Saros 21

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 21

Fred Espenak

Introduction

The periodicity and recurrence of solar eclipses is governed by the Saros cycle, a period of approximately 6,585.3 days (18 years 11 days 8 hours). When two eclipses are separated by a period of one Saros, they share a very similar geometry. The two eclipses occur at the same node with the Moon at nearly the same distance from Earth and the same time of year due to a harmonic in three cycles of the Moon's orbit. Thus, the Saros is useful for organizing eclipses into families or series. Each series typically lasts 12 to 13 centuries and contains 70 or more eclipses. Every saros series begins with a number of partial eclipses near one of Earth's polar regions. The series will then produce several dozen central eclipses before ending with a group of partial eclipses near the opposite pole. For more information, see Periodicity of Solar Eclipses.

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 21

The table below lists the concise characteristics of every solar eclipse belonging to Saros 21 . The date and time of each eclipse is given for the instant of Greatest Eclipse. For eclipses between the years -1999 to 3000, the calendar date links to a web page containing additional details and a map showing the geographic region of eclipse visibility for that eclipse. A description of each parameter in the catalog table can be found in Key to Saros Catalog of Solar Eclipses.

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 21
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QLE Gamma Ecl Mag Lat

°
Long

°
Sun Alt
°
Path Width km Central Dur
1-38 -2275-May-0501:33:04 53348 4965 -52871 Pb t- 1.5210 0.0128 61N 89W 0 - -
2-37 -2257-May-1608:54:41 52879 4879 -52648 P t- 1.4467 0.1569 61N 149E 0 - -
3-36 -2239-May-2616:18:24 52412 4794 -52425 P t- 1.3739 0.2986 62N 27E 0 - -
4-35 -2221-Jun-0623:43:19 51948 4709 -52202 P t- 1.3021 0.4383 63N 95W 0 - -
5-34 -2203-Jun-1707:11:32 51485 4626 -51979 P t- 1.2330 0.5725 63N 142E 0 - -
6-33 -2185-Jun-2814:43:59 51024 4542 -51756 P t- 1.1674 0.6995 64N 17E 0 - -
7-32 -2167-Jul-0822:22:07 50565 4460 -51533 P t- 1.1067 0.8161 65N 109W 0 - -
8-31 -2149-Jul-2006:07:02 50109 4378 -51310 P t- 1.0518 0.9208 66N 122E 0 - -
9-30 -2131-Jul-3013:58:07 49654 4297 -51087 T+ t- 1.0023 1.0144 67N 8W 0 - -
10-29 -2113-Aug-1021:57:44 49202 4217 -50864 T t- 0.9602 1.0493 82N 174W 16 61102m32s
11-28 -2095-Aug-2106:04:38 48751 4137 -50641 T p- 0.9246 1.0469 80N 0E 22 41802m35s
