Saros 138

Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 138

Fred Espenak

Introduction

The periodicity and recurrence of lunar eclipses is governed by the Saros cycle, a period of approximately 6,585.3 days (18 years 11 days 8 hours). When two eclipses are separated by a period of one Saros, they share a very similar geometry. The two eclipses occur at the same node with the Moon at nearly the same distance from Earth and the same time of year due to a harmonic in three cycles of the Moon's orbit. Thus, the Saros is useful for organizing eclipses into families or series. Each series typically lasts 12 to 13 centuries and contains 70 or more eclipses. Every saros series begins with a number of penumbral lunar eclipses. The series will then produce several dozen partial eclipses, followed by several dozen total eclipses. The later portion of the series produces another set of partial eclipses before ending with a final group of penumbral eclipses.

Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 138

The table below lists the concise characteristics of every lunar eclipse belonging to Saros 138 . The date and time of each eclipse is given for the instant of Greatest Eclipse. For eclipses between the years -1999 to 3000, the calendar date links to a web page containing additional details along with a diagram of the eclipse geometry and a map showing the geographic region of eclipse visibility for that eclipse. A description of each parameter in the catalog table can be found in Key to Saros Catalog of Lunar Eclipses.

Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 138
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QSE Gamma Pen Mag Um Mag Pen Dur
m
Par Dur
m
Tot Dur
m
1-47 1521-Oct-1523:41:23 174 20 -5915 N a- 1.5291 0.0387-0.9343 53.2 - -
2-46 1539-Oct-2708:10:56 158 20 -5692 N a- 1.5127 0.0710-0.9062 72.0 - -
3-45 1557-Nov-0616:44:58 143 20 -5469 N a- 1.5004 0.0955-0.8857 83.5 - -
4-44 1575-Nov-1801:25:10 131 20 -5246 N a- 1.4937 0.1097-0.8751 89.6 - -
5-43 1593-Dec-0810:08:27 121 20 -5023 N a- 1.4900 0.1180-0.8701 93.1 - -
6-42 1611-Dec-1918:54:20 104 18 -4800 N a- 1.4893 0.1208-0.8700 94.4 - -
7-41 1629-Dec-3003:40:30 79 15 -4577 N a- 1.4894 0.1218-0.8713 95.1 - -
8-40 1648-Jan-1012:26:14 52 13 -4354 N a- 1.4898 0.1219-0.8730 95.4 - -
9-39 1666-Jan-2021:09:12 27 10 -4131 N a- 1.4887 0.1246-0.8717 96.6 - -
10-38 1684-Feb-0105:47:51 11 7 -3908 N a- 1.4850 0.1319-0.8653 99.6 - -
11-37 1702-Feb-1214:21:25 8 5 -3685 N a- 1.4779 0.1451-0.8527104.6 - -
12-36 1720-Feb-2322:48:33 10 4 -3462 N a- 1.4667 0.1659-0.8322112.0 - -
13-35 1738-Mar-0607:07:16 11 3 -3239 N a- 1.4493 0.1979-0.8003122.3 - -
14-34 1756-Mar-1615:17:48 14 3 -3016 N a- 1.4259 0.2407-0.7575134.7 - -
15-33 1774-Mar-2723:19:03 16 2 -2793 N a- 1.3960 0.2955-0.7026148.9 - -
