Saros 25

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 25

Fred Espenak

Introduction

The periodicity and recurrence of solar eclipses is governed by the Saros cycle, a period of approximately 6,585.3 days (18 years 11 days 8 hours). When two eclipses are separated by a period of one Saros, they share a very similar geometry. The two eclipses occur at the same node with the Moon at nearly the same distance from Earth and the same time of year due to a harmonic in three cycles of the Moon's orbit. Thus, the Saros is useful for organizing eclipses into families or series. Each series typically lasts 12 to 13 centuries and contains 70 or more eclipses. Every saros series begins with a number of partial eclipses near one of Earth's polar regions. The series will then produce several dozen central eclipses before ending with a group of partial eclipses near the opposite pole. For more information, see Periodicity of Solar Eclipses.

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 25

The table below lists the concise characteristics of every solar eclipse belonging to Saros 25 . The date and time of each eclipse is given for the instant of Greatest Eclipse. For eclipses between the years -1999 to 3000, the calendar date links to a web page containing additional details and a map showing the geographic region of eclipse visibility for that eclipse. A description of each parameter in the catalog table can be found in Key to Saros Catalog of Solar Eclipses.

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 25
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QLE Gamma Ecl Mag Lat

°
Long

°
Sun Alt
°
Path Width km Central Dur
1-34 -2033-Apr-3013:34:05 47226 3870 -49878 Pb t- 1.4816 0.1264 61N 67E 0 - -
2-33 -2015-May-1020:10:16 46785 3794 -49655 P t- 1.4042 0.2639 61N 42W 0 - -
3-32 -1997-May-2202:44:37 46345 3718 -49432 P t- 1.3256 0.4030 62N 152W 0 - -
4-31 -1979-Jun-0109:16:38 45908 3642 -49209 P t- 1.2455 0.5437 62N 99E 0 - -
5-30 -1961-Jun-1215:50:44 45473 3568 -48986 P t- 1.1678 0.6793 63N 10W 0 - -
6-29 -1943-Jun-2222:26:07 45040 3494 -48763 P t- 1.0916 0.8109 64N 120W 0 - -
7-28 -1925-Jul-0405:06:21 44609 3421 -48540 P t- 1.0197 0.9339 65N 128E 0 - -
8-27 -1907-Jul-1411:49:53 44181 3348 -48317 A t- 0.9508 0.9452 83N 36E 17 67503m30s
9-26 -1889-Jul-2518:41:36 43754 3277 -48094 A p- 0.8890 0.9427 86N 90E 27 47004m01s
10-25 -1871-Aug-0501:39:26 43329 3206 -47871 A p- 0.8329 0.9393 77N 5W 33 41104m37s
11-24 -1853-Aug-1608:45:52 42907 3135 -47648 A p- 0.7842 0.9356 70N 112W 38 38905m17s