12-27 -2077-Sep-0114:20:21 48303 4058 -50418 T p- 0.8964 1.0437 74N 146W 26 33202m34s
13-26 -2059-Sep-1122:42:57 47857 3980 -50195 T p- 0.8744 1.0400 67N 77E 29 27802m29s
14-25 -2041-Sep-2307:14:08 47412 3903 -49972 T p- 0.8598 1.0363 62N 58W 30 23902m23s
15-24 -2023-Oct-0315:51:05 46970 3826 -49749 T p- 0.8506 1.0326 57N 166E 31 20902m15s
16-23 -2005-Oct-1500:33:49 46530 3750 -49526 T p- 0.8465 1.0292 52N 30E 32 18502m07s
17-22 -1987-Oct-2509:20:17 46092 3674 -49303 T p- 0.8461 1.0260 48N 107W 32 16501m58s
18-21 -1969-Nov-0518:10:12 45656 3599 -49080 T p- 0.8487 1.0233 45N 115E 32 14901m51s
19-20 -1951-Nov-1602:59:59 45223 3525 -48857 T p- 0.8520 1.0211 42N 23W 31 13701m44s
20-19 -1933-Nov-2711:49:04 44791 3452 -48634 T p- 0.8554 1.0194 40N 161W 31 12801m39s
21-18 -1915-Dec-0720:35:03 44361 3379 -48411 T p- 0.8567 1.0182 38N 62E 31 12101m36s
22-17 -1897-Dec-1905:18:01 43933 3307 -48188 T p- 0.8560 1.0176 36N 74W 31 11701m35s
23-16 -1879-Dec-2913:53:17 43508 3235 -47965 T p- 0.8496 1.0175 35N 152E 32 11401m36s
24-15 -1860-Jan-0922:22:54 43084 3165 -47742 T p- 0.8392 1.0178 33N 19E 33 11201m38s
25-14 -1842-Jan-2006:42:50 42663 3095 -47519 T p- 0.8214 1.0185 31N 111W 35 11001m43s
26-13 -1824-Jan-3114:55:37 42244 3026 -47296 T p- 0.7983 1.0194 30N 121E 37 10901m47s
27-12 -1806-Feb-1022:56:40 41826 2957 -47073 T p- 0.7661 1.0204 28N 3W 40 10601m51s
28-11 -1788-Feb-2206:50:18 41411 2889 -46850 T p- 0.7283 1.0213 27N 124W 43 10401m55s
29-10 -1770-Mar-0414:32:30 40998 2822 -46627 T p- 0.6817 1.0220 26N 118E 47 10001m57s
30 -9 -1752-Mar-1422:06:43 40587 2755 -46404 T p- 0.6292 1.0224 26N 2E 51 9601m57s
31 -8 -1734-Mar-2605:30:24 40178 2690 -46181 T p- 0.5687 1.0223 26N 110W 55 9101m55s
32 -7 -1716-Apr-0512:47:43 39771 2624 -45958 T p- 0.5037 1.0218 26N 139E 60 8501m52s
33 -6 -1698-Apr-1619:56:55 39366 2560 -45735 T p- 0.4328 1.0206 27N 32E 64 7701m47s
34 -5 -1680-Apr-2703:00:11 38963 2496 -45512 T n- 0.3577 1.0188 27N 74W 69 6801m39s
35 -4 -1662-May-0809:58:34 38563 2433 -45289 H3 nn 0.2798 1.0162 27N 179W 74 5801m28s
36 -3 -1644-May-1816:53:56 38164 2371 -45066 H nn 0.2004 1.0131 26N 78E 78 4601m13s
37 -2 -1626-May-2923:47:24 37768 2309 -44843 Hm nn 0.1204 1.0092 25N 25W 83 3200m54s
38 -1 -1608-Jun-0906:39:40 37373 2249 -44620 H nn 0.0403 1.0047 23N 128W 88 1600m29s
39 0 -1590-Jun-2013:33:29 36981 2188 -44397 A nn -0.0374 0.9997 21N 129E 88 100m02s
40 1 -1572-Jun-3020:29:46 36590 2129 -44174 A nn -0.1118 0.9941 17N 24E 84 2100m40s
Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 21
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QLE Gamma Ecl Mag Lat

