Saros 20

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 20

Fred Espenak

Introduction

The periodicity and recurrence of solar eclipses is governed by the Saros cycle, a period of approximately 6,585.3 days (18 years 11 days 8 hours). When two eclipses are separated by a period of one Saros, they share a very similar geometry. The two eclipses occur at the same node with the Moon at nearly the same distance from Earth and the same time of year due to a harmonic in three cycles of the Moon's orbit. Thus, the Saros is useful for organizing eclipses into families or series. Each series typically lasts 12 to 13 centuries and contains 70 or more eclipses. Every saros series begins with a number of partial eclipses near one of Earth's polar regions. The series will then produce several dozen central eclipses before ending with a group of partial eclipses near the opposite pole. For more information, see Periodicity of Solar Eclipses.

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 20

The table below lists the concise characteristics of every solar eclipse belonging to Saros 20 . The date and time of each eclipse is given for the instant of Greatest Eclipse. For eclipses between the years -1999 to 3000, the calendar date links to a web page containing additional details and a map showing the geographic region of eclipse visibility for that eclipse. A description of each parameter in the catalog table can be found in Key to Saros Catalog of Solar Eclipses.

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 20
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QLE Gamma Ecl Mag Lat

°
Long

°
Sun Alt
°
Path Width km Central Dur
1-35 -2286-Jun-0501:55:10 53633 5017 -53006 Pb t- -1.4860 0.1213 69S 39E 0 - -
2-34 -2268-Jun-1508:33:59 53163 4931 -52783 P t- -1.4045 0.2641 68S 74W 0 - -
3-33 -2250-Jun-2615:19:26 52695 4845 -52560 P t- -1.3267 0.4008 67S 171E 0 - -
4-32 -2232-Jul-0622:13:26 52229 4760 -52337 P t- -1.2546 0.5277 66S 55E 0 - -
5-31 -2214-Jul-1805:15:32 51765 4676 -52114 P t- -1.1877 0.6455 65S 63W 0 - -
6-30 -2196-Jul-2812:28:55 51303 4593 -51891 P t- -1.1288 0.7495 64S 177E 0 - -
7-29 -2178-Aug-0819:52:09 50843 4510 -51668 P t- -1.0765 0.8415 63S 55E 0 - -
8-28 -2160-Aug-1903:26:07 50385 4428 -51445 P t- -1.0321 0.9198 62S 70W 0 - -
9-27 -2142-Aug-3011:10:24 49929 4346 -51222 As t- -0.9950 0.9630 59S 169E 4 - 02m49s
10-26 -2124-Sep-0919:06:01 49475 4266 -50999 A t- -0.9664 0.9659 53S 55E 14 47902m42s
11-25 -2106-Sep-2103:10:59 49024 4186 -50776 A t- -0.9442 0.9675 51S 69W 19 35002m33s
