Saros 18

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 18

Fred Espenak

Introduction

The periodicity and recurrence of solar eclipses is governed by the Saros cycle, a period of approximately 6,585.3 days (18 years 11 days 8 hours). When two eclipses are separated by a period of one Saros, they share a very similar geometry. The two eclipses occur at the same node with the Moon at nearly the same distance from Earth and the same time of year due to a harmonic in three cycles of the Moon's orbit. Thus, the Saros is useful for organizing eclipses into families or series. Each series typically lasts 12 to 13 centuries and contains 70 or more eclipses. Every saros series begins with a number of partial eclipses near one of Earth's polar regions. The series will then produce several dozen central eclipses before ending with a group of partial eclipses near the opposite pole. For more information, see Periodicity of Solar Eclipses.

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 18

The table below lists the concise characteristics of every solar eclipse belonging to Saros 18 . The date and time of each eclipse is given for the instant of Greatest Eclipse. For eclipses between the years -1999 to 3000, the calendar date links to a web page containing additional details and a map showing the geographic region of eclipse visibility for that eclipse. A description of each parameter in the catalog table can be found in Key to Saros Catalog of Solar Eclipses.

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 18
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QLE Gamma Ecl Mag Lat

°
Long

°
Sun Alt
°
Path Width km Central Dur
1-38 -2416-Jun-0204:02:03 57086 5659 -54614 Pb t- -1.5177 0.0192 69S 26E 0 - -
2-37 -2398-Jun-1311:28:30 56601 5567 -54391 P t- -1.4480 0.1547 68S 100W 0 - -
3-36 -2380-Jun-2318:59:41 56117 5477 -54168 P t- -1.3820 0.2832 67S 134E 0 - -
4-35 -2362-Jul-0502:36:23 55636 5387 -53945 P t- -1.3202 0.4034 66S 7E 0 - -
5-34 -2344-Jul-1510:20:06 55157 5298 -53722 P t- -1.2640 0.5121 65S 121W 0 - -
6-33 -2326-Jul-2618:10:03 54680 5210 -53499 P t- -1.2128 0.6106 64S 109E 0 - -
7-32 -2308-Aug-0602:08:53 54205 5122 -53276 P t- -1.1689 0.6946 63S 22W 0 - -
8-31 -2290-Aug-1710:15:32 53733 5035 -53053 P t- -1.1313 0.7659 63S 155W 0 - -
9-30 -2272-Aug-2718:30:44 53262 4949 -52830 P t- -1.1010 0.8226 62S 70E 0 - -
10-29 -2254-Sep-0802:53:28 52793 4863 -52607 P t- -1.0772 0.8666 61S 67W 0 - -
11-28 -2236-Sep-1811:24:13 52327 4778 -52384 P t- -1.0602 0.8976 61S 155E 0 - -