°
Long

°
Sun Alt
°
Path Width km Central Dur
41 2 -1554-Jul-1203:29:14 36202 2070 -43951 A nn -0.1824 0.9882 13N 82W 80 4201m24s
42 3 -1536-Jul-2210:34:12 35816 2012 -43728 A -n -0.2475 0.9820 9N 170E 76 6602m13s
43 4 -1518-Aug-0217:45:21 35432 1955 -43505 A -p -0.3065 0.9756 4N 60E 72 9203m03s
44 5 -1500-Aug-1301:04:15 35049 1898 -43282 A -p -0.3580 0.9692 2S 52W 69 11903m52s
45 6 -1482-Aug-2408:29:18 34669 1842 -43059 A -p -0.4035 0.9628 7S 167W 66 14704m37s
46 7 -1464-Sep-0316:02:58 34292 1787 -42836 A -p -0.4407 0.9566 13S 76E 64 17505m17s
47 8 -1446-Sep-1423:43:57 33916 1733 -42613 A -p -0.4710 0.9508 19S 43W 62 20305m50s
48 9 -1428-Sep-2507:32:38 33542 1679 -42390 A -p -0.4941 0.9454 24S 163W 60 23006m17s
49 10 -1410-Oct-0615:27:25 33170 1626 -42167 A -p -0.5113 0.9405 29S 75E 59 25506m39s
50 11 -1392-Oct-1623:28:20 32800 1574 -41944 A -p -0.5227 0.9363 35S 48W 58 27606m55s
51 12 -1374-Oct-2807:33:44 32433 1522 -41721 A -p -0.5296 0.9326 40S 172W 58 29507m08s
52 13 -1356-Nov-0715:41:08 32067 1471 -41498 A -p -0.5342 0.9298 44S 65E 57 31107m16s
53 14 -1338-Nov-1823:50:25 31704 1421 -41275 A -p -0.5366 0.9275 48S 57W 57 32307m22s
54 15 -1320-Nov-2907:58:33 31342 1372 -41052 A -p -0.5397 0.9260 52S 178W 57 33107m23s
55 16 -1302-Dec-1016:04:39 30983 1323 -40829 A -p -0.5438 0.9251 55S 63E 57 33707m21s
56 17 -1284-Dec-2100:05:09 30626 1275 -40606 A -p -0.5521 0.9249 57S 52W 56 34007m16s
57 18 -1265-Jan-0108:01:01 30271 1228 -40383 A -p -0.5639 0.9252 58S 166W 55 34207m07s
58 19 -1247-Jan-1115:49:09 29918 1182 -40160 A -p -0.5819 0.9260 58S 82E 54 34306m56s
59 20 -1229-Jan-2223:28:23 29567 1136 -39937 A -p -0.6068 0.9271 58S 28W 52 34406m42s
60 21 -1211-Feb-0206:57:56 29218 1091 -39714 A -p -0.6392 0.9285 56S 136W 50 34706m28s
61 22 -1193-Feb-1314:17:55 28871 1047 -39491 A -p -0.6791 0.9300 55S 118E 47 35406m14s
62 23 -1175-Feb-2321:27:53 28526 1003 -39268 A -p -0.7269 0.9315 53S 13E 43 36706m01s
63 24 -1157-Mar-0704:27:14 28183 961 -39045 A -p -0.7831 0.9329 52S 89W 38 39505m49s
64 25 -1139-Mar-1711:17:41 27843 919 -38822 A -p -0.8461 0.9338 52S 172E 32 45205m38s
65 26 -1121-Mar-2817:59:15 27504 878 -38599 A -t -0.9158 0.9341 54S 77E 23 59805m27s
66 27 -1103-Apr-0800:32:44 27167 837 -38376 As -t -0.9916 0.9320 59S 1W 6 - 05m07s
67 28 -1085-Apr-1906:59:52 26833 798 -38153 P -t -1.0722 0.8386 61S 96W 0 - -
68 29 -1067-Apr-2913:22:18 26501 759 -37930 P -t -1.1560 0.6958 61S 158E 0 - -
69 30 -1049-May-1019:42:11 26170 721 -37707 P -t -1.2416 0.5495 62S 53E 0 - -
70 31 -1031-May-2101:58:59 25842 683 -37484 P -t -1.3292 0.3993 62S 51W 0 - -
71 32 -1013-Jun-0108:17:37 25516 647 -37261 P -t -1.4148 0.2525 63S 157W 0 - -
72 33 -0995-Jun-1114:37:00 25192 620 -37038 Pe -t -1.4994 0.1073 64S 98E 0 - -

Statistics for Solar Eclipses of Saros 21

Solar eclipses of Saros 21 all occur at the Moon’s ascending node and the Moon moves southward with each eclipse. The series began with a partial eclipse in the northern hemisphere on -2275 May 05. The series ended with a partial eclipse in the southern hemisphere on -0995 Jun 11. The total duration of Saros series 21 is 1280.14 years.

