Saros 12

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 12

Fred Espenak

Introduction

The periodicity and recurrence of solar eclipses is governed by the Saros cycle, a period of approximately 6,585.3 days (18 years 11 days 8 hours). When two eclipses are separated by a period of one Saros, they share a very similar geometry. The two eclipses occur at the same node with the Moon at nearly the same distance from Earth and the same time of year due to a harmonic in three cycles of the Moon's orbit. Thus, the Saros is useful for organizing eclipses into families or series. Each series typically lasts 12 to 13 centuries and contains 70 or more eclipses. Every saros series begins with a number of partial eclipses near one of Earth's polar regions. The series will then produce several dozen central eclipses before ending with a group of partial eclipses near the opposite pole. For more information, see Periodicity of Solar Eclipses.

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 12

The table below lists the concise characteristics of every solar eclipse belonging to Saros 12 . The date and time of each eclipse is given for the instant of Greatest Eclipse. For eclipses between the years -1999 to 3000, the calendar date links to a web page containing additional details and a map showing the geographic region of eclipse visibility for that eclipse. A description of each parameter in the catalog table can be found in Key to Saros Catalog of Solar Eclipses.

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 12
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QLE Gamma Ecl Mag Lat

°
Long

°
Sun Alt
°
Path Width km Central Dur
1-51 -2662-Aug-2002:48:48 63907 6968 -57654 Pb t- -1.5024 0.0578 63S 1W 0 - -
2-50 -2644-Aug-3011:08:01 63393 6868 -57431 P t- -1.4747 0.1117 62S 137W 0 - -
3-49 -2626-Sep-1019:36:22 62882 6768 -57208 P t- -1.4544 0.1512 61S 85E 0 - -
4-48 -2608-Sep-2104:11:58 62373 6669 -56985 P t- -1.4399 0.1795 61S 55W 0 - -
5-47 -2590-Oct-0212:53:43 61865 6571 -56762 P t- -1.4303 0.1982 61S 163E 0 - -
6-46 -2572-Oct-1221:41:28 61360 6473 -56539 P t- -1.4258 0.2072 61S 21E 0 - -
7-45 -2554-Oct-2406:33:11 60857 6376 -56316 P t- -1.4250 0.2092 61S 123W 0 - -
8-44 -2536-Nov-0315:27:08 60356 6280 -56093 P t- -1.4260 0.2075 61S 93E 0 - -
9-43 -2518-Nov-1500:21:11 59857 6184 -55870 P t- -1.4276 0.2045 61S 52W 0 - -
10-42 -2500-Nov-2509:14:26 59360 6089 -55647 P t- -1.4289 0.2020 62S 164E 0 - -
11-41 -2482-Dec-0618:04:55 58866 5995 -55424 P t- -1.4286 0.2025 63S 20E 0 - -
12-40 -2464-Dec-1702:50:20 58373 5902 -55201 P t- -1.4249 0.2091 63S 123W 0 - -
13-39 -2446-Dec-2811:30:23 57882 5809 -54978 P t- -1.4174 0.2228 64S 95E 0 - -
14-38 -2427-Jan-0720:03:09 57394 5716 -54755 P t- -1.4047 0.2462 65S 45W 0 - -
15-37 -2409-Jan-1904:27:51 56907 5625 -54532 P t- -1.3861 0.2809 66S 176E 0 - -
16-36 -2391-Jan-2912:43:37 56423 5534 -54309 P t- -1.3609 0.3283 67S 40E 0 - -
17-35 -2373-Feb-0920:50:57 55940 5444 -54086 P t- -1.3294 0.3876 68S 96W 0 - -
18-34 -2355-Feb-2004:49:33 55460 5354 -53863 P t- -1.2917 0.4590 69S 131E 0 - -
19-33 -2337-Mar-0312:38:28 54982 5266 -53640 P t- -1.2464 0.5451 70S 1W 0 - -
20-32 -2319-Mar-1320:19:42 54506 5177 -53417 P t- -1.1954 0.6421 71S 132W 0 - -
21-31 -2301-Mar-2503:52:34 54031 5090 -53194 P t- -1.1379 0.7514 71S 100E 0 - -
22-30 -2283-Apr-0411:19:45 53559 5003 -52971 P t- -1.0765 0.8679 72S 28W 0 - -
23-29 -2265-Apr-1518:39:11 53089 4917 -52748 P t- -1.0094 0.9950 72S 154W 0 - -
24-28 -2247-Apr-2601:55:42 52622 4832 -52525 T t- -0.9404 1.0412 59S 44E 19 40902m49s
25-27 -2229-May-0709:07:14 52156 4747 -52302 T p- -0.8678 1.0416 47S 80W 29 27803m14s
26-26 -2211-May-1716:17:43 51692 4663 -52079 T p- -0.7950 1.0403 37S 163E 37 22103m27s
27-25 -2193-May-2823:25:50 51230 4580 -51856 T p- -0.7211 1.0379 28S 49E 44 18303m32s
28-24 -2175-Jun-0806:35:32 50771 4497 -51633 T p- -0.6492 1.0345 20S 65W 49 15203m26s
29-23 -2157-Jun-1913:46:17 50313 4415 -51410 T p- -0.5790 1.0303 13S 177W 55 12603m10s
30-22 -2139-Jun-2921:00:01 49858 4334 -51187 T p- -0.5120 1.0254 7S 70E 59 10002m45s
31-21 -2121-Jul-1104:18:00 49404 4253 -50964 T p- -0.4493 1.0199 3S 42W 63 7602m11s
32-20 -2103-Jul-2111:41:47 48953 4173 -50741 H n- -0.3920 1.0140 1N 156W 67 5201m32s
33-19 -2085-Aug-0119:11:54 48504 4094 -50518 H n- -0.3409 1.0077 3N 89E 70 2800m50s
34-18 -2067-Aug-1202:48:48 48057 4015 -50295 H n- -0.2963 1.0013 4N 27W 73 500m08s
35-17 -2049-Aug-2310:33:09 47611 3937 -50072 A n- -0.2585 0.9949 4N 145W 75 1900m32s
36-16 -2031-Sep-0218:25:21 47168 3860 -49849 A nn -0.2279 0.9885 2N 96E 77 4201m11s
37-15 -2013-Sep-1402:24:10 46727 3784 -49626 A nn -0.2037 0.9824 0N 26W 78 6401m48s
38-14 -1995-Sep-2410:30:37 46289 3708 -49403 A nn -0.1866 0.9766 3S 150W 79 8502m22s
39-13 -1977-Oct-0518:42:39 45852 3633 -49180 A nn -0.1750 0.9713 7S 85E 80 10402m53s
40-12 -1959-Oct-1603:00:35 45417 3558 -48957 A nn -0.1691 0.9665 11S 42W 80 12203m23s
Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 12
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QLE Gamma Ecl Mag Lat