12-24 -2088-Oct-0111:24:30 48574 4106 -50553 A t- -0.9281 0.9688 52S 164E 21 29502m23s
13-23 -2070-Oct-1219:45:56 48127 4028 -50330 A t- -0.9177 0.9703 54S 33E 23 26302m11s
14-22 -2052-Oct-2304:14:09 47681 3950 -50107 A t- -0.9122 0.9721 57S 100W 24 24101m59s
15-21 -2034-Nov-0312:46:00 47238 3872 -49884 A p- -0.9087 0.9744 60S 126E 24 21701m45s
16-20 -2016-Nov-1321:20:55 46797 3796 -49661 A p- -0.9070 0.9771 64S 9W 25 19301m30s
17-19 -1998-Nov-2505:56:01 46357 3720 -49438 A p- -0.9048 0.9805 68S 144W 25 16301m14s
18-18 -1980-Dec-0514:31:18 45920 3644 -49215 A p- -0.9020 0.9845 72S 82E 25 12800m58s
19-17 -1962-Dec-1623:02:08 45485 3570 -48992 A p- -0.8951 0.9893 76S 47W 26 8500m39s
20-16 -1944-Dec-2707:30:30 45052 3496 -48769 A p- -0.8855 0.9946 80S 169W 27 4100m20s
21-15 -1925-Jan-0715:51:43 44621 3423 -48546 H p- -0.8697 1.0006 83S 91E 29 400m02s
22-14 -1907-Jan-1800:07:46 44192 3350 -48323 H p- -0.8488 1.0071 82S 5E 32 4700m27s
23-13 -1889-Jan-2908:14:50 43765 3279 -48100 T p- -0.8199 1.0140 77S 101W 35 8500m54s
24-12 -1871-Feb-0816:16:29 43341 3207 -47877 T p- -0.7859 1.0210 70S 141E 38 11701m24s
25-11 -1853-Feb-2000:09:24 42918 3137 -47654 T p- -0.7441 1.0282 63S 21E 42 14301m57s
26-10 -1835-Mar-0207:55:41 42497 3067 -47431 T p- -0.6960 1.0353 55S 99W 46 16502m34s
27 -9 -1817-Mar-1315:34:32 42079 2998 -47208 T p- -0.6408 1.0421 47S 141E 50 18303m14s
28 -8 -1799-Mar-2323:08:20 41662 2930 -46985 T p- -0.5805 1.0485 39S 23E 54 19703m55s
29 -7 -1781-Apr-0406:36:41 41248 2862 -46762 T p- -0.5150 1.0545 30S 95W 59 20904m36s
30 -6 -1763-Apr-1414:00:43 40836 2796 -46539 T p- -0.4452 1.0598 22S 149E 63 21905m15s
31 -5 -1745-Apr-2521:22:14 40425 2729 -46316 T p- -0.3724 1.0644 14S 34E 68 22605m50s
32 -4 -1727-May-0604:42:17 40017 2664 -46093 T n- -0.2976 1.0681 5S 81W 73 23206m18s
33 -3 -1709-May-1712:01:26 39611 2599 -45870 T n- -0.2215 1.0711 2N 165E 77 23706m38s
34 -2 -1691-May-2719:21:50 39207 2535 -45647 T n- -0.1459 1.0731 10N 52E 82 24006m48s
35 -1 -1673-Jun-0802:44:10 38805 2471 -45424 T nn -0.0715 1.0742 17N 62W 86 24106m49s
36 0 -1655-Jun-1810:10:29 38405 2409 -45201 T nn -0.0001 1.0745 23N 175W 90 24206m41s
37 1 -1637-Jun-2917:39:42 38007 2347 -44978 Tm nn 0.0693 1.0740 28N 72E 86 24106m27s
38 2 -1619-Jul-1001:15:53 37612 2285 -44755 T nn 0.1331 1.0727 32N 42W 82 23806m08s
39 3 -1601-Jul-2108:57:33 37218 2225 -44532 T -n 0.1925 1.0707 34N 157W 79 23505m47s
40 4 -1583-Jul-3116:47:44 36826 2165 -44309 T -n 0.2450 1.0683 36N 86E 76 23005m26s
Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 20
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QLE Gamma Ecl Mag Lat

