Saros 23

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 23

Fred Espenak

Introduction

The periodicity and recurrence of solar eclipses is governed by the Saros cycle, a period of approximately 6,585.3 days (18 years 11 days 8 hours). When two eclipses are separated by a period of one Saros, they share a very similar geometry. The two eclipses occur at the same node with the Moon at nearly the same distance from Earth and the same time of year due to a harmonic in three cycles of the Moon's orbit. Thus, the Saros is useful for organizing eclipses into families or series. Each series typically lasts 12 to 13 centuries and contains 70 or more eclipses. Every saros series begins with a number of partial eclipses near one of Earth's polar regions. The series will then produce several dozen central eclipses before ending with a group of partial eclipses near the opposite pole. For more information, see Periodicity of Solar Eclipses.

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 23

The table below lists the concise characteristics of every solar eclipse belonging to Saros 23 . The date and time of each eclipse is given for the instant of Greatest Eclipse. For eclipses between the years -1999 to 3000, the calendar date links to a web page containing additional details and a map showing the geographic region of eclipse visibility for that eclipse. A description of each parameter in the catalog table can be found in Key to Saros Catalog of Solar Eclipses.

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 23
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QLE Gamma Ecl Mag Lat

°
Long

°
Sun Alt
°
Path Width km Central Dur
1-35 -2145-May-0723:06:28 50013 4361 -51263 Pb t- 1.4864 0.1202 61N 69W 0 - -
2-34 -2127-May-1805:39:59 49559 4280 -51040 P t- 1.3998 0.2718 61N 178W 0 - -
3-33 -2109-May-2912:16:00 49107 4200 -50817 P t- 1.3137 0.4235 62N 72E 0 - -
4-32 -2091-Jun-0818:56:02 48657 4121 -50594 P t- 1.2294 0.5727 63N 39W 0 - -
5-31 -2073-Jun-2001:42:21 48209 4042 -50371 P t- 1.1489 0.7158 64N 152W 0 - -
6-30 -2055-Jun-3008:35:49 47763 3964 -50148 P t- 1.0731 0.8509 64N 93E 0 - -
7-29 -2037-Jul-1115:38:20 47319 3886 -49925 A+ t- 1.0031 0.9757 65N 25W 0 - -
8-28 -2019-Jul-2122:49:07 46878 3810 -49702 A t- 0.9387 0.9781 86N 132W 20 23301m20s
9-27 -2001-Aug-0206:10:47 46438 3734 -49479 A t- 0.8823 0.9806 84N 51W 28 14901m16s
10-26 -1983-Aug-1213:42:34 46000 3658 -49256 A p- 0.8333 0.9820 75N 168W 33 11601m15s
11-25 -1965-Aug-2321:24:41 45565 3584 -49033 A p- 0.7920 0.9831 68N 73E 37 9801m14s