12-27 -2218-Sep-2920:01:49 51862 4694 -52161 P t- -1.0491 0.9171 61S 15E 0 - -
13-26 -2200-Oct-1004:44:09 51400 4610 -51938 P t- -1.0423 0.9286 61S 127W 0 - -
14-25 -2182-Oct-2113:31:56 50939 4527 -51715 P t- -1.0404 0.9311 61S 91E 0 - -
15-24 -2164-Oct-3122:22:16 50481 4445 -51492 P t- -1.0414 0.9283 61S 52W 0 - -
16-23 -2146-Nov-1207:14:35 50025 4363 -51269 P t- -1.0441 0.9224 61S 164E 0 - -
17-22 -2128-Nov-2216:05:01 49571 4283 -51046 P t- -1.0459 0.9184 62S 20E 0 - -
18-21 -2110-Dec-0400:54:47 49119 4202 -50823 P t- -1.0477 0.9148 63S 123W 0 - -
19-20 -2092-Dec-1409:40:04 48669 4123 -50600 P t- -1.0465 0.9169 63S 94E 0 - -
20-19 -2074-Dec-2518:20:29 48221 4044 -50377 P t- -1.0418 0.9255 64S 47W 0 - -
21-18 -2055-Jan-0502:53:37 47775 3966 -50154 P t- -1.0320 0.9438 65S 173E 0 - -
22-17 -2037-Jan-1611:19:51 47331 3888 -49931 P t- -1.0170 0.9720 66S 34E 0 - -
23-16 -2019-Jan-2619:36:47 46889 3812 -49708 Ts t- -0.9952 1.0195 71S 105W 4 - 00m57s
24-15 -2001-Feb-0703:44:41 46450 3736 -49485 T p- -0.9667 1.0234 81S 92E 14 32701m15s
25-14 -1983-Feb-1711:42:58 46012 3660 -49262 T p- -0.9310 1.0259 79S 89W 21 24701m30s
26-13 -1965-Feb-2819:32:25 45577 3586 -49039 T p- -0.8890 1.0279 72S 125E 27 20801m44s
27-12 -1947-Mar-1103:11:16 45143 3512 -48816 T p- -0.8390 1.0294 63S 4W 33 18301m59s
28-11 -1929-Mar-2210:42:28 44712 3438 -48593 T p- -0.7835 1.0303 55S 127W 38 16402m13s
29-10 -1911-Apr-0118:04:43 44282 3366 -48370 T p- -0.7212 1.0307 46S 114E 44 14802m26s
30 -9 -1893-Apr-1301:21:19 43855 3294 -48147 T p- -0.6553 1.0302 37S 2W 49 13402m36s
31 -8 -1875-Apr-2308:29:23 43430 3222 -47924 T p- -0.5830 1.0291 28S 115W 54 12002m42s
32 -7 -1857-May-0415:34:54 43007 3152 -47701 T p- -0.5095 1.0272 19S 133E 59 10702m41s
33 -6 -1839-May-1422:35:13 42586 3082 -47478 T p- -0.4321 1.0246 11S 23E 64 9202m33s
34 -5 -1821-May-2605:35:17 42167 3013 -47255 T n- -0.3555 1.0212 3S 87W 69 7702m18s
35 -4 -1803-Jun-0512:32:42 41750 2944 -47032 T nn -0.2776 1.0171 4N 165E 74 6101m54s
36 -3 -1785-Jun-1619:33:15 41335 2877 -46809 H nn -0.2031 1.0124 10N 57E 78 4301m23s
37 -2 -1767-Jun-2702:34:28 40922 2810 -46586 Hm nn -0.1299 1.0070 16N 50W 83 2400m47s
38 -1 -1749-Jul-0809:39:50 40512 2743 -46363 H nn -0.0610 1.0013 21N 158W 87 400m09s
39 0 -1731-Jul-1816:48:57 40103 2678 -46140 A nn 0.0037 0.9951 24N 94E 90 1700m32s
40 1 -1713-Jul-3000:04:59 39696 2613 -45917 A nn 0.0619 0.9888 26N 15W 86 4001m11s
Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 18
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QLE Gamma Ecl Mag Lat

