Saros 4

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 4

Fred Espenak

Introduction

The periodicity and recurrence of solar eclipses is governed by the Saros cycle, a period of approximately 6,585.3 days (18 years 11 days 8 hours). When two eclipses are separated by a period of one Saros, they share a very similar geometry. The two eclipses occur at the same node with the Moon at nearly the same distance from Earth and the same time of year due to a harmonic in three cycles of the Moon's orbit. Thus, the Saros is useful for organizing eclipses into families or series. Each series typically lasts 12 to 13 centuries and contains 70 or more eclipses. Every saros series begins with a number of partial eclipses near one of Earth's polar regions. The series will then produce several dozen central eclipses before ending with a group of partial eclipses near the opposite pole. For more information, see Periodicity of Solar Eclipses.

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 4

The table below lists the concise characteristics of every solar eclipse belonging to Saros 4 . The date and time of each eclipse is given for the instant of Greatest Eclipse. For eclipses between the years -1999 to 3000, the calendar date links to a web page containing additional details and a map showing the geographic region of eclipse visibility for that eclipse. A description of each parameter in the catalog table can be found in Key to Saros Catalog of Solar Eclipses.

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 4
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QLE Gamma Ecl Mag Lat

°
Long

°
Sun Alt
°
Path Width km Central Dur
1-34 -2731-May-0621:26:26 65899 7360 -58511 Pb t- -1.5156 0.0760 71S 165W 0 - -
2-33 -2713-May-1803:45:24 65378 7257 -58288 P t- -1.4332 0.2190 70S 85E 0 - -
3-32 -2695-May-2810:03:08 64858 7155 -58065 P t- -1.3496 0.3634 70S 24W 0 - -
4-31 -2677-Jun-0816:24:32 64341 7053 -57842 P t- -1.2688 0.5025 69S 134W 0 - -
5-30 -2659-Jun-1822:48:59 63826 6952 -57619 P t- -1.1900 0.6372 68S 116E 0 - -
6-29 -2641-Jun-3005:18:31 63313 6852 -57396 P t- -1.1150 0.7646 67S 5E 0 - -
7-28 -2623-Jul-1011:55:06 62802 6752 -57173 P t- -1.0454 0.8819 66S 107W 0 - -
8-27 -2605-Jul-2118:39:52 62293 6654 -56950 As t- -0.9820 0.9268 55S 145E 10 - 07m13s
9-26 -2587-Aug-0101:33:46 61786 6555 -56727 A t- -0.9258 0.9264 44S 38E 22 73308m05s
10-25 -2569-Aug-1208:36:07 61281 6458 -56504 A p- -0.8760 0.9247 38S 72W 29 58008m36s
11-24 -2551-Aug-2215:49:27 60778 6361 -56281 A p- -0.8348 0.9226 34S 176E 33 51908m52s
