Saros 16

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 16

Fred Espenak

Introduction

The periodicity and recurrence of solar eclipses is governed by the Saros cycle, a period of approximately 6,585.3 days (18 years 11 days 8 hours). When two eclipses are separated by a period of one Saros, they share a very similar geometry. The two eclipses occur at the same node with the Moon at nearly the same distance from Earth and the same time of year due to a harmonic in three cycles of the Moon's orbit. Thus, the Saros is useful for organizing eclipses into families or series. Each series typically lasts 12 to 13 centuries and contains 70 or more eclipses. Every saros series begins with a number of partial eclipses near one of Earth's polar regions. The series will then produce several dozen central eclipses before ending with a group of partial eclipses near the opposite pole. For more information, see Periodicity of Solar Eclipses.

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 16

The table below lists the concise characteristics of every solar eclipse belonging to Saros 16 . The date and time of each eclipse is given for the instant of Greatest Eclipse. For eclipses between the years -1999 to 3000, the calendar date links to a web page containing additional details and a map showing the geographic region of eclipse visibility for that eclipse. A description of each parameter in the catalog table can be found in Key to Saros Catalog of Solar Eclipses.

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 16
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QLE Gamma Ecl Mag Lat

°
Long

°
Sun Alt
°
Path Width km Central Dur
1-34 -2456-Jul-2323:06:44 58166 5862 -55107 Pb t- -1.5213 0.0588 65S 53E 0 - -
2-33 -2438-Aug-0406:21:57 57676 5770 -54884 P t- -1.4754 0.1419 64S 68W 0 - -
3-32 -2420-Aug-1413:45:14 57188 5678 -54661 P t- -1.4365 0.2118 63S 169E 0 - -
4-31 -2402-Aug-2521:16:13 56703 5587 -54438 P t- -1.4041 0.2695 62S 45E 0 - -
5-30 -2384-Sep-0504:55:47 56219 5496 -54215 P t- -1.3791 0.3138 61S 80W 0 - -
6-29 -2366-Sep-1612:42:00 55738 5406 -53992 P t- -1.3599 0.3477 61S 152E 0 - -
7-28 -2348-Sep-2620:36:02 55258 5317 -53769 P t- -1.3472 0.3700 61S 23E 0 - -
8-27 -2330-Oct-0804:35:21 54781 5228 -53546 P t- -1.3392 0.3841 61S 108W 0 - -
9-26 -2312-Oct-1812:39:27 54305 5141 -53323 P t- -1.3355 0.3908 61S 121E 0 - -
10-25 -2294-Oct-2920:46:21 53832 5053 -53100 P t- -1.3344 0.3929 61S 12W 0 - -
11-24 -2276-Nov-0904:55:15 53361 4967 -52877 P t- -1.3356 0.3912 61S 144W 0 - -