°
Long

°
Sun Alt
°
Path Width km Central Dur
41-11 -1941-Oct-2711:20:15 44984 3484 -48734 A nn -0.1652 0.9623 15S 169W 80 13803m49s
42-10 -1923-Nov-0619:43:22 44554 3411 -48511 A nn -0.1652 0.9588 20S 63E 80 15204m14s
43 -9 -1905-Nov-1804:05:35 44125 3339 -48288 A nn -0.1656 0.9559 24S 64W 80 16304m35s
44 -8 -1887-Nov-2812:26:54 43699 3267 -48065 Am nn -0.1657 0.9537 27S 170E 80 17104m54s
45 -7 -1869-Dec-0920:43:12 43274 3196 -47842 A nn -0.1626 0.9521 30S 45E 80 17805m11s
46 -6 -1851-Dec-2004:55:28 42852 3126 -47619 A nn -0.1569 0.9511 32S 78W 81 18105m24s
47 -5 -1833-Dec-3113:00:22 42431 3057 -47396 A nn -0.1459 0.9506 32S 162E 81 18305m35s
48 -4 -1814-Jan-1020:56:59 42013 2988 -47173 A nn -0.1289 0.9506 31S 43E 82 18305m43s
49 -3 -1796-Jan-2204:44:00 41597 2919 -46950 A nn -0.1048 0.9509 29S 74W 84 18105m49s
50 -2 -1778-Feb-0112:21:25 41183 2852 -46727 A nn -0.0734 0.9516 25S 171E 86 17805m53s
51 -1 -1760-Feb-1219:47:44 40771 2785 -46504 A nn -0.0337 0.9523 21S 58E 88 17505m54s
52 0 -1742-Feb-2303:03:26 40361 2719 -46281 A nn 0.0141 0.9531 15S 53W 89 17105m53s
53 1 -1724-Mar-0510:08:40 39953 2654 -46058 A nn 0.0698 0.9538 8S 162W 86 16905m50s
54 2 -1706-Mar-1617:04:26 39548 2589 -45835 A nn 0.1323 0.9544 0S 90E 82 16805m44s
55 3 -1688-Mar-2623:49:19 39144 2525 -45612 A nn 0.2032 0.9547 8N 15W 78 16905m37s
56 4 -1670-Apr-0706:26:59 38742 2462 -45389 A np 0.2792 0.9546 16N 119W 74 17205m29s
57 5 -1652-Apr-1712:56:41 38343 2399 -45166 A -p 0.3612 0.9542 25N 139E 69 17905m19s
58 6 -1634-Apr-2819:22:23 37945 2337 -44943 A -p 0.4456 0.9533 34N 38E 63 19005m08s
59 7 -1616-May-0901:41:47 37550 2276 -44720 A -p 0.5345 0.9518 44N 61W 57 20804m57s
60 8 -1598-May-2008:01:09 37156 2215 -44497 A -p 0.6227 0.9498 54N 160W 51 23504m46s
61 9 -1580-May-3014:18:28 36765 2156 -44274 A -p 0.7123 0.9472 64N 101E 44 27804m35s
62 10 -1562-Jun-1020:38:11 36376 2096 -44051 A -p 0.7992 0.9440 74N 4E 37 34704m26s
63 11 -1544-Jun-2102:59:17 35989 2038 -43828 A -t 0.8845 0.9399 85N 89W 27 48504m19s
64 12 -1526-Jul-0209:26:24 35604 1980 -43605 A -t 0.9645 0.9346 80N 15W 15 96804m11s
65 13 -1508-Jul-1215:59:01 35221 1924 -43382 P -t 1.0397 0.8920 65N 113W 0 - -