12-23 -2533-Sep-0223:11:52 60278 6265 -56058 A p- -0.8005 0.9205 33S 61E 37 48708m58s
13-22 -2515-Sep-1306:44:06 59779 6169 -55835 A p- -0.7741 0.9186 33S 55W 39 47208m56s
14-21 -2497-Sep-2414:24:34 59283 6075 -55612 A p- -0.7541 0.9170 35S 174W 41 46408m48s
15-20 -2479-Oct-0422:13:45 58788 5980 -55389 A p- -0.7411 0.9157 37S 64E 42 46208m36s
16-19 -2461-Oct-1606:08:33 58296 5887 -55166 A p- -0.7321 0.9151 41S 58W 43 46108m21s
17-18 -2443-Oct-2614:07:54 57805 5794 -54943 A p- -0.7264 0.9150 45S 178E 43 45908m04s
18-17 -2425-Nov-0622:10:05 57317 5702 -54720 A p- -0.7228 0.9156 49S 54E 43 45607m46s
19-16 -2407-Nov-1706:14:12 56831 5611 -54497 A p- -0.7207 0.9168 53S 70W 44 44907m26s
20-15 -2389-Nov-2814:16:17 56347 5520 -54274 A p- -0.7162 0.9189 57S 169E 44 43707m05s
21-14 -2371-Dec-0822:16:24 55865 5430 -54051 A p- -0.7096 0.9216 61S 50E 45 41906m45s
22-13 -2353-Dec-2006:11:22 55385 5340 -53828 A p- -0.6982 0.9251 64S 66W 45 39406m24s
23-12 -2335-Dec-3014:02:26 54907 5252 -53605 A p- -0.6830 0.9292 66S 177W 47 36506m04s
24-11 -2316-Jan-1021:44:27 54431 5164 -53382 A p- -0.6599 0.9340 65S 75E 48 32905m44s
25-10 -2298-Jan-2105:20:48 53957 5076 -53159 A p- -0.6315 0.9392 63S 32W 51 29205m24s
26 -9 -2280-Feb-0112:47:16 53486 4990 -52936 A p- -0.5942 0.9448 58S 140W 53 25405m03s
27 -8 -2262-Feb-1120:07:22 53016 4904 -52713 A p- -0.5510 0.9508 53S 112E 56 21704m40s
28 -7 -2244-Feb-2303:17:18 52548 4818 -52490 A p- -0.4985 0.9569 46S 3E 60 18104m16s
29 -6 -2226-Mar-0510:22:03 52083 4734 -52267 A p- -0.4409 0.9630 39S 106W 64 14903m49s
30 -5 -2208-Mar-1517:18:21 51619 4650 -52044 A p- -0.3755 0.9690 31S 147E 68 12003m19s
31 -4 -2190-Mar-2700:09:47 51158 4567 -51821 A p- -0.3052 0.9748 22S 39E 72 9402m47s
32 -3 -2172-Apr-0606:55:40 50699 4484 -51598 A nn -0.2291 0.9803 14S 67W 77 7202m14s
33 -2 -2154-Apr-1713:39:49 50242 4402 -51375 A nn -0.1506 0.9854 5S 172W 81 5201m40s
34 -1 -2136-Apr-2720:21:57 49786 4321 -51152 A nn -0.0694 0.9900 3N 83E 86 3501m08s
35 0 -2118-May-0903:03:51 49333 4240 -50929 A nn 0.0130 0.9940 12N 22W 89 2100m40s
36 1 -2100-May-1909:47:50 48882 4161 -50706 A nn 0.0950 0.9974 20N 127W 84 900m17s
37 2 -2082-May-3016:34:53 48433 4081 -50483 Hm nn 0.1757 1.0003 28N 128E 80 100m02s
38 3 -2064-Jun-0923:26:10 47987 4003 -50260 H nn 0.2539 1.0025 35N 23E 75 900m15s
39 4 -2046-Jun-2106:23:18 47542 3925 -50037 H -n 0.3282 1.0041 42N 82W 71 1500m23s
40 5 -2028-Jul-0113:28:00 47099 3848 -49814 H -p 0.3973 1.0052 47N 173E 66 2000m28s
Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 4
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QLE Gamma Ecl Mag Lat