16-32 1792-Apr-0707:12:02 16 1 -2570 N a- 1.3603 0.3612-0.6370164.2 - -
17-31 1810-Apr-1914:54:07 12 1 -2347 N a- 1.3166 0.4414-0.5570180.7 - -
18-30 1828-Apr-2922:28:39 8 1 -2124 N h- 1.2675 0.5318-0.4671197.3 - -
19-29 1846-May-1105:53:43 6 1 -1901 N h- 1.2112 0.6355-0.3643214.2 - -
20-28 1864-May-2113:12:02 6 0 -1678 N h- 1.1503 0.7480-0.2531230.7 - -
21-27 1882-Jun-0120:21:58 -5 0 -1455 N t- 1.0833 0.8717-0.1311246.8 - -
22-26 1900-Jun-1303:27:37 -2 0 -1232 Nx t- 1.0134 1.0010-0.0040262.0 - -
23-25 1918-Jun-2410:28:03 20 0 -1009 P t- 0.9398 1.1375 0.1297276.4 82.4 -
24-24 1936-Jul-0417:25:23 24 0 -786 P t- 0.8642 1.2778 0.2668289.6116.3 -
25-23 1954-Jul-1600:20:51 31 0 -563 P t- 0.7877 1.4202 0.4054301.7140.9 -
26-22 1972-Jul-2607:16:21 43 0 -340 P t- 0.7117 1.5618 0.5427312.5160.2 -
27-21 1990-Aug-0614:13:15 57 0 -117 P t- 0.6374 1.7005 0.6766322.1175.5 -
28-20 2008-Aug-1621:11:12 66 0 106 P t- 0.5646 1.8366 0.8076330.6188.2 -
29-19 2026-Aug-2804:14:04 72 1 329 P t- 0.4964 1.9645 0.9299337.9198.1 -
30-18 2044-Sep-0711:20:44 82 4 552 T t- 0.4318 2.0860 1.0456344.1206.2 33.9
31-17 2062-Sep-1818:34:02 94 8 775 T p- 0.3736 2.1959 1.1496349.3212.5 59.5
32-16 2080-Sep-2901:52:42 109 14 998 T p- 0.3203 2.2967 1.2443353.8217.4 73.8
33-15 2098-Oct-1009:19:58 126 20 1221 T pp 0.2749 2.3831 1.3246357.5221.0 82.7
34-14 2116-Oct-2116:53:39 146 27 1444 T+ pp 0.2353 2.4587 1.3943360.6223.9 88.8
35-13 2134-Nov-0200:34:20 168 34 1667 T+ pp 0.2022 2.5222 1.4522363.2226.0 93.0
36-12 2152-Nov-1208:21:47 193 42 1890 T+ pp 0.1753 2.5743 1.4989365.5227.5 95.8
37-11 2170-Nov-2316:16:21 220 51 2113 T+ pp 0.1554 2.6134 1.5331367.3228.7 97.7
38-10 2188-Dec-0400:15:39 250 60 2336 T+ pp 0.1394 2.6448 1.5602369.0229.6 98.9
39 -9 2206-Dec-1608:19:07 283 70 2559 T+ pp 0.1275 2.6685 1.5803370.4230.3 99.8
40 -8 2224-Dec-2616:25:17 318 80 2782 T+ pp 0.1183 2.6869 1.5956371.6230.9100.5
Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 138
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QSE Gamma Pen Mag Um Mag Pen Dur
m
Par Dur
m
Tot Dur
m
41 -7 2243-Jan-0700:33:44 356 91 3005 T+ pp 0.1116 2.7004 1.6069372.6231.4101.0
42 -6 2261-Jan-1708:40:06 396 103 3228 T+ pp 0.1036 2.7157 1.6208373.5232.0101.5
43 -5 2279-Jan-2816:45:41 439 115 3451 T+ pp 0.0954 2.7312 1.6355374.3232.5102.1
44 -4 2297-Feb-0800:46:04 485 127 3674 T+ pp 0.0832 2.7536 1.6579375.0233.1102.8
45 -3 2315-Feb-2008:42:48 533 140 3897 T+ pp 0.0684 2.7805 1.6854375.6233.7103.6
46 -2 2333-Mar-0216:30:26 584 153 4120 T+ pp 0.0466 2.8198 1.7260376.0234.3104.5
47 -1 2351-Mar-1400:12:40 637 167 4343 T+ pp 0.0206 2.8666 1.7744376.4234.8105.1
48 0 2369-Mar-2407:44:14 693 181 4566 T- pp -0.0135 2.8785 1.7885376.5235.1105.4
49 1 2387-Apr-0415:07:50 751 195 4789 T- pp -0.0541 2.8029 1.7152376.3235.0104.9