°
Long

°
Sun Alt
°
Path Width km Central Dur
41 2 -1695-Aug-0907:27:01 39292 2548 -45694 A nn 0.1141 0.9822 27N 125W 83 6301m50s
42 3 -1677-Aug-2014:56:01 38890 2485 -45471 A nn 0.1596 0.9757 26N 123E 81 8802m28s
43 4 -1659-Aug-3022:32:48 38489 2422 -45248 A -n 0.1977 0.9694 25N 8E 78 11203m06s
44 5 -1641-Sep-1106:17:17 38091 2360 -45025 A -n 0.2287 0.9633 22N 109W 77 13603m43s
45 6 -1623-Sep-2114:08:46 37695 2298 -44802 A -n 0.2528 0.9576 19N 132E 75 15904m20s
46 7 -1605-Oct-0222:06:51 37301 2237 -44579 A -n 0.2708 0.9523 16N 11E 74 18004m58s
47 8 -1587-Oct-1306:11:01 36909 2177 -44356 A -n 0.2830 0.9476 12N 112W 73 20005m35s
48 9 -1569-Oct-2414:19:52 36519 2118 -44133 A -n 0.2907 0.9435 8N 123E 73 21706m13s
49 10 -1551-Nov-0322:31:00 36131 2059 -43910 A -n 0.2958 0.9401 4N 2W 73 23106m50s
50 11 -1533-Nov-1506:44:22 35745 2002 -43687 A -n 0.2984 0.9374 1N 127W 73 24207m26s
51 12 -1515-Nov-2514:57:22 35361 1944 -43464 A -n 0.3003 0.9353 2S 107E 73 25108m00s
52 13 -1497-Dec-0623:08:05 34979 1888 -43241 A -n 0.3038 0.9340 4S 17W 72 25708m30s
53 14 -1479-Dec-1707:13:56 34600 1832 -43018 A -n 0.3107 0.9332 5S 140W 72 26208m55s
54 15 -1461-Dec-2815:14:39 34222 1777 -42795 A -n 0.3211 0.9331 5S 98E 71 26309m12s
55 16 -1442-Jan-0723:08:08 33847 1723 -42572 A -p 0.3367 0.9334 4S 22W 70 26409m20s
56 17 -1424-Jan-1906:52:09 33473 1669 -42349 A -p 0.3594 0.9342 2S 141W 69 26309m17s
57 18 -1406-Jan-2914:27:00 33102 1616 -42126 A -p 0.3889 0.9352 2N 103E 67 26209m06s
58 19 -1388-Feb-0921:51:14 32733 1564 -41903 A -p 0.4266 0.9365 6N 11W 65 26108m44s
59 20 -1370-Feb-2005:05:42 32365 1513 -41680 A -p 0.4716 0.9378 12N 123W 62 26108m17s
60 21 -1352-Mar-0212:08:29 32000 1462 -41457 A -p 0.5255 0.9391 19N 127E 58 26407m44s
61 22 -1334-Mar-1319:02:41 31637 1412 -41234 A -p 0.5859 0.9402 27N 19E 54 27107m09s
62 23 -1316-Mar-2401:46:53 31276 1363 -41011 A -p 0.6538 0.9410 35N 88W 49 28506m32s
63 24 -1298-Apr-0408:23:07 30917 1314 -40788 A -p 0.7278 0.9415 45N 166E 43 31205m56s
64 25 -1280-Apr-1414:52:11 30560 1266 -40565 A -p 0.8072 0.9413 55N 59E 36 36505m22s
65 26 -1262-Apr-2521:16:08 30206 1219 -40342 A -t 0.8904 0.9403 66N 53W 27 48704m49s
66 27 -1244-May-0603:36:15 29853 1173 -40119 A -t 0.9762 0.9375 76N 156E 12 114304m16s
67 28 -1226-May-1709:52:55 29502 1127 -39896 P -t 1.0643 0.8523 70N 10E 0 - -
68 29 -1208-May-2716:09:55 29154 1083 -39673 P -t 1.1518 0.7027 69N 97W 0 - -
69 30 -1190-Jun-0722:27:31 28807 1039 -39450 P -t 1.2386 0.5541 68N 155E 0 - -
70 31 -1172-Jun-1804:48:19 28463 995 -39227 P -t 1.3223 0.4110 67N 47E 0 - -
71 32 -1154-Jun-2911:12:47 28120 953 -39004 P -t 1.4027 0.2738 66N 61W 0 - -
72 33 -1136-Jul-0917:44:07 27780 911 -38781 P -t 1.4774 0.1466 65N 170W 0 - -
73 34 -1118-Jul-2100:22:13 27442 870 -38558 Pe -t 1.5467 0.0292 64N 79E 0 - -

Statistics for Solar Eclipses of Saros 18

Solar eclipses of Saros 18 all occur at the Moon’s descending node and the Moon moves northward with each eclipse. The series began with a partial eclipse in the southern hemisphere on -2416 Jun 02. The series ended with a partial eclipse in the northern hemisphere on -1118 Jul 21. The total duration of Saros series 18 is 1298.17 years.