°
Long

°
Sun Alt
°
Path Width km Central Dur
41 5 -1565-Aug-1200:44:22 36437 2106 -44086 T -n 0.2922 1.0653 36N 32W 73 22305m05s
42 6 -1547-Aug-2208:50:57 36049 2047 -43863 T -n 0.3314 1.0622 35N 153W 70 21604m46s
43 7 -1529-Sep-0217:04:55 35664 1989 -43640 T -n 0.3646 1.0588 32N 84E 68 20704m29s
44 8 -1511-Sep-1301:27:28 35281 1932 -43417 T -n 0.3908 1.0555 30N 43W 67 19804m15s
45 9 -1493-Sep-2409:57:27 34899 1876 -43194 T -n 0.4109 1.0522 26N 171W 66 18804m03s
46 10 -1475-Oct-0418:35:14 34520 1820 -42971 T -n 0.4244 1.0492 22N 57E 65 17903m53s
47 11 -1457-Oct-1603:18:47 34143 1766 -42748 T -n 0.4333 1.0465 19N 76W 64 17003m46s
48 12 -1439-Oct-2612:06:27 33768 1711 -42525 T -n 0.4387 1.0443 15N 149E 64 16303m41s
49 13 -1421-Nov-0620:58:15 33395 1658 -42302 T -n 0.4406 1.0425 11N 14E 64 15703m39s
50 14 -1403-Nov-1705:51:42 33024 1605 -42079 T -n 0.4408 1.0412 8N 122W 64 15203m40s
51 15 -1385-Nov-2814:44:59 32655 1553 -41856 T -n 0.4412 1.0404 6N 102E 64 15003m43s
52 16 -1367-Dec-0823:36:06 32288 1502 -41633 T -n 0.4430 1.0401 4N 33W 64 14903m48s
53 17 -1349-Dec-2008:24:17 31924 1451 -41410 T -n 0.4471 1.0402 3N 168W 63 15003m54s
54 18 -1331-Dec-3017:07:47 31561 1401 -41187 T -p 0.4549 1.0406 3N 59E 63 15304m00s
55 19 -1312-Jan-1101:44:33 31200 1352 -40964 T -p 0.4677 1.0413 4N 73W 62 15604m06s
56 20 -1294-Jan-2110:14:38 30842 1304 -40741 T -p 0.4860 1.0422 7N 157E 61 16104m11s
57 21 -1276-Feb-0118:36:19 30486 1256 -40518 T -p 0.5109 1.0430 10N 29E 59 16704m13s
58 22 -1258-Feb-1202:49:25 30131 1210 -40295 T -p 0.5428 1.0438 15N 98W 57 17404m11s
59 23 -1240-Feb-2310:53:10 29779 1163 -40072 T -p 0.5820 1.0442 21N 137E 54 18104m06s
60 24 -1222-Mar-0518:48:26 29429 1118 -39849 T -p 0.6279 1.0444 27N 14E 51 18903m56s
61 25 -1204-Mar-1602:35:02 29080 1073 -39626 T -p 0.6802 1.0439 35N 109W 47 19803m41s
62 26 -1186-Mar-2710:12:30 28734 1029 -39403 T -p 0.7398 1.0429 43N 131E 42 21103m23s
63 27 -1168-Apr-0617:42:52 28390 986 -39180 T -p 0.8046 1.0409 52N 10E 36 22902m59s
64 28 -1150-Apr-1801:05:40 28049 944 -38957 T -t 0.8751 1.0378 62N 114W 29 26302m31s
65 29 -1132-Apr-2808:23:41 27709 902 -38734 T -t 0.9484 1.0331 73N 107E 18 36001m58s
66 30 -1114-May-0915:35:09 27371 861 -38511 P -t 1.0261 0.9581 70N 76W 0 - -
67 31 -1096-May-1922:45:01 27035 821 -38288 P -t 1.1042 0.8106 70N 163E 0 - -
68 32 -1078-May-3105:51:24 26701 782 -38065 P -t 1.1843 0.6602 69N 43E 0 - -
69 33 -1060-Jun-1012:58:13 26370 744 -37842 P -t 1.2628 0.5137 68N 77W 0 - -
70 34 -1042-Jun-2120:04:28 26040 706 -37619 P -t 1.3407 0.3697 67N 164E 0 - -
71 35 -1024-Jul-0203:13:59 25713 669 -37396 P -t 1.4148 0.2342 66N 45E 0 - -
72 36 -1006-Jul-1310:26:04 25388 633 -37173 Pe -t 1.4857 0.1059 65N 74W 0 - -

Statistics for Solar Eclipses of Saros 20

Solar eclipses of Saros 20 all occur at the Moon’s descending node and the Moon moves northward with each eclipse. The series began with a partial eclipse in the southern hemisphere on -2286 Jun 05. The series ended with a partial eclipse in the northern hemisphere on -1006 Jul 13. The total duration of Saros series 20 is 1280.14 years.