12-24 -1947-Sep-0305:17:29 45132 3510 -48810 A p- 0.7586 0.9839 61N 48W 40 8801m14s
13-23 -1929-Sep-1413:20:25 44700 3436 -48587 A p- 0.7327 0.9846 55N 173W 43 8001m14s
14-22 -1911-Sep-2421:33:20 44271 3364 -48364 A p- 0.7145 0.9854 49N 60E 44 7301m14s
15-21 -1893-Oct-0605:53:07 43844 3292 -48141 A p- 0.7012 0.9865 43N 69W 45 6701m11s
16-20 -1875-Oct-1614:21:19 43419 3221 -47918 A p- 0.6942 0.9877 39N 160E 46 6001m07s
17-19 -1857-Oct-2722:54:13 42996 3150 -47695 A p- 0.6902 0.9895 34N 28E 46 5100m59s
18-18 -1839-Nov-0707:31:54 42575 3080 -47472 A p- 0.6895 0.9917 31N 105W 46 4000m48s
19-17 -1821-Nov-1816:10:15 42156 3011 -47249 A p- 0.6887 0.9945 27N 121E 46 2600m33s
20-16 -1803-Nov-2900:50:25 41739 2943 -47026 A p- 0.6886 0.9979 24N 13W 46 1000m13s
21-15 -1785-Dec-1009:28:21 41324 2875 -46803 H p- 0.6858 1.0019 22N 147W 47 900m12s
22-14 -1767-Dec-2018:03:47 40911 2808 -46580 H p- 0.6802 1.0065 20N 80E 47 3100m41s
23-13 -1748-Jan-0102:34:11 40501 2741 -46357 H p- 0.6696 1.0117 18N 51W 48 5401m12s
24-12 -1730-Jan-1110:59:33 40092 2676 -46134 T p- 0.6542 1.0173 17N 179E 49 7801m46s
25-11 -1712-Jan-2219:17:30 39686 2611 -45911 T p- 0.6320 1.0233 16N 51E 51 10202m19s
26-10 -1694-Feb-0203:28:37 39281 2547 -45688 T p- 0.6033 1.0296 15N 75W 53 12502m51s
27 -9 -1676-Feb-1311:31:47 38879 2483 -45465 T p- 0.5674 1.0361 14N 162E 55 14603m21s
28 -8 -1658-Feb-2319:28:25 38479 2420 -45242 T p- 0.5252 1.0425 14N 40E 58 16503m48s
29 -7 -1640-Mar-0603:15:54 38080 2358 -45019 T p- 0.4748 1.0488 14N 79W 62 18204m13s
30 -6 -1622-Mar-1710:57:56 37684 2297 -44796 T p- 0.4193 1.0548 15N 164E 65 19704m35s
31 -5 -1604-Mar-2718:32:48 37290 2236 -44573 T n- 0.3571 1.0603 15N 49E 69 21104m56s
32 -4 -1586-Apr-0802:04:21 36898 2176 -44350 T n- 0.2913 1.0653 16N 65W 73 22205m16s
33 -3 -1568-Apr-1809:29:35 36508 2117 -44127 T n- 0.2197 1.0696 17N 176W 77 23205m35s
34 -2 -1550-Apr-2916:54:17 36120 2058 -43904 T n- 0.1470 1.0731 17N 72E 81 24005m54s
35 -1 -1532-May-1000:15:47 35735 2000 -43681 T nn 0.0713 1.0758 17N 39W 86 24606m12s
36 0 -1514-May-2107:38:28 35351 1943 -43458 T nn -0.0040 1.0776 16N 150W 90 25106m29s
37 1 -1496-May-3115:00:06 34969 1886 -43235 Tm nn -0.0805 1.0785 15N 100E 85 25406m44s
38 2 -1478-Jun-1122:25:54 34590 1831 -43012 T nn -0.1540 1.0785 13N 12W 81 25706m57s
39 3 -1460-Jun-2205:53:54 34212 1776 -42789 T -n -0.2255 1.0776 10N 125W 77 25707m04s
40 4 -1442-Jul-0313:26:43 33837 1721 -42566 T -n -0.2931 1.0760 7N 120E 73 25707m05s
Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 23
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QLE Gamma Ecl Mag Lat