Summary of Saros 18
First Eclipse -2416 Jun 02
Last Eclipse -1118 Jul 21
Series Duration 1298.17 Years
No. of Eclipses 73
Sequence 22P 13T 3H 28A 7P

Saros 18 is composed of 73 solar eclipses as follows:

Solar Eclipses of Saros 18
Eclipse Type Symbol Number Percent
All Eclipses - 73100.0%
PartialP 29 39.7%
AnnularA 28 38.4%
TotalT 13 17.8%
HybridH 3 4.1%

Umbral eclipses (annular, total and hybrid) can be further classified as either: 1) Central (two limits), 2) Central (one limit) or 3) Non-Central (one limit). The statistical distribution of these classes in Saros series 18 appears in the following table.

Umbral Eclipses of Saros 18
Classification Number Percent
All Umbral Eclipses 44100.0%
Central (two limits) 43 97.7%
Central (one limit) 1 2.3%
Non-Central (one limit) 0 0.0%

The 73 eclipses in Saros 18 occur in the following order : 22P 13T 3H 28A 7P

The longest and shortest central eclipses of Saros 18 as well as largest and smallest partial eclipses appear below.

Extreme Durations and Magnitudes of Solar Eclipses of Saros 18
Extrema Type Date Duration Magnitude
Longest Annular Solar Eclipse -1442 Jan 0709m20s -
Shortest Annular Solar Eclipse -1731 Jul 1800m32s -
Longest Total Solar Eclipse -1875 Apr 2302m42s -
Shortest Total Solar Eclipse -2019 Jan 2600m57s -
Longest Hybrid Solar Eclipse -1785 Jun 1601m23s -
Shortest Hybrid Solar Eclipse -1749 Jul 0800m09s -
Largest Partial Solar Eclipse -2037 Jan 16 - 0.97196
Smallest Partial Solar Eclipse -2416 Jun 02 - 0.01917

Links to Additional Solar Eclipse Predictions

Calendar

The Gregorian calendar (also called the Western calendar) is internationally the most widely used civil calendar. It is named for Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in 1582. On this website, the Gregorian calendar is used for all calendar dates from 1582 Oct 15 onwards. Before that date, the Julian calendar is used. For more information on this topic, see Calendar Dates.

The Julian calendar does not include the year 0. Thus the year 1 BCE is followed by the year 1 CE (See: BCE/CE Dating Conventions). This is awkward for arithmetic calculations. Years in this catalog are numbered astronomically and include the year 0. Historians should note there is a difference of one year between astronomical dates and BCE dates. Thus, the astronomical year 0 corresponds to 1 BCE, and astronomical year -1 corresponds to 2 BCE, etc..

Eclipse Predictions

The eclipse predictions presented here were generated using the JPL DE406 solar and lunar ephemerides. The lunar coordinates have been calculated with respect to the Moon's Center of Mass.

The largest uncertainty in the eclipse predictions is caused by fluctuations in Earth's rotation due primarily to tidal friction of the Moon. The resultant drift in apparent clock time is expressed as ΔT and is determined as follows:

  1. pre-1950's: ΔT calculated from empirical fits to historical records derived by Morrison and Stephenson (2004)
  2. 1955-present: ΔT obtained from published observations
  3. future: ΔT is extrapolated from current values weighted by the long term trend from tidal effects

A series of polynomial expressions have been derived to simplify the evaluation of ΔT for any time from -2999 to +3000. The uncertainty in ΔT over this period can be estimated from scatter in the measurements.

Acknowledgments

Some of the content on this web site is based on the books Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 and Thousand Year Canon of Solar Eclipses 1501 to 2500. All eclipse calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy.

Permission is granted to reproduce data from this page when accompanied by an acknowledgment:

"Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak, www.EclipseWise.com"

The use of diagrams and maps is permitted provided that they are NOT altered (except for re-sizing) and the embedded credit line is NOT removed or covered.