12-23 -2258-Nov-2013:03:00 52892 4881 -52654 P t- -1.3361 0.3904 62S 83E 0 - -
13-22 -2240-Nov-3021:08:07 52425 4796 -52431 P t- -1.3348 0.3926 62S 49W 0 - -
14-21 -2222-Dec-1205:08:44 51960 4712 -52208 P t- -1.3305 0.3998 63S 179E 0 - -
15-20 -2204-Dec-2213:04:11 51497 4628 -51985 P t- -1.3228 0.4125 64S 49E 0 - -
16-19 -2185-Jan-0220:50:30 51036 4545 -51762 P t- -1.3080 0.4371 65S 79W 0 - -
17-18 -2167-Jan-1304:29:10 50578 4462 -51539 P t- -1.2875 0.4713 66S 154E 0 - -
18-17 -2149-Jan-2411:57:03 50121 4381 -51316 P t- -1.2585 0.5198 67S 29E 0 - -
19-16 -2131-Feb-0319:16:49 49666 4300 -51093 P t- -1.2232 0.5792 68S 94W 0 - -
20-15 -2113-Feb-1502:23:40 49214 4219 -50870 P t- -1.1777 0.6560 69S 146E 0 - -
21-14 -2095-Feb-2509:22:49 48763 4140 -50647 P t- -1.1261 0.7437 70S 27E 0 - -
22-13 -2077-Mar-0816:10:35 48315 4061 -50424 P t- -1.0650 0.8478 71S 90W 0 - -
23-12 -2059-Mar-1822:51:19 47869 3982 -50201 A- t- -0.9981 0.9623 71S 154E 0 - -
24-11 -2041-Mar-3005:22:40 47424 3905 -49978 A t- -0.9232 0.9360 65S 19W 22 62305m14s
25-10 -2023-Apr-0911:49:46 46982 3828 -49755 A p- -0.8444 0.9402 53S 134W 32 41005m34s
26 -9 -2005-Apr-2018:10:52 46542 3752 -49532 A p- -0.7604 0.9436 42S 120E 40 31605m53s
27 -8 -1987-May-0100:28:50 46104 3676 -49309 A p- -0.6733 0.9464 32S 17E 47 26406m10s
28 -7 -1969-May-1206:44:38 45668 3601 -49086 A p- -0.5839 0.9485 22S 83W 54 23106m24s
29 -6 -1951-May-2213:01:21 45234 3527 -48863 A p- -0.4945 0.9502 13S 177E 60 20906m34s
30 -5 -1933-Jun-0219:19:37 44802 3454 -48640 A p- -0.4060 0.9513 5S 78E 66 19506m39s
31 -4 -1915-Jun-1301:41:03 44373 3381 -48417 A p- -0.3195 0.9518 3N 21W 71 18606m40s
32 -3 -1897-Jun-2408:08:14 43945 3309 -48194 A nn -0.2370 0.9519 9N 121W 76 18106m36s
33 -2 -1879-Jul-0414:42:12 43519 3237 -47971 A nn -0.1593 0.9516 15N 139E 81 17906m28s
34 -1 -1861-Jul-1521:23:33 43096 3167 -47748 A nn -0.0872 0.9510 19N 37E 85 18006m18s
35 0 -1843-Jul-2604:14:08 42674 3097 -47525 A nn -0.0218 0.9502 22N 66W 89 18306m09s
36 1 -1825-Aug-0611:14:51 42255 3027 -47302 A nn 0.0358 0.9491 23N 172W 88 18706m01s
37 2 -1807-Aug-1618:26:51 41838 2959 -47079 A nn 0.0851 0.9481 24N 80E 85 19205m55s
38 3 -1789-Aug-2801:48:11 41422 2891 -46856 A nn 0.1275 0.9470 23N 30W 83 19605m52s
39 4 -1771-Sep-0709:21:47 41009 2824 -46633 A nn 0.1606 0.9462 20N 145W 81 20105m50s
40 5 -1753-Sep-1817:05:02 40598 2757 -46410 A nn 0.1864 0.9456 18N 98E 79 20405m50s
Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 16
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QLE Gamma Ecl Mag Lat