12-23 -1835-Aug-2616:00:21 42486 3066 -47425 A p- 0.7423 0.9317 62N 137E 42 38106m00s
13-22 -1817-Sep-0623:24:53 42068 2997 -47202 A p- 0.7088 0.9279 56N 23E 45 38306m45s
14-21 -1799-Sep-1706:57:33 41651 2928 -46979 A p- 0.6824 0.9244 49N 93W 47 38807m32s
15-20 -1781-Sep-2814:38:08 41237 2861 -46756 A p- 0.6625 0.9211 43N 148E 48 39508m19s
16-19 -1763-Oct-0822:25:40 40825 2794 -46533 A p- 0.6488 0.9183 38N 28E 49 40309m05s
17-18 -1745-Oct-2006:19:58 40414 2728 -46310 A p- 0.6405 0.9160 33N 95W 50 41109m50s
18-17 -1727-Oct-3014:17:29 40006 2662 -46087 A p- 0.6350 0.9144 29N 142E 50 41810m32s
19-16 -1709-Nov-1022:18:35 39600 2597 -45864 A p- 0.6325 0.9133 25N 18E 51 42311m10s
20-15 -1691-Nov-2106:19:28 39196 2533 -45641 A p- 0.6297 0.9131 22N 106W 51 42411m40s
21-14 -1673-Dec-0214:20:47 38794 2470 -45418 A p- 0.6274 0.9135 19N 130E 51 42312m00s
22-13 -1655-Dec-1222:16:58 38395 2407 -45195 A p- 0.6208 0.9147 16N 8E 52 41412m07s
23-12 -1637-Dec-2406:10:32 37997 2345 -44972 A p- 0.6119 0.9165 14N 114W 52 40111m58s
24-11 -1618-Jan-0313:56:21 37601 2284 -44749 A p- 0.5962 0.9190 13N 126E 53 38211m34s
25-10 -1600-Jan-1421:35:59 37207 2223 -44526 A p- 0.5755 0.9221 11N 8E 55 35810m55s
26 -9 -1582-Jan-2505:05:37 36816 2163 -44303 A p- 0.5460 0.9257 10N 107W 57 33110m07s
27 -8 -1564-Feb-0512:28:17 36426 2104 -44080 A p- 0.5106 0.9297 9N 140E 59 30309m13s
28 -7 -1546-Feb-1519:41:08 36039 2046 -43857 A p- 0.4663 0.9340 9N 29E 62 27508m17s
29 -6 -1528-Feb-2702:44:54 35654 1988 -43634 A p- 0.4141 0.9385 9N 78W 65 24807m24s
30 -5 -1510-Mar-0909:40:03 35270 1931 -43411 A p- 0.3542 0.9430 9N 177E 69 22306m36s
31 -4 -1492-Mar-1916:27:58 34889 1875 -43188 A pn 0.2879 0.9476 9N 74E 73 20005m53s
32 -3 -1474-Mar-3023:09:07 34510 1819 -42965 A nn 0.2151 0.9519 9N 28W 78 18005m17s
33 -2 -1456-Apr-1005:44:24 34133 1764 -42742 A nn 0.1368 0.9560 10N 127W 82 16204m47s
34 -1 -1438-Apr-2112:16:00 33758 1710 -42519 A nn 0.0547 0.9598 10N 135E 87 14604m24s
35 0 -1420-May-0118:45:03 33385 1656 -42296 A nn -0.0299 0.9631 9N 37E 88 13304m05s
36 1 -1402-May-1301:12:02 33014 1604 -42073 Am nn -0.1170 0.9660 8N 60W 83 12303m51s
37 2 -1384-May-2307:40:09 32645 1552 -41850 A nn -0.2039 0.9684 7N 157W 78 11603m41s
38 3 -1366-Jun-0314:10:14 32279 1500 -41627 A nn -0.2896 0.9703 4N 105E 73 11103m35s
39 4 -1348-Jun-1320:45:02 31914 1450 -41404 A -p -0.3724 0.9716 1N 5E 68 10903m31s
40 5 -1330-Jun-2503:23:45 31551 1400 -41181 A -p -0.4525 0.9724 3S 97W 63 11003m29s
Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 25
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QLE Gamma Ecl Mag Lat