66 14 -1490-Jul-2322:38:34 34840 1867 -43159 P -t 1.1092 0.7733 64N 135E 0 - -
67 15 -1472-Aug-0305:26:53 34461 1812 -42936 P -t 1.1712 0.6677 63N 22E 0 - -
68 16 -1454-Aug-1412:24:30 34084 1757 -42713 P -t 1.2256 0.5756 62N 93W 0 - -
69 17 -1436-Aug-2419:32:25 33709 1703 -42490 P -t 1.2717 0.4981 62N 150E 0 - -
70 18 -1418-Sep-0502:49:04 33337 1650 -42267 P -t 1.3106 0.4328 61N 30E 0 - -
71 19 -1400-Sep-1510:16:34 32966 1597 -42044 P -t 1.3410 0.3822 61N 92W 0 - -
72 20 -1382-Sep-2617:52:40 32597 1545 -41821 P -t 1.3648 0.3428 61N 144E 0 - -
73 21 -1364-Oct-0701:37:41 32231 1494 -41598 P -t 1.3813 0.3155 61N 17E 0 - -
74 22 -1346-Oct-1809:29:36 31867 1443 -41375 P -t 1.3926 0.2969 61N 111W 0 - -
75 23 -1328-Oct-2817:28:31 31504 1394 -41152 P -t 1.3984 0.2873 61N 119E 0 - -
76 24 -1310-Nov-0901:31:22 31144 1345 -40929 P -t 1.4015 0.2820 61N 12W 0 - -
77 25 -1292-Nov-1909:36:51 30786 1297 -40706 P -t 1.4029 0.2793 62N 144W 0 - -
78 26 -1274-Nov-3017:43:06 30430 1249 -40483 P -t 1.4041 0.2769 63N 84E 0 - -
79 27 -1256-Dec-1101:49:20 30076 1202 -40260 P -t 1.4052 0.2743 64N 48W 0 - -
80 28 -1238-Dec-2209:51:27 29724 1156 -40037 P -t 1.4103 0.2648 65N 180W 0 - -
Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 12
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QLE Gamma Ecl Mag Lat

°
Long

°
Sun Alt
°
Path Width km Central Dur
81 29 -1219-Jan-0117:50:04 29374 1111 -39814 P -t 1.4186 0.2498 66N 49E 0 - -
82 30 -1201-Jan-1301:42:03 29026 1066 -39591 P -t 1.4325 0.2249 67N 81W 0 - -
83 31 -1183-Jan-2309:29:11 28680 1023 -39368 P -t 1.4508 0.1923 68N 150E 0 - -
84 32 -1165-Feb-0317:06:24 28337 980 -39145 P -t 1.4772 0.1453 69N 22E 0 - -
85 33 -1147-Feb-1400:37:48 27995 937 -38922 P -t 1.5085 0.0891 70N 104W 0 - -
86 34 -1129-Feb-2507:59:25 27656 896 -38699 Pe -t 1.5482 0.0178 70N 131E 0 - -

Statistics for Solar Eclipses of Saros 12

Solar eclipses of Saros 12 all occur at the Moon’s descending node and the Moon moves northward with each eclipse. The series began with a partial eclipse in the southern hemisphere on -2662 Aug 20. The series ended with a partial eclipse in the northern hemisphere on -1129 Feb 25. The total duration of Saros series 12 is 1532.56 years.