°
Long

°
Sun Alt
°
Path Width km Central Dur
41 6 -2010-Jul-1220:41:22 46658 3772 -49591 H -p 0.4605 1.0057 51N 67E 62 2200m29s
42 7 -1992-Jul-2304:02:42 46220 3696 -49368 H -p 0.5180 1.0059 54N 39W 59 2400m29s
43 8 -1974-Aug-0311:34:54 45783 3621 -49145 H -p 0.5675 1.0057 55N 148W 55 2400m27s
44 9 -1956-Aug-1319:16:39 45349 3547 -48922 H -p 0.6098 1.0054 54N 101E 52 2300m25s
45 10 -1938-Aug-2503:09:12 44917 3473 -48699 H -p 0.6442 1.0050 53N 15W 50 2200m23s
46 11 -1920-Sep-0411:10:31 44486 3400 -48476 H -p 0.6722 1.0046 50N 135W 48 2100m21s
47 12 -1902-Sep-1519:22:37 44058 3328 -48253 H -p 0.6922 1.0044 47N 101E 46 2100m20s
48 13 -1884-Sep-2603:42:56 43632 3256 -48030 H -p 0.7064 1.0045 43N 26W 45 2200m21s
49 14 -1866-Oct-0712:11:21 43208 3185 -47807 H -p 0.7145 1.0050 39N 157W 44 2400m24s
50 15 -1848-Oct-1720:46:17 42786 3115 -47584 H -p 0.7181 1.0059 36N 71E 44 2900m29s
51 16 -1830-Oct-2905:26:45 42366 3046 -47361 H -p 0.7178 1.0074 32N 64W 44 3600m38s
52 17 -1812-Nov-0814:10:31 41948 2977 -47138 H -p 0.7157 1.0094 29N 161E 44 4600m49s
53 18 -1794-Nov-1922:55:25 41532 2909 -46915 H2 -p 0.7134 1.0120 26N 26E 44 5801m05s
54 19 -1776-Nov-3007:41:08 41118 2841 -46692 T -p 0.7112 1.0151 24N 110W 45 7301m24s
55 20 -1758-Dec-1116:24:58 40707 2775 -46469 T -p 0.7107 1.0187 22N 115E 45 9001m47s
56 21 -1740-Dec-2201:05:15 40297 2709 -46246 T -p 0.7141 1.0228 22N 19W 44 11002m11s
57 22 -1721-Jan-0209:40:25 39890 2643 -46023 T -p 0.7222 1.0271 22N 152W 44 13302m37s
58 23 -1703-Jan-1218:09:51 39484 2579 -45800 T -p 0.7356 1.0318 24N 76E 42 15803m01s
59 24 -1685-Jan-2402:32:47 39081 2515 -45577 T -p 0.7548 1.0365 27N 54W 41 18703m23s
60 25 -1667-Feb-0310:47:25 38679 2452 -45354 T -p 0.7811 1.0412 31N 177E 38 22103m40s
61 26 -1649-Feb-1418:54:51 38280 2389 -45131 T -p 0.8139 1.0456 36N 50E 35 26103m51s
62 27 -1631-Feb-2502:54:09 37883 2327 -44908 T -p 0.8540 1.0495 43N 77W 31 31503m54s
63 28 -1613-Mar-0810:46:29 37488 2266 -44685 T -p 0.9001 1.0528 51N 156E 25 40103m49s
64 29 -1595-Mar-1818:31:11 37095 2206 -44462 T -t 0.9529 1.0548 61N 24E 17 60603m33s
65 30 -1577-Mar-3002:10:22 36704 2146 -44239 T+ -t 1.0107 1.0001 72N 140W 0 - -
66 31 -1559-Apr-0909:44:01 36315 2087 -44016 P -t 1.0734 0.8804 72N 91E 0 - -
67 32 -1541-Apr-2017:13:10 35928 2029 -43793 P -t 1.1402 0.7520 71N 37W 0 - -
68 33 -1523-May-0100:39:27 35543 1971 -43570 P -t 1.2095 0.6176 71N 164W 0 - -
69 34 -1505-May-1208:03:49 35161 1915 -43347 P -t 1.2808 0.4792 70N 70E 0 - -
70 35 -1487-May-2215:28:22 34780 1859 -43124 P -t 1.3519 0.3407 70N 55W 0 - -
71 36 -1469-Jun-0222:52:07 34402 1803 -42901 P -t 1.4236 0.2012 69N 179W 0 - -
72 37 -1451-Jun-1306:19:02 34025 1748 -42678 Pe -t 1.4928 0.0669 68N 56E 0 - -

Statistics for Solar Eclipses of Saros 4

Solar eclipses of Saros 4 all occur at the Moon’s descending node and the Moon moves northward with each eclipse. The series began with a partial eclipse in the southern hemisphere on -2731 May 06. The series ended with a partial eclipse in the northern hemisphere on -1451 Jun 13. The total duration of Saros series 4 is 1280.14 years.

