1202.5 65.2
29-10 1498-Jan-0808:25:30 197 20 -6209 T p- 0.3505 2.2167 1.2130325.2203.2 65.9
30 -9 1516-Jan-1917:02:12 179 20 -5986 T p- 0.3438 2.2296 1.2247326.5204.2 67.6
31 -8 1534-Jan-3001:34:31 163 20 -5763 T p- 0.3341 2.2477 1.2420327.9205.5 70.0
32 -7 1552-Feb-1009:58:44 148 20 -5540 T p- 0.3184 2.2769 1.2707329.6207.2 73.5
33 -6 1570-Feb-2018:16:29 135 20 -5317 T p- 0.2981 2.3142 1.3078331.5209.2 77.5
34 -5 1588-Mar-1302:23:34 124 20 -5094 T+ p- 0.2699 2.3661 1.3596333.6211.6 82.5
35 -4 1606-Mar-2410:23:17 111 19 -4871 T+ p- 0.2363 2.4276 1.4211335.9214.1 87.5
36 -3 1624-Apr-0318:12:07 87 16 -4648 T+ pp 0.1945 2.5044 1.4977338.2216.8 92.5
37 -2 1642-Apr-1501:52:18 60 14 -4425 T+ pp 0.1463 2.5930 1.5860340.5219.3 97.0
38 -1 1660-Apr-2509:22:00 35 11 -4202 T+ pp 0.0901 2.6965 1.6889342.6221.5100.5
39 0 1678-May-0616:44:20 15 8 -3979 T+ pp 0.0285 2.8099 1.8015344.4223.0102.5
40 1 1696-May-1623:58:19 8 6 -3756 T- pp -0.0392 2.7910 1.7813345.7223.6102.7
Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 116
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QSE Gamma Pen Mag Um Mag Pen Dur
m
Par Dur
m
Tot Dur
m
41 2 1714-May-2907:05:02 9 4 -3533 T- pp -0.1120 2.6582 1.6468346.2223.1100.3
42 3 1732-Jun-0814:06:11 11 4 -3310 T- -p -0.1887 2.5185 1.5049346.0221.3 94.6
43 4 1750-Jun-1921:03:02 13 3 -3087 T- -p -0.2684 2.3736 1.3574344.8217.8 84.6
44 5 1768-Jun-3003:56:19 16 2 -2864 T -h -0.3500 2.2256 1.2062342.7212.5 68.0
45 6 1786-Jul-1110:47:19 17 2 -2641 T -t -0.4324 2.0762 1.0531339.4205.2 36.3
46 7 1804-Jul-2217:38:00 12 1 -2418 P -t -0.5141 1.9284 0.9012335.1195.8 -
47 8 1822-Aug-0300:30:07 11 1 -2195 P -t -0.5938 1.7846 0.7526329.9184.2 -
48 9 1840-Aug-1307:23:08 5 1 -1972 P -t -0.6716 1.6443 0.6074323.6170.1 -
49 10 1858-Aug-2414:20:47 7 0 -1749 P -t -0.7446 1.5131 0.4708316.8153.5 -
50 11 1876-Sep-0321:22:33 -4 0 -1526 P -t -0.8130 1.3904 0.3425309.3133.9 -
51 12 1894-Sep-1504:31:25 -6 0 -1303 P -t -0.8749 1.2798 0.2261301.8111.0 -
52 13 1912-Sep-2611:44:50 14 0 -1080 P -t -0.9320 1.1779 0.1184294.0 81.8 -
53 14 1930-Oct-0719:07:10 24 0 -857 P -t -0.9812 1.0907 0.0253286.7 38.4 -
54 15 1948-Oct-1802:35:41 29 0 -634 Nx -t -1.0245 1.0141-0.0571279.8 - -
55 16 1966-Oct-2910:12:54 37 0 -411 N -t -1.0600 0.9517-0.1249273.8 - -
56 17 1984-Nov-0817:56:09 54 0 -188 N -t -1.0900 0.8993-0.1825268.5 - -
57 18 2002-Nov-2001:47:41 64 0 35 N -t -1.1127 0.8600-0.2264264.4 - -
58 19 2020-Nov-3009:44:02 70 0 258 N -t -1.1309 0.8285-0.2619261.1 - -
59 20 2038-Dec-1117:45:00 79 3 481 N -t -1.1449 0.8046-0.2892258.5 - -
60 21 2056-Dec-2201:48:56 90 7 704 N -t -1.1560 0.7857-0.3109256.5 - -
61 22 2075-Jan-0209:55:03 104 12 927 N -t -1.1643 0.7714-0.3271255.0 - -
62 23 2093-Jan-1218:00:02 120 18 1150 N -t -1.1734 0.7553-0.3443253.2 - -
63 24 2111-Jan-2502:03:06 139 24 1373 N -t -1.1834 0.7371-0.3630250.8 - -
64 25 2129-Feb-0410:02:24 160 32 1596 N -t -1.1959 0.7140-0.3858247.7 - -
65 26 2147-Feb-1517:57:14 185 40 1819 N -t -1.2115 0.6849-0.4138243.4 - -
66 27 2165-Feb-2601:44:01 211 48 2042 N -t -1.2329 0.6447-0.4524237.2 - -
67 28 2183-Mar-0909:24:15 241 57 2265 N -t -1.2593 0.5953-0.4997229.1 - -
68 29 2201-Mar-2016:55:03 272 67 2488 N -t -1.2929 0.5323-0.5602217.9 - -
69 30 2219-Apr-0100:18:14 307 77 2711 N -t -1.3322 0.4588-0.6308203.6 - -
70 31 2237-Apr-1107:30:44 344 88 2934 N -t -1.3796 0.3703-0.7163184.3 - -
71 32 2255-Apr-2214:36:06 383 99 3157 N -t -1.4324 0.2717-0.8116159.2 - -
72 33 2273-May-0221:31:51 425 111 3380 N -t -1.4926 0.1598-0.9205123.2 - -
73 34 2291-May-1404:20:24 470 123 3603 Ne -t -1.5581 0.0379-1.0392 60.6 - -