Summary of Saros 12
First Eclipse -2662 Aug 20
Last Eclipse -1129 Feb 25
Series Duration 1532.56 Years
No. of Eclipses 86
Sequence 23P 8T 3H 30A 22P

Saros 12 is composed of 86 solar eclipses as follows:

Solar Eclipses of Saros 12
Eclipse Type Symbol Number Percent
All Eclipses - 86100.0%
PartialP 45 52.3%
AnnularA 30 34.9%
TotalT 8 9.3%
HybridH 3 3.5%

Umbral eclipses (annular, total and hybrid) can be further classified as either: 1) Central (two limits), 2) Central (one limit) or 3) Non-Central (one limit). The statistical distribution of these classes in Saros series 12 appears in the following table.

Umbral Eclipses of Saros 12
Classification Number Percent
All Umbral Eclipses 41100.0%
Central (two limits) 41100.0%
Central (one limit) 0 0.0%
Non-Central (one limit) 0 0.0%

The 86 eclipses in Saros 12 occur in the following order : 23P 8T 3H 30A 22P

The longest and shortest central eclipses of Saros 12 as well as largest and smallest partial eclipses appear below.

Extreme Durations and Magnitudes of Solar Eclipses of Saros 12
Extrema Type Date Duration Magnitude
Longest Annular Solar Eclipse -1760 Feb 1205m54s -
Shortest Annular Solar Eclipse -2049 Aug 2300m32s -
Longest Total Solar Eclipse -2193 May 2803m32s -
Shortest Total Solar Eclipse -2121 Jul 1102m11s -
Longest Hybrid Solar Eclipse -2103 Jul 2101m32s -
Shortest Hybrid Solar Eclipse -2067 Aug 1200m08s -
Largest Partial Solar Eclipse -2265 Apr 15 - 0.99497
Smallest Partial Solar Eclipse -1129 Feb 25 - 0.01783

Links to Additional Solar Eclipse Predictions

Calendar

The Gregorian calendar (also called the Western calendar) is internationally the most widely used civil calendar. It is named for Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in 1582. On this website, the Gregorian calendar is used for all calendar dates from 1582 Oct 15 onwards. Before that date, the Julian calendar is used. For more information on this topic, see Calendar Dates.

The Julian calendar does not include the year 0. Thus the year 1 BCE is followed by the year 1 CE (See: BCE/CE Dating Conventions). This is awkward for arithmetic calculations. Years in this catalog are numbered astronomically and include the year 0. Historians should note there is a difference of one year between astronomical dates and BCE dates. Thus, the astronomical year 0 corresponds to 1 BCE, and astronomical year -1 corresponds to 2 BCE, etc..

Eclipse Predictions

The eclipse predictions presented here were generated using the JPL DE406 solar and lunar ephemerides. The lunar coordinates have been calculated with respect to the Moon's Center of Mass.

The largest uncertainty in the eclipse predictions is caused by fluctuations in Earth's rotation due primarily to tidal friction of the Moon. The resultant drift in apparent clock time is expressed as ΔT and is determined as follows:

  1. pre-1950's: ΔT calculated from empirical fits to historical records derived by Morrison and Stephenson (2004)
  2. 1955-present: ΔT obtained from published observations
  3. future: ΔT is extrapolated from current values weighted by the long term trend from tidal effects

A series of polynomial expressions have been derived to simplify the evaluation of ΔT for any time from -2999 to +3000. The uncertainty in ΔT over this period can be estimated from scatter in the measurements.

Acknowledgments

Some of the content on this web site is based on the books Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 and Thousand Year Canon of Solar Eclipses 1501 to 2500. All eclipse calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy.

Permission is granted to reproduce data from this page when accompanied by an acknowledgment:

"Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak, www.EclipseWise.com"

The use of diagrams and maps is permitted provided that they are NOT altered (except for re-sizing) and the embedded credit line is NOT removed or covered.