°
Long

°
Sun Alt
°
Path Width km Central Dur
41 5 -1424-Jul-1321:04:45 33463 1668 -42343 T -n -0.3562 1.0736 3N 3E 69 25606m58s
42 6 -1406-Jul-2504:49:42 33092 1615 -42120 T -n -0.4134 1.0707 2S 115W 66 25206m42s
43 7 -1388-Aug-0412:41:51 32723 1563 -41897 T -p -0.4646 1.0672 7S 123E 62 24706m19s
44 8 -1370-Aug-1520:40:45 32356 1511 -41674 T -p -0.5099 1.0633 12S 0E 59 24105m51s
45 9 -1352-Aug-2604:48:25 31991 1461 -41451 T -p -0.5477 1.0592 17S 126W 57 23205m20s
46 10 -1334-Sep-0613:03:50 31628 1411 -41228 T -p -0.5788 1.0551 23S 107E 54 22204m48s
47 11 -1316-Sep-1621:27:14 31267 1361 -41005 T -p -0.6032 1.0510 28S 23W 53 21104m18s
48 12 -1298-Sep-2805:57:56 30908 1313 -40782 T -p -0.6216 1.0471 34S 155W 51 19903m50s
49 13 -1280-Oct-0814:36:10 30551 1265 -40559 T -p -0.6337 1.0436 39S 72E 50 18703m26s
50 14 -1262-Oct-1923:19:51 30196 1218 -40336 T -p -0.6410 1.0404 44S 62W 50 17503m05s
51 15 -1244-Oct-3008:07:30 29844 1172 -40113 T -p -0.6451 1.0377 49S 164E 50 16502m48s
52 16 -1226-Nov-1016:58:26 29493 1126 -39890 T -p -0.6463 1.0355 53S 31E 49 15602m35s
53 17 -1208-Nov-2101:51:11 29144 1082 -39667 T -p -0.6462 1.0337 57S 101W 49 14902m24s
54 18 -1190-Dec-0210:42:52 28798 1037 -39444 T -p -0.6468 1.0326 61S 129E 49 14502m17s
55 19 -1172-Dec-1219:32:31 28454 994 -39221 T -p -0.6489 1.0318 63S 1E 49 14202m12s
56 20 -1154-Dec-2404:18:05 28111 952 -38998 T -p -0.6541 1.0314 65S 123W 49 14102m09s
57 21 -1135-Jan-0312:59:20 27771 910 -38775 T -p -0.6628 1.0314 65S 114E 48 14202m08s
58 22 -1117-Jan-1421:32:15 27433 869 -38552 T -p -0.6781 1.0316 64S 7W 47 14502m08s
59 23 -1099-Jan-2505:59:01 27097 829 -38329 T -p -0.6983 1.0318 62S 127W 45 15002m08s
60 24 -1081-Feb-0514:15:45 26763 789 -38106 T -p -0.7264 1.0320 60S 113E 43 15702m08s
61 25 -1063-Feb-1522:24:55 26431 751 -37883 T -p -0.7603 1.0320 58S 6W 40 16502m07s
62 26 -1045-Feb-2706:23:02 26101 713 -37660 T -p -0.8031 1.0315 56S 123W 36 17702m05s
63 27 -1027-Mar-0914:13:47 25773 676 -37437 T -t -0.8515 1.0305 55S 122E 31 19402m00s
64 28 -1009-Mar-2021:54:11 25447 639 -37214 T -t -0.9079 1.0286 56S 12E 24 22801m52s
65 29 -0991-Mar-3105:26:42 25124 618 -36991 T -t -0.9703 1.0250 58S 91W 13 35601m34s
66 30 -0973-Apr-1112:50:43 24802 612 -36768 P -t -1.0388 0.9327 61S 173E 0 - -
67 31 -0955-Apr-2120:08:56 24482 605 -36545 P -t -1.1113 0.7970 61S 54E 0 - -
68 32 -0937-May-0303:20:59 24165 598 -36322 P -t -1.1880 0.6536 61S 64W 0 - -
69 33 -0919-May-1310:28:09 23850 591 -36099 P -t -1.2675 0.5055 62S 179E 0 - -
70 34 -0901-May-2417:32:20 23536 584 -35876 P -t -1.3482 0.3560 63S 62E 0 - -
71 35 -0883-Jun-0400:34:30 23225 577 -35653 P -t -1.4291 0.2074 63S 54W 0 - -
72 36 -0865-Jun-1507:35:45 22916 571 -35430 Pe -t -1.5095 0.0610 64S 170W 0 - -

Statistics for Solar Eclipses of Saros 23

Solar eclipses of Saros 23 all occur at the Moon’s ascending node and the Moon moves southward with each eclipse. The series began with a partial eclipse in the northern hemisphere on -2145 May 07. The series ended with a partial eclipse in the southern hemisphere on -0865 Jun 15. The total duration of Saros series 23 is 1280.14 years.