50 2 2405-Apr-1422:20:33 812 211 5012 T- pp -0.1034 2.7112 1.6261375.6234.3103.0
51 3 2423-Apr-2605:25:44 876 226 5235 T- pp -0.1586 2.6086 1.5262374.4232.8 99.1
52 4 2441-May-0612:21:24 942 242 5458 T- pp -0.2214 2.4920 1.4123372.4230.0 92.2
53 5 2459-May-1719:09:12 1011 258 5681 T pt -0.2904 2.3640 1.2868369.5225.8 80.8
54 6 2477-May-2801:49:58 1082 275 5904 T -t -0.3653 2.2254 1.1506365.4219.6 61.5
55 7 2495-Jun-0808:25:19 1156 292 6127 T -t -0.4447 2.0786 1.0059360.1211.2 12.8
56 8 2513-Jun-1914:55:55 1232 309 6350 P -t -0.5279 1.9250 0.8542353.3200.1 -
57 9 2531-Jun-3021:23:31 1311 327 6573 P -t -0.6135 1.7672 0.6980345.0185.7 -
58 10 2549-Jul-1103:50:10 1393 346 6796 P -t -0.7001 1.6078 0.5398335.2167.6 -
59 11 2567-Jul-2210:17:24 1477 364 7019 P -t -0.7863 1.4492 0.3820323.9144.4 -
60 12 2585-Aug-0116:45:33 1564 384 7242 P -t -0.8718 1.2920 0.2252310.9113.4 -
61 13 2603-Aug-1323:17:49 1653 403 7465 P -t -0.9540 1.1412 0.0745296.7 66.5 -
62 14 2621-Aug-2405:54:21 1745 423 7688 N -t -1.0328 0.9968-0.0701281.2 - -
63 15 2639-Sep-0412:37:52 1839 443 7911 N -t -1.1061 0.8625-0.2049264.9 - -
64 16 2657-Sep-1419:26:56 1936 464 8134 N -t -1.1750 0.7364-0.3318247.5 - -
65 17 2675-Sep-2602:25:47 2036 485 8357 N -t -1.2364 0.6242-0.4449230.0 - -
66 18 2693-Oct-0609:32:28 2138 506 8580 N -t -1.2917 0.5232-0.5469212.3 - -
67 19 2711-Oct-1816:49:34 2243 528 8803 N -t -1.3389 0.4372-0.6339195.3 - -
68 20 2729-Oct-2900:15:39 2350 550 9026 N -t -1.3792 0.3637-0.7084179.0 - -
69 21 2747-Nov-0907:52:27 2460 573 9249 N -t -1.4116 0.3048-0.7681164.4 - -
70 22 2765-Nov-1915:38:15 2572 596 9472 N -t -1.4373 0.2579-0.8156151.6 - -
71 23 2783-Nov-3023:31:58 2687 619 9695 N -t -1.4572 0.2214-0.8522140.6 - -
72 24 2801-Dec-1107:34:16 2805 643 9918 N -t -1.4709 0.1962-0.8772132.3 - -
73 25 2819-Dec-2215:42:41 2925 667 10141 N -t -1.4798 0.1793-0.8932126.3 - -
74 26 2838-Jan-0123:56:47 3048 691 10364 N -t -1.4853 0.1686-0.9025122.3 - -
75 27 2856-Jan-1308:12:49 3173 716 10587 N -t -1.4896 0.1595-0.9094118.7 - -
76 28 2874-Jan-2316:32:13 3301 741 10810 N -t -1.4919 0.1540-0.9123116.3 - -
77 29 2892-Feb-0400:50:48 3432 767 11033 N -t -1.4952 0.1463-0.9165113.1 - -
78 30 2910-Feb-1509:08:05 3565 792 11256 N -t -1.5000 0.1354-0.9234108.5 - -
79 31 2928-Feb-2617:21:35 3700 819 11479 N -t -1.5082 0.1180-0.9361101.0 - -
80 32 2946-Mar-0901:31:25 3839 845 11702 N -t -1.5200 0.0938-0.9552 89.9 - -
Catalog of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 138
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QSE Gamma Pen Mag Um Mag Pen Dur
m
Par Dur
m
Tot Dur
m
81 33 2964-Mar-1909:35:27 3979 872 11925 N -t -1.5368 0.0602-0.9832 71.9 - -
82 34 2982-Mar-3017:33:12 4123 900 12148 Ne -t -1.5590 0.0164-1.0211 37.5 - -