Statistics for Lunar Eclipses of Saros 116

Lunar eclipses of Saros 116 all occur at the Moon’s ascending node and the Moon moves southward with each eclipse. The series will begin with a penumbral eclipse near the northern edge of the penumbra on 0993 Mar 11. The series will end with a penumbral eclipse near the southern edge of the penumbra on 2291 May 14. The total duration of Saros series 116 is 1298.17 years.

Summary of Saros 116
First Eclipse 0993 Mar 11
Last Eclipse 2291 May 14
Series Duration 1298.17 Years
No. of Eclipses 73
Sequence 9N 9P 27T 8P 20N

Saros 116 is composed of 73 lunar eclipses as follows:

Lunar Eclipses of Saros 116
Eclipse Type Symbol Number Percent
All Eclipses - 73100.0%
PenumbralN 29 39.7%
PartialP 17 23.3%
TotalT 27 37.0%

The 73 lunar eclipses of Saros 116 occur in the order of 9N 9P 27T 8P 20N which corresponds to the following.

Sequence Order of Lunar Eclipses in Saros 116
Eclipse Type Symbol Number
Penumbral N 9
Partial P 9
Total T 27
Partial P 8
Penumbral N 20

The longest and shortest eclipses of Saros 116 as well as largest and smallest partial eclipses appear below.

Extreme Durations and Magnitudes of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 116
Extrema Type Date Duration Magnitude
Longest Total Lunar Eclipse 1696 May 1601h42m40s -
Shortest Total Lunar Eclipse 1317 Sep 2100h17m02s -
Longest Partial Lunar Eclipse 1804 Jul 2203h15m49s -
Shortest Partial Lunar Eclipse 1930 Oct 0700h38m21s -
Longest Penumbral Lunar Eclipse 1948 Oct 1804h39m46s -
Shortest Penumbral Lunar Eclipse 0993 Mar 1100h26m35s -
Largest Partial Lunar Eclipse 1299 Sep 11 - 0.94429
Smallest Partial Lunar Eclipse 1930 Oct 07 - 0.02525

Links to Additional Lunar Eclipse Predictions

Calendar

The Gregorian calendar (also called the Western calendar) is internationally the most widely used civil calendar. It is named for Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in 1582. On this website, the Gregorian calendar is used for all calendar dates from 1582 Oct 15 onwards. Before that date, the Julian calendar is used. For more information on this topic, see Calendar Dates.

The Julian calendar does not include the year 0. Thus the year 1 BCE is followed by the year 1 CE (See: BCE/CE Dating Conventions). This is awkward for arithmetic calculations. Years in this catalog are numbered astronomically and include the year 0. Historians should note there is a difference of one year between astronomical dates and BCE dates. Thus, the astronomical year 0 corresponds to 1 BCE, and astronomical year -1 corresponds to 2 BCE, etc..

Eclipse Predictions

The eclipse predictions presented here were generated using the JPL DE406 solar and lunar ephemerides. The lunar coordinates have been calculated with respect to the Moon's Center of Mass.

The largest uncertainty in the eclipse predictions is caused by fluctuations in Earth's rotation due primarily to tidal friction of the Moon. The resultant drift in apparent clock time is expressed as ΔT and is determined as follows:

  1. pre-1950's: ΔT calculated from empirical fits to historical records derived by Morrison and Stephenson (2004)
  2. 1955-present: ΔT obtained from published observations
  3. future: ΔT is extrapolated from current values weighted by the long term trend from tidal effects

A series of polynomial expressions have been derived to simplify the evaluation of ΔT for any time from -2999 to +3000. The uncertainty in ΔT over this period can be estimated from scatter in the measurements.

Acknowledgments

Some of the content on this web site is based on the books Five Millennium Canon of Lunar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 and Thousand Year Canon of Lunar Eclipses 1501 to 2500. All eclipse calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy.

Permission is granted to reproduce eclipse data when accompanied by a link to this page and an acknowledgment:

"Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak, www.EclipseWise.com"

The use of diagrams and maps is permitted provided that they are NOT altered (except for re-sizing) and the embedded credit line is NOT removed or covered.