Summary of Saros 23
First Eclipse -2145 May 07
Last Eclipse -0865 Jun 15
Series Duration 1280.14 Years
No. of Eclipses 72
Sequence 6P 14A 3H 42T 7P

Saros 23 is composed of 72 solar eclipses as follows:

Solar Eclipses of Saros 23
Eclipse Type Symbol Number Percent
All Eclipses - 72100.0%
PartialP 13 18.1%
AnnularA 14 19.4%
TotalT 42 58.3%
HybridH 3 4.2%

Umbral eclipses (annular, total and hybrid) can be further classified as either: 1) Central (two limits), 2) Central (one limit) or 3) Non-Central (one limit). The statistical distribution of these classes in Saros series 23 appears in the following table.

Umbral Eclipses of Saros 23
Classification Number Percent
All Umbral Eclipses 59100.0%
Central (two limits) 58 98.3%
Central (one limit) 0 0.0%
Non-Central (one limit) 1 1.7%

The 72 eclipses in Saros 23 occur in the following order : 6P 14A 3H 42T 7P

The longest and shortest central eclipses of Saros 23 as well as largest and smallest partial eclipses appear below.

Extreme Durations and Magnitudes of Solar Eclipses of Saros 23
Extrema Type Date Duration Magnitude
Longest Annular Solar Eclipse -2019 Jul 2101m20s -
Shortest Annular Solar Eclipse -1803 Nov 2900m13s -
Longest Total Solar Eclipse -1442 Jul 0307m05s -
Shortest Total Solar Eclipse -0991 Mar 3101m34s -
Longest Hybrid Solar Eclipse -1748 Jan 0101m12s -
Shortest Hybrid Solar Eclipse -1785 Dec 1000m12s -
Largest Partial Solar Eclipse -0973 Apr 11 - 0.93274
Smallest Partial Solar Eclipse -0865 Jun 15 - 0.06099

Links to Additional Solar Eclipse Predictions

Calendar

The Gregorian calendar (also called the Western calendar) is internationally the most widely used civil calendar. It is named for Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in 1582. On this website, the Gregorian calendar is used for all calendar dates from 1582 Oct 15 onwards. Before that date, the Julian calendar is used. For more information on this topic, see Calendar Dates.

The Julian calendar does not include the year 0. Thus the year 1 BCE is followed by the year 1 CE (See: BCE/CE Dating Conventions). This is awkward for arithmetic calculations. Years in this catalog are numbered astronomically and include the year 0. Historians should note there is a difference of one year between astronomical dates and BCE dates. Thus, the astronomical year 0 corresponds to 1 BCE, and astronomical year -1 corresponds to 2 BCE, etc..

Eclipse Predictions

The eclipse predictions presented here were generated using the JPL DE406 solar and lunar ephemerides. The lunar coordinates have been calculated with respect to the Moon's Center of Mass.

The largest uncertainty in the eclipse predictions is caused by fluctuations in Earth's rotation due primarily to tidal friction of the Moon. The resultant drift in apparent clock time is expressed as ΔT and is determined as follows:

  1. pre-1950's: ΔT calculated from empirical fits to historical records derived by Morrison and Stephenson (2004)
  2. 1955-present: ΔT obtained from published observations
  3. future: ΔT is extrapolated from current values weighted by the long term trend from tidal effects

A series of polynomial expressions have been derived to simplify the evaluation of ΔT for any time from -2999 to +3000. The uncertainty in ΔT over this period can be estimated from scatter in the measurements.

Acknowledgments

Some of the content on this web site is based on the books Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 and Thousand Year Canon of Solar Eclipses 1501 to 2500. All eclipse calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy.

Permission is granted to reproduce data from this page when accompanied by an acknowledgment:

"Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak, www.EclipseWise.com"

The use of diagrams and maps is permitted provided that they are NOT altered (except for re-sizing) and the embedded credit line is NOT removed or covered.