Statistics for Lunar Eclipses of Saros 138

Lunar eclipses of Saros 138 all occur at the Moon’s ascending node and the Moon moves southward with each eclipse. The series will begin with a penumbral eclipse near the northern edge of the penumbra on 1521 Oct 15. The series will end with a penumbral eclipse near the southern edge of the penumbra on 2982 Mar 30. The total duration of Saros series 138 is 1460.44 years.

Summary of Saros 138
First Eclipse 1521 Oct 15
Last Eclipse 2982 Mar 30
Series Duration 1460.44 Years
No. of Eclipses 82
Sequence 22N 7P 26T 6P 21N

Saros 138 is composed of 82 lunar eclipses as follows:

Lunar Eclipses of Saros 138
Eclipse Type Symbol Number Percent
All Eclipses - 82100.0%
PenumbralN 43 52.4%
PartialP 13 15.9%
TotalT 26 31.7%

The 82 lunar eclipses of Saros 138 occur in the order of 22N 7P 26T 6P 21N which corresponds to the following.

Sequence Order of Lunar Eclipses in Saros 138
Eclipse Type Symbol Number
Penumbral N 22
Partial P 7
Total T 26
Partial P 6
Penumbral N 21

The longest and shortest eclipses of Saros 138 as well as largest and smallest partial eclipses appear below.

Extreme Durations and Magnitudes of Lunar Eclipses of Saros 138
Extrema Type Date Duration Magnitude
Longest Total Lunar Eclipse 2369 Mar 2401h45m25s -
Shortest Total Lunar Eclipse 2495 Jun 0800h12m47s -
Longest Partial Lunar Eclipse 2513 Jun 1903h20m04s -
Shortest Partial Lunar Eclipse 2603 Aug 1301h06m32s -
Longest Penumbral Lunar Eclipse 2621 Aug 2404h41m12s -
Shortest Penumbral Lunar Eclipse 2982 Mar 3000h37m30s -
Largest Partial Lunar Eclipse 2026 Aug 28 - 0.92994
Smallest Partial Lunar Eclipse 2603 Aug 13 - 0.07452

Links to Additional Lunar Eclipse Predictions

Calendar

The Gregorian calendar (also called the Western calendar) is internationally the most widely used civil calendar. It is named for Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in 1582. On this website, the Gregorian calendar is used for all calendar dates from 1582 Oct 15 onwards. Before that date, the Julian calendar is used. For more information on this topic, see Calendar Dates.

The Julian calendar does not include the year 0. Thus the year 1 BCE is followed by the year 1 CE (See: BCE/CE Dating Conventions). This is awkward for arithmetic calculations. Years in this catalog are numbered astronomically and include the year 0. Historians should note there is a difference of one year between astronomical dates and BCE dates. Thus, the astronomical year 0 corresponds to 1 BCE, and astronomical year -1 corresponds to 2 BCE, etc..

Eclipse Predictions

The eclipse predictions presented here were generated using the JPL DE406 solar and lunar ephemerides. The lunar coordinates have been calculated with respect to the Moon's Center of Mass.

The largest uncertainty in the eclipse predictions is caused by fluctuations in Earth's rotation due primarily to tidal friction of the Moon. The resultant drift in apparent clock time is expressed as ΔT and is determined as follows:

  1. pre-1950's: ΔT calculated from empirical fits to historical records derived by Morrison and Stephenson (2004)
  2. 1955-present: ΔT obtained from published observations
  3. future: ΔT is extrapolated from current values weighted by the long term trend from tidal effects

A series of polynomial expressions have been derived to simplify the evaluation of ΔT for any time from -2999 to +3000. The uncertainty in ΔT over this period can be estimated from scatter in the measurements.

Acknowledgments

Some of the content on this web site is based on the books Five Millennium Canon of Lunar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 and Thousand Year Canon of Lunar Eclipses 1501 to 2500. All eclipse calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy.

Permission is granted to reproduce eclipse data when accompanied by a link to this page and an acknowledgment:

"Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak, www.EclipseWise.com"

The use of diagrams and maps is permitted provided that they are NOT altered (except for re-sizing) and the embedded credit line is NOT removed or covered.