°
Long

°
Sun Alt
°
Path Width km Central Dur
41 6 -1735-Sep-2900:58:48 40189 2691 -46187 A nn 0.2044 0.9454 14N 22W 78 20505m50s
42 7 -1717-Oct-1008:59:38 39782 2626 -45964 A nn 0.2173 0.9456 10N 144W 77 20505m51s
43 8 -1699-Oct-2017:08:49 39377 2562 -45741 Am nn 0.2241 0.9464 6N 91E 77 20205m50s
44 9 -1681-Nov-0101:22:45 38974 2498 -45518 A nn 0.2278 0.9477 2N 34W 77 19705m47s
45 10 -1663-Nov-1109:40:36 38574 2435 -45295 A nn 0.2287 0.9497 2S 161W 77 18905m40s
46 11 -1645-Nov-2218:00:09 38175 2373 -45072 A nn 0.2290 0.9523 5S 72E 77 17905m30s
47 12 -1627-Dec-0302:20:09 37778 2311 -44849 A nn 0.2293 0.9557 8S 55W 77 16605m13s
48 13 -1609-Dec-1410:38:08 37384 2250 -44626 A nn 0.2322 0.9596 9S 179E 77 15104m50s
49 14 -1591-Dec-2418:52:26 36991 2190 -44403 A nn 0.2389 0.9642 10S 54E 76 13304m20s
50 15 -1572-Jan-0503:02:29 36601 2131 -44180 A -n 0.2500 0.9693 10S 70W 76 11403m45s
51 16 -1554-Jan-1511:07:05 36212 2072 -43957 A -n 0.2660 0.9749 8S 167E 75 9303m03s
52 17 -1536-Jan-2619:04:06 35826 2014 -43734 A -n 0.2894 0.9809 5S 46E 73 7102m18s
53 18 -1518-Feb-0602:54:32 35442 1956 -43511 A -n 0.3190 0.9871 1S 74W 71 4801m31s
54 19 -1500-Feb-1710:37:06 35060 1900 -43288 A -n 0.3561 0.9934 4N 168E 69 2500m45s
55 20 -1482-Feb-2718:13:37 34680 1844 -43065 A -n 0.3992 0.9997 10N 50E 66 100m02s
56 21 -1464-Mar-1001:41:28 34302 1789 -42842 H -p 0.4502 1.0058 16N 66W 63 2200m36s
57 22 -1446-Mar-2109:04:35 33926 1734 -42619 H -p 0.5060 1.0117 24N 179E 59 4601m09s
58 23 -1428-Mar-3116:21:16 33552 1680 -42396 T -p 0.5681 1.0171 32N 64E 55 7101m34s
59 24 -1410-Apr-1123:34:23 33180 1627 -42173 T -p 0.6339 1.0220 40N 49W 50 9601m52s
60 25 -1392-Apr-2206:43:22 32810 1575 -41950 T -p 0.7039 1.0261 50N 163W 45 12402m03s
61 26 -1374-May-0313:51:34 32443 1523 -41727 T -p 0.7754 1.0295 59N 82E 39 15802m07s
62 27 -1356-May-1320:58:48 32077 1473 -41504 T -p 0.8485 1.0317 69N 37W 32 20302m04s
63 28 -1338-May-2504:06:22 31714 1422 -41281 T -t 0.9221 1.0327 79N 176W 22 29001m54s
64 29 -1320-Jun-0411:16:31 31352 1373 -41058 Tn -t 0.9943 1.0300 72N 18W 4 - 01m30s
65 30 -1302-Jun-1518:30:08 30993 1324 -40835 P -t 1.0644 0.8885 67N 143W 0 - -
66 31 -1284-Jun-2601:49:12 30636 1276 -40612 P -t 1.1308 0.7637 66N 95E 0 - -
67 32 -1266-Jul-0709:13:04 30280 1229 -40389 P -t 1.1938 0.6447 65N 28W 0 - -
68 33 -1248-Jul-1716:45:29 29927 1183 -40166 P -t 1.2508 0.5369 64N 153W 0 - -
69 34 -1230-Jul-2900:24:40 29576 1137 -39943 P -t 1.3031 0.4380 64N 81E 0 - -
70 35 -1212-Aug-0808:12:48 29227 1092 -39720 P -t 1.3487 0.3519 63N 47W 0 - -
71 36 -1194-Aug-1916:08:49 28880 1048 -39497 P -t 1.3886 0.2767 62N 176W 0 - -
72 37 -1176-Aug-3000:15:09 28535 1004 -39274 P -t 1.4208 0.2162 62N 52E 0 - -
73 38 -1158-Sep-1008:29:39 28192 962 -39051 P -t 1.4472 0.1670 61N 82W 0 - -
74 39 -1140-Sep-2016:52:40 27852 920 -38828 P -t 1.4674 0.1293 61N 142E 0 - -
75 40 -1122-Oct-0201:23:40 27513 879 -38605 P -t 1.4817 0.1028 61N 4E 0 - -
76 41 -1104-Oct-1210:02:34 27176 838 -38382 P -t 1.4901 0.0874 61N 136W 0 - -
77 42 -1086-Oct-2318:46:32 26842 799 -38159 P -t 1.4952 0.0781 61N 83E 0 - -
78 43 -1068-Nov-0303:35:21 26509 760 -37936 P -t 1.4968 0.0751 61N 60W 0 - -
79 44 -1050-Nov-1412:26:49 26179 722 -37713 P -t 1.4969 0.0748 62N 157E 0 - -
80 45 -1032-Nov-2421:20:49 25851 684 -37490 P -t 1.4955 0.0771 63N 13E 0 - -
Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 16
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QLE Gamma Ecl Mag Lat

°
Long

°
Sun Alt
°
Path Width km Central Dur
81 46 -1014-Dec-0606:13:05 25524 648 -37267 P -t 1.4956 0.0762 63N 130W 0 - -
82 47 -0996-Dec-1615:05:07 25200 620 -37044 P -t 1.4966 0.0737 64N 86E 0 - -
83 48 -0978-Dec-2723:52:14 24878 613 -36821 P -t 1.5016 0.0633 65N 58W 0 - -
84 49 -0959-Jan-0708:35:57 24558 606 -36598 P -t 1.5099 0.0464 66N 160E 0 - -
85 50 -0941-Jan-1817:11:34 24240 600 -36375 Pe -t 1.5249 0.0168 67N 19E 0 - -

Statistics for Solar Eclipses of Saros 16

Solar eclipses of Saros 16 all occur at the Moon’s descending node and the Moon moves northward with each eclipse. The series began with a partial eclipse in the southern hemisphere on -2456 Jul 23. The series ended with a partial eclipse in the northern hemisphere on -0941 Jan 18. The total duration of Saros series 16 is 1514.53 years.