°
Long

°
Sun Alt
°
Path Width km Central Dur
41 6 -1312-Jul-0510:10:51 31191 1351 -40958 A -p -0.5263 0.9728 8S 159E 58 11403m27s
42 7 -1294-Jul-1617:05:01 30832 1303 -40735 A -p -0.5949 0.9727 13S 52E 53 12203m24s
43 8 -1276-Jul-2700:09:08 30476 1255 -40512 A -p -0.6562 0.9724 19S 57W 49 13103m20s
44 9 -1258-Aug-0707:21:50 30122 1208 -40289 A -p -0.7113 0.9717 25S 170W 44 14403m15s
45 10 -1240-Aug-1714:46:27 29769 1162 -40066 A -p -0.7574 0.9709 31S 73E 41 15903m08s
46 11 -1222-Aug-2822:21:06 29419 1117 -39843 A -p -0.7960 0.9701 37S 46W 37 17603m01s
47 12 -1204-Sep-0806:06:12 29071 1072 -39620 A -p -0.8267 0.9694 43S 168W 34 19402m52s
48 13 -1186-Sep-1914:01:57 28725 1028 -39397 A -p -0.8497 0.9689 49S 66E 31 21002m44s
49 14 -1168-Sep-2922:07:28 28381 985 -39174 A -p -0.8657 0.9689 54S 62W 30 22202m34s
50 15 -1150-Oct-1106:21:48 28039 943 -38951 A -p -0.8749 0.9693 59S 168E 29 22702m24s
51 16 -1132-Oct-2114:42:12 27700 901 -38728 A -p -0.8801 0.9703 64S 37E 28 22502m12s
52 17 -1114-Nov-0123:09:40 27362 860 -38505 A -p -0.8801 0.9718 68S 95W 28 21402m00s
53 18 -1096-Nov-1207:40:47 27026 820 -38282 A -p -0.8783 0.9740 72S 134E 28 19601m47s
54 19 -1078-Nov-2316:14:46 26693 781 -38059 A -p -0.8747 0.9769 77S 6E 29 17201m33s
55 20 -1060-Dec-0400:48:40 26361 743 -37836 A -p -0.8722 0.9803 81S 116W 29 14501m17s
56 21 -1042-Dec-1509:22:18 26032 705 -37613 A -p -0.8707 0.9842 84S 138E 29 11501m00s
57 22 -1024-Dec-2517:52:49 25704 668 -37390 A -p -0.8726 0.9887 84S 51E 29 8300m43s
58 23 -1005-Jan-0602:19:16 25379 632 -37167 A -p -0.8788 0.9935 81S 49W 28 4800m24s
59 24 -0987-Jan-1610:40:25 25056 617 -36944 A -p -0.8904 0.9986 77S 164W 27 1100m05s
60 25 -0969-Jan-2718:55:43 24734 610 -36721 H -p -0.9077 1.0037 74S 77E 24 3100m13s
61 26 -0951-Feb-0703:03:15 24415 603 -36498 T -p -0.9321 1.0088 70S 40W 21 8500m31s
62 27 -0933-Feb-1811:03:59 24098 596 -36275 T -p -0.9630 1.0133 67S 154W 15 17300m45s
63 28 -0915-Feb-2818:56:51 23783 590 -36052 T- -t -1.0010 1.0008 61S 110E 0 - -
64 29 -0897-Mar-1202:43:52 23470 583 -35829 P -t -1.0449 0.9217 61S 17W 0 - -
65 30 -0879-Mar-2210:22:07 23160 576 -35606 P -t -1.0965 0.8271 61S 141W 0 - -
66 31 -0861-Apr-0217:56:17 22851 569 -35383 P -t -1.1521 0.7239 61S 95E 0 - -
67 32 -0843-Apr-1301:23:51 22544 562 -35160 P -t -1.2134 0.6085 61S 27W 0 - -
68 33 -0825-Apr-2408:49:19 22240 555 -34937 P -t -1.2772 0.4872 61S 148W 0 - -
69 34 -0807-May-0416:09:45 21937 549 -34714 P -t -1.3454 0.3565 62S 92E 0 - -
70 35 -0789-May-1523:30:50 21637 542 -34491 P -t -1.4137 0.2248 62S 29W 0 - -
71 36 -0771-May-2606:49:57 21338 535 -34268 Pe -t -1.4836 0.0894 63S 149W 0 - -

Statistics for Solar Eclipses of Saros 25

Solar eclipses of Saros 25 all occur at the Moon’s ascending node and the Moon moves southward with each eclipse. The series began with a partial eclipse in the northern hemisphere on -2033 Apr 30. The series ended with a partial eclipse in the southern hemisphere on -0771 May 26. The total duration of Saros series 25 is 1262.11 years.