Summary of Saros 4
First Eclipse -2731 May 06
Last Eclipse -1451 Jun 13
Series Duration 1280.14 Years
No. of Eclipses 72
Sequence 7P 29A 17H 12T 7P

Saros 4 is composed of 72 solar eclipses as follows:

Solar Eclipses of Saros 4
Eclipse Type Symbol Number Percent
All Eclipses - 72100.0%
PartialP 14 19.4%
AnnularA 29 40.3%
TotalT 12 16.7%
HybridH 17 23.6%

Umbral eclipses (annular, total and hybrid) can be further classified as either: 1) Central (two limits), 2) Central (one limit) or 3) Non-Central (one limit). The statistical distribution of these classes in Saros series 4 appears in the following table.

Umbral Eclipses of Saros 4
Classification Number Percent
All Umbral Eclipses 58100.0%
Central (two limits) 56 96.6%
Central (one limit) 1 1.7%
Non-Central (one limit) 1 1.7%

The 72 eclipses in Saros 4 occur in the following order : 7P 29A 17H 12T 7P

The longest and shortest central eclipses of Saros 4 as well as largest and smallest partial eclipses appear below.

Extreme Durations and Magnitudes of Solar Eclipses of Saros 4
Extrema Type Date Duration Magnitude
Longest Annular Solar Eclipse -2533 Sep 0208m58s -
Shortest Annular Solar Eclipse -2100 May 1900m17s -
Longest Total Solar Eclipse -1631 Feb 2503m54s -
Shortest Total Solar Eclipse -1776 Nov 3001m24s -
Longest Hybrid Solar Eclipse -1794 Nov 1901m05s -
Shortest Hybrid Solar Eclipse -2082 May 3000m02s -
Largest Partial Solar Eclipse -2623 Jul 10 - 0.88192
Smallest Partial Solar Eclipse -1451 Jun 13 - 0.06686

Links to Additional Solar Eclipse Predictions

Calendar

The Gregorian calendar (also called the Western calendar) is internationally the most widely used civil calendar. It is named for Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in 1582. On this website, the Gregorian calendar is used for all calendar dates from 1582 Oct 15 onwards. Before that date, the Julian calendar is used. For more information on this topic, see Calendar Dates.

The Julian calendar does not include the year 0. Thus the year 1 BCE is followed by the year 1 CE (See: BCE/CE Dating Conventions). This is awkward for arithmetic calculations. Years in this catalog are numbered astronomically and include the year 0. Historians should note there is a difference of one year between astronomical dates and BCE dates. Thus, the astronomical year 0 corresponds to 1 BCE, and astronomical year -1 corresponds to 2 BCE, etc..

Eclipse Predictions

The eclipse predictions presented here were generated using the JPL DE406 solar and lunar ephemerides. The lunar coordinates have been calculated with respect to the Moon's Center of Mass.

The largest uncertainty in the eclipse predictions is caused by fluctuations in Earth's rotation due primarily to tidal friction of the Moon. The resultant drift in apparent clock time is expressed as ΔT and is determined as follows:

  1. pre-1950's: ΔT calculated from empirical fits to historical records derived by Morrison and Stephenson (2004)
  2. 1955-present: ΔT obtained from published observations
  3. future: ΔT is extrapolated from current values weighted by the long term trend from tidal effects

A series of polynomial expressions have been derived to simplify the evaluation of ΔT for any time from -2999 to +3000. The uncertainty in ΔT over this period can be estimated from scatter in the measurements.

Acknowledgments

Some of the content on this web site is based on the books Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 and Thousand Year Canon of Solar Eclipses 1501 to 2500. All eclipse calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy.

Permission is granted to reproduce data from this page when accompanied by an acknowledgment:

"Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak, www.EclipseWise.com"

The use of diagrams and maps is permitted provided that they are NOT altered (except for re-sizing) and the embedded credit line is NOT removed or covered.