Summary of Saros 16
First Eclipse -2456 Jul 23
Last Eclipse -0941 Jan 18
Series Duration 1514.53 Years
No. of Eclipses 85
Sequence 22P 33A 2H 7T 21P

Saros 16 is composed of 85 solar eclipses as follows:

Solar Eclipses of Saros 16
Eclipse Type Symbol Number Percent
All Eclipses - 85100.0%
PartialP 43 50.6%
AnnularA 33 38.8%
TotalT 7 8.2%
HybridH 2 2.4%

Umbral eclipses (annular, total and hybrid) can be further classified as either: 1) Central (two limits), 2) Central (one limit) or 3) Non-Central (one limit). The statistical distribution of these classes in Saros series 16 appears in the following table.

Umbral Eclipses of Saros 16
Classification Number Percent
All Umbral Eclipses 42100.0%
Central (two limits) 40 95.2%
Central (one limit) 1 2.4%
Non-Central (one limit) 1 2.4%

The 85 eclipses in Saros 16 occur in the following order : 22P 33A 2H 7T 21P

The longest and shortest central eclipses of Saros 16 as well as largest and smallest partial eclipses appear below.

Extreme Durations and Magnitudes of Solar Eclipses of Saros 16
Extrema Type Date Duration Magnitude
Longest Annular Solar Eclipse -1915 Jun 1306m40s -
Shortest Annular Solar Eclipse -1482 Feb 2700m02s -
Longest Total Solar Eclipse -1374 May 0302m07s -
Shortest Total Solar Eclipse -1320 Jun 0401m30s -
Longest Hybrid Solar Eclipse -1446 Mar 2101m09s -
Shortest Hybrid Solar Eclipse -1464 Mar 1000m36s -
Largest Partial Solar Eclipse -1302 Jun 15 - 0.88848
Smallest Partial Solar Eclipse -0941 Jan 18 - 0.01682

Links to Additional Solar Eclipse Predictions

Calendar

The Gregorian calendar (also called the Western calendar) is internationally the most widely used civil calendar. It is named for Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in 1582. On this website, the Gregorian calendar is used for all calendar dates from 1582 Oct 15 onwards. Before that date, the Julian calendar is used. For more information on this topic, see Calendar Dates.

The Julian calendar does not include the year 0. Thus the year 1 BCE is followed by the year 1 CE (See: BCE/CE Dating Conventions). This is awkward for arithmetic calculations. Years in this catalog are numbered astronomically and include the year 0. Historians should note there is a difference of one year between astronomical dates and BCE dates. Thus, the astronomical year 0 corresponds to 1 BCE, and astronomical year -1 corresponds to 2 BCE, etc..

Eclipse Predictions

The eclipse predictions presented here were generated using the JPL DE406 solar and lunar ephemerides. The lunar coordinates have been calculated with respect to the Moon's Center of Mass.

The largest uncertainty in the eclipse predictions is caused by fluctuations in Earth's rotation due primarily to tidal friction of the Moon. The resultant drift in apparent clock time is expressed as ΔT and is determined as follows:

  1. pre-1950's: ΔT calculated from empirical fits to historical records derived by Morrison and Stephenson (2004)
  2. 1955-present: ΔT obtained from published observations
  3. future: ΔT is extrapolated from current values weighted by the long term trend from tidal effects

A series of polynomial expressions have been derived to simplify the evaluation of ΔT for any time from -2999 to +3000. The uncertainty in ΔT over this period can be estimated from scatter in the measurements.

Acknowledgments

Some of the content on this web site is based on the books Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 and Thousand Year Canon of Solar Eclipses 1501 to 2500. All eclipse calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy.

Permission is granted to reproduce data from this page when accompanied by an acknowledgment:

"Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak, www.EclipseWise.com"

The use of diagrams and maps is permitted provided that they are NOT altered (except for re-sizing) and the embedded credit line is NOT removed or covered.