Summary of Saros 21
First Eclipse -2275 May 05
Last Eclipse -0995 Jun 11
Series Duration 1280.14 Years
No. of Eclipses 72
Sequence 8P 26T 4H 28A 6P

Saros 21 is composed of 72 solar eclipses as follows:

Solar Eclipses of Saros 21
Eclipse Type Symbol Number Percent
All Eclipses - 72100.0%
PartialP 14 19.4%
AnnularA 28 38.9%
TotalT 26 36.1%
HybridH 4 5.6%

Umbral eclipses (annular, total and hybrid) can be further classified as either: 1) Central (two limits), 2) Central (one limit) or 3) Non-Central (one limit). The statistical distribution of these classes in Saros series 21 appears in the following table.

Umbral Eclipses of Saros 21
Classification Number Percent
All Umbral Eclipses 58100.0%
Central (two limits) 56 96.6%
Central (one limit) 1 1.7%
Non-Central (one limit) 1 1.7%

The 72 eclipses in Saros 21 occur in the following order : 8P 26T 4H 28A 6P

The longest and shortest central eclipses of Saros 21 as well as largest and smallest partial eclipses appear below.

Extreme Durations and Magnitudes of Solar Eclipses of Saros 21
Extrema Type Date Duration Magnitude
Longest Annular Solar Eclipse -1320 Nov 2907m23s -
Shortest Annular Solar Eclipse -1590 Jun 2000m02s -
Longest Total Solar Eclipse -2095 Aug 2102m35s -
Shortest Total Solar Eclipse -1897 Dec 1901m35s -
Longest Hybrid Solar Eclipse -1662 May 0801m28s -
Shortest Hybrid Solar Eclipse -1608 Jun 0900m29s -
Largest Partial Solar Eclipse -2149 Jul 20 - 0.92084
Smallest Partial Solar Eclipse -2275 May 05 - 0.01277

Links to Additional Solar Eclipse Predictions

Calendar

The Gregorian calendar (also called the Western calendar) is internationally the most widely used civil calendar. It is named for Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in 1582. On this website, the Gregorian calendar is used for all calendar dates from 1582 Oct 15 onwards. Before that date, the Julian calendar is used. For more information on this topic, see Calendar Dates.

The Julian calendar does not include the year 0. Thus the year 1 BCE is followed by the year 1 CE (See: BCE/CE Dating Conventions). This is awkward for arithmetic calculations. Years in this catalog are numbered astronomically and include the year 0. Historians should note there is a difference of one year between astronomical dates and BCE dates. Thus, the astronomical year 0 corresponds to 1 BCE, and astronomical year -1 corresponds to 2 BCE, etc..

Eclipse Predictions

The eclipse predictions presented here were generated using the JPL DE406 solar and lunar ephemerides. The lunar coordinates have been calculated with respect to the Moon's Center of Mass.

The largest uncertainty in the eclipse predictions is caused by fluctuations in Earth's rotation due primarily to tidal friction of the Moon. The resultant drift in apparent clock time is expressed as ΔT and is determined as follows:

  1. pre-1950's: ΔT calculated from empirical fits to historical records derived by Morrison and Stephenson (2004)
  2. 1955-present: ΔT obtained from published observations
  3. future: ΔT is extrapolated from current values weighted by the long term trend from tidal effects

A series of polynomial expressions have been derived to simplify the evaluation of ΔT for any time from -2999 to +3000. The uncertainty in ΔT over this period can be estimated from scatter in the measurements.

Acknowledgments

Some of the content on this web site is based on the books Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 and Thousand Year Canon of Solar Eclipses 1501 to 2500. All eclipse calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy.

Permission is granted to reproduce data from this page when accompanied by an acknowledgment:

"Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak, www.EclipseWise.com"

The use of diagrams and maps is permitted provided that they are NOT altered (except for re-sizing) and the embedded credit line is NOT removed or covered.