Summary of Saros 20
First Eclipse -2286 Jun 05
Last Eclipse -1006 Jul 13
Series Duration 1280.14 Years
No. of Eclipses 72
Sequence 8P 12A 2H 43T 7P

Saros 20 is composed of 72 solar eclipses as follows:

Solar Eclipses of Saros 20
Eclipse Type Symbol Number Percent
All Eclipses - 72100.0%
PartialP 15 20.8%
AnnularA 12 16.7%
TotalT 43 59.7%
HybridH 2 2.8%

Umbral eclipses (annular, total and hybrid) can be further classified as either: 1) Central (two limits), 2) Central (one limit) or 3) Non-Central (one limit). The statistical distribution of these classes in Saros series 20 appears in the following table.

Umbral Eclipses of Saros 20
Classification Number Percent
All Umbral Eclipses 57100.0%
Central (two limits) 56 98.2%
Central (one limit) 1 1.8%
Non-Central (one limit) 0 0.0%

The 72 eclipses in Saros 20 occur in the following order : 8P 12A 2H 43T 7P

The longest and shortest central eclipses of Saros 20 as well as largest and smallest partial eclipses appear below.

Extreme Durations and Magnitudes of Solar Eclipses of Saros 20
Extrema Type Date Duration Magnitude
Longest Annular Solar Eclipse -2142 Aug 3002m49s -
Shortest Annular Solar Eclipse -1944 Dec 2700m20s -
Longest Total Solar Eclipse -1673 Jun 0806m49s -
Shortest Total Solar Eclipse -1889 Jan 2900m54s -
Longest Hybrid Solar Eclipse -1907 Jan 1800m27s -
Shortest Hybrid Solar Eclipse -1925 Jan 0700m02s -
Largest Partial Solar Eclipse -1114 May 09 - 0.95811
Smallest Partial Solar Eclipse -1006 Jul 13 - 0.10595

Links to Additional Solar Eclipse Predictions

Calendar

The Gregorian calendar (also called the Western calendar) is internationally the most widely used civil calendar. It is named for Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in 1582. On this website, the Gregorian calendar is used for all calendar dates from 1582 Oct 15 onwards. Before that date, the Julian calendar is used. For more information on this topic, see Calendar Dates.

The Julian calendar does not include the year 0. Thus the year 1 BCE is followed by the year 1 CE (See: BCE/CE Dating Conventions). This is awkward for arithmetic calculations. Years in this catalog are numbered astronomically and include the year 0. Historians should note there is a difference of one year between astronomical dates and BCE dates. Thus, the astronomical year 0 corresponds to 1 BCE, and astronomical year -1 corresponds to 2 BCE, etc..

Eclipse Predictions

The eclipse predictions presented here were generated using the JPL DE406 solar and lunar ephemerides. The lunar coordinates have been calculated with respect to the Moon's Center of Mass.

The largest uncertainty in the eclipse predictions is caused by fluctuations in Earth's rotation due primarily to tidal friction of the Moon. The resultant drift in apparent clock time is expressed as ΔT and is determined as follows:

  1. pre-1950's: ΔT calculated from empirical fits to historical records derived by Morrison and Stephenson (2004)
  2. 1955-present: ΔT obtained from published observations
  3. future: ΔT is extrapolated from current values weighted by the long term trend from tidal effects

A series of polynomial expressions have been derived to simplify the evaluation of ΔT for any time from -2999 to +3000. The uncertainty in ΔT over this period can be estimated from scatter in the measurements.

Acknowledgments

Some of the content on this web site is based on the books Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 and Thousand Year Canon of Solar Eclipses 1501 to 2500. All eclipse calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy.

Permission is granted to reproduce data from this page when accompanied by an acknowledgment:

"Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak, www.EclipseWise.com"

The use of diagrams and maps is permitted provided that they are NOT altered (except for re-sizing) and the embedded credit line is NOT removed or covered.