Summary of Saros 25
First Eclipse -2033 Apr 30
Last Eclipse -0771 May 26
Series Duration 1262.11 Years
No. of Eclipses 71
Sequence 7P 52A 1H 3T 8P

Saros 25 is composed of 71 solar eclipses as follows:

Solar Eclipses of Saros 25
Eclipse Type Symbol Number Percent
All Eclipses - 71100.0%
PartialP 15 21.1%
AnnularA 52 73.2%
TotalT 3 4.2%
HybridH 1 1.4%

Umbral eclipses (annular, total and hybrid) can be further classified as either: 1) Central (two limits), 2) Central (one limit) or 3) Non-Central (one limit). The statistical distribution of these classes in Saros series 25 appears in the following table.

Umbral Eclipses of Saros 25
Classification Number Percent
All Umbral Eclipses 56100.0%
Central (two limits) 55 98.2%
Central (one limit) 0 0.0%
Non-Central (one limit) 1 1.8%

The 71 eclipses in Saros 25 occur in the following order : 7P 52A 1H 3T 8P

The longest and shortest central eclipses of Saros 25 as well as largest and smallest partial eclipses appear below.

Extreme Durations and Magnitudes of Solar Eclipses of Saros 25
Extrema Type Date Duration Magnitude
Longest Annular Solar Eclipse -1655 Dec 1212m07s -
Shortest Annular Solar Eclipse -0987 Jan 1600m05s -
Longest Total Solar Eclipse -0933 Feb 1800m45s -
Shortest Total Solar Eclipse -0951 Feb 0700m31s -
Longest Hybrid Solar Eclipse -0969 Jan 2700m13s -
Shortest Hybrid Solar Eclipse -0969 Jan 2700m13s -
Largest Partial Solar Eclipse -1925 Jul 04 - 0.93387
Smallest Partial Solar Eclipse -0771 May 26 - 0.08938

Links to Additional Solar Eclipse Predictions

Calendar

The Gregorian calendar (also called the Western calendar) is internationally the most widely used civil calendar. It is named for Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in 1582. On this website, the Gregorian calendar is used for all calendar dates from 1582 Oct 15 onwards. Before that date, the Julian calendar is used. For more information on this topic, see Calendar Dates.

The Julian calendar does not include the year 0. Thus the year 1 BCE is followed by the year 1 CE (See: BCE/CE Dating Conventions). This is awkward for arithmetic calculations. Years in this catalog are numbered astronomically and include the year 0. Historians should note there is a difference of one year between astronomical dates and BCE dates. Thus, the astronomical year 0 corresponds to 1 BCE, and astronomical year -1 corresponds to 2 BCE, etc..

Eclipse Predictions

The eclipse predictions presented here were generated using the JPL DE406 solar and lunar ephemerides. The lunar coordinates have been calculated with respect to the Moon's Center of Mass.

The largest uncertainty in the eclipse predictions is caused by fluctuations in Earth's rotation due primarily to tidal friction of the Moon. The resultant drift in apparent clock time is expressed as ΔT and is determined as follows:

  1. pre-1950's: ΔT calculated from empirical fits to historical records derived by Morrison and Stephenson (2004)
  2. 1955-present: ΔT obtained from published observations
  3. future: ΔT is extrapolated from current values weighted by the long term trend from tidal effects

A series of polynomial expressions have been derived to simplify the evaluation of ΔT for any time from -2999 to +3000. The uncertainty in ΔT over this period can be estimated from scatter in the measurements.

Acknowledgments

Some of the content on this web site is based on the books Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 and Thousand Year Canon of Solar Eclipses 1501 to 2500. All eclipse calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy.

Permission is granted to reproduce data from this page when accompanied by an acknowledgment:

"Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak, www.EclipseWise.com"

The use of diagrams and maps is permitted provided that they are NOT altered (except for re-sizing) and the embedded credit line is NOT removed or covered.