Saros 31

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 31

Fred Espenak

Introduction

The periodicity and recurrence of solar eclipses is governed by the Saros cycle, a period of approximately 6,585.3 days (18 years 11 days 8 hours). When two eclipses are separated by a period of one Saros, they share a very similar geometry. The two eclipses occur at the same node with the Moon at nearly the same distance from Earth and the same time of year due to a harmonic in three cycles of the Moon's orbit. Thus, the Saros is useful for organizing eclipses into families or series. Each series typically lasts 12 to 13 centuries and contains 70 or more eclipses. Every saros series begins with a number of partial eclipses near one of Earth's polar regions. The series will then produce several dozen central eclipses before ending with a group of partial eclipses near the opposite pole. For more information, see Periodicity of Solar Eclipses.

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 31

The table below lists the concise characteristics of every solar eclipse belonging to Saros 31 . The date and time of each eclipse is given for the instant of Greatest Eclipse. For eclipses between the years -1999 to 3000, the calendar date links to a web page containing additional details and a map showing the geographic region of eclipse visibility for that eclipse. A description of each parameter in the catalog table can be found in Key to Saros Catalog of Solar Eclipses.

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 31
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QLE Gamma Ecl Mag Lat

°
Long

°
Sun Alt
°
Path Width km Central Dur
1-35 -1805-Jan-3108:30:29 41804 2953 -47061 Pb t- 1.5528 0.0078 63N 168W 0 - -
2-34 -1787-Feb-1016:06:52 41389 2885 -46838 P t- 1.5215 0.0623 63N 67E 0 - -
3-33 -1769-Feb-2123:31:47 40976 2818 -46615 P t- 1.4818 0.1315 62N 55W 0 - -
4-32 -1751-Mar-0406:47:03 40565 2752 -46392 P t- 1.4349 0.2132 61N 175W 0 - -
5-31 -1733-Mar-1513:51:30 40156 2686 -46169 P t- 1.3799 0.3093 61N 69E 0 - -
6-30 -1715-Mar-2520:46:10 39749 2621 -45946 P t- 1.3174 0.4183 61N 46W 0 - -
7-29 -1697-Apr-0603:32:18 39344 2557 -45723 P t- 1.2485 0.5384 61N 157W 0 - -
8-28 -1679-Apr-1610:11:09 38942 2493 -45500 P t- 1.1743 0.6676 61N 92E 0 - -
9-27 -1661-Apr-2716:43:18 38541 2430 -45277 P t- 1.0952 0.8050 61N 16W 0 - -
10-26 -1643-May-0723:11:07 38143 2368 -45054 P t- 1.0127 0.9478 61N 123W 0 - -
11-25 -1625-May-1905:35:42 37746 2306 -44831 A t- 0.9281 0.9523 67N 179E 21 47003m19s
12-24 -1607-May-2911:59:29 37352 2245 -44608 A p- 0.8430 0.9525 67N 103E 32 32203m32s
13-23 -1589-Jun-0918:21:58 36960 2185 -44385 A p- 0.7571 0.9516 66N 23E 40 27103m51s
14-22 -1571-Jun-2000:48:04 36569 2126 -44162 A p- 0.6746 0.9499 63N 62W 47 24904m15s
15-21 -1553-Jul-0107:16:30 36181 2067 -43939 A p- 0.5943 0.9476 60N 150W 53 24004m44s
16-20 -1535-Jul-1113:51:49 35795 2009 -43716 A p- 0.5196 0.9449 55N 117E 58 23805m19s
17-19 -1517-Jul-2220:31:45 35411 1952 -43493 A p- 0.4489 0.9418 50N 20E 63 24105m59s
18-18 -1499-Aug-0203:21:32 35029 1895 -43270 A p- 0.3866 0.9386 44N 81W 67 24806m42s
19-17 -1481-Aug-1310:18:05 34649 1839 -43047 A p- 0.3300 0.9351 38N 174E 71 25607m27s
20-16 -1463-Aug-2317:24:35 34271 1784 -42824 A nn 0.2818 0.9318 32N 66E 73 26608m10s
21-15 -1445-Sep-0400:39:30 33895 1730 -42601 A nn 0.2405 0.9286 26N 44W 76 27608m51s
22-14 -1427-Sep-1408:05:06 33522 1676 -42378 A nn 0.2081 0.9256 20N 158W 78 28609m27s
23-13 -1409-Sep-2515:38:52 33150 1623 -42155 A nn 0.1826 0.9229 14N 86E 79 29610m00s
24-12 -1391-Oct-0523:20:47 32781 1571 -41932 A nn 0.1638 0.9208 9N 32W 81 30410m27s
25-11 -1373-Oct-1707:09:52 32413 1519 -41709 A nn 0.1509 0.9190 4N 152W 81 31010m51s
26-10 -1355-Oct-2715:05:16 32048 1468 -41486 A nn 0.1430 0.9180 1S 87E 82 31411m10s
27 -9 -1337-Nov-0723:04:15 31684 1418 -41263 A nn 0.1380 0.9176 5S 35W 82 31611m24s
28 -8 -1319-Nov-1807:05:47 31323 1369 -41040 A nn 0.1347 0.9178 9S 157W 82 31511m30s
29 -7 -1301-Nov-2915:07:48 30964 1320 -40817 A nn 0.1316 0.9188 12S 81E 83 31111m26s
30 -6 -1283-Dec-0923:09:27 30607 1273 -40594 A nn 0.1276 0.9205 15S 40W 83 30311m11s
31 -5 -1265-Dec-2107:06:57 30252 1225 -40371 A nn 0.1198 0.9229 17S 161W 83 29310m44s
32 -4 -1247-Dec-3115:00:59 29899 1179 -40148 A nn 0.1085 0.9259 18S 80E 84 28010m06s
33 -3 -1228-Jan-1122:48:13 29548 1133 -39925 A nn 0.0910 0.9295 18S 37W 85 26509m19s
34 -2 -1210-Jan-2206:29:09 29199 1088 -39702 A nn 0.0679 0.9337 18S 153W 86 24808m26s
35 -1 -1192-Feb-0214:01:05 28852 1044 -39479 A nn 0.0366 0.9381 18S 94E 88 23007m33s
36 0 -1174-Feb-1221:26:01 28508 1001 -39256 A nn -0.0011 0.9430 17S 18W 90 21106m40s
37 1 -1156-Feb-2404:42:11 28165 958 -39033 A nn -0.0469 0.9480 16S 127W 87 19105m52s
38 2 -1138-Mar-0611:49:54 27824 916 -38810 Am nn -0.1002 0.9532 15S 125E 84 17205m07s
39 3 -1120-Mar-1618:49:53 27486 875 -38587 A nn -0.1605 0.9582 14S 20E 81 15404m28s
40 4 -1102-Mar-2801:43:26 27149 835 -38364 A nn -0.2267 0.9632 13S 84W 77 13603m52s
Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 31
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QLE Gamma Ecl Mag Lat

°
Long

°
Sun Alt
°
Path Width km Central Dur
41 5 -1084-Apr-0708:31:43 26815 795 -38141 A nn -0.2982 0.9679 12S 174E 73 12003m22s
42 6 -1066-Apr-1815:14:37 26483 757 -37918 A -p -0.3749 0.9722 13S 72E 68 10602m56s
43 7 -1048-Apr-2821:55:42 26153 719 -37695 A -p -0.4539 0.9760 13S 29W 63 9502m33s
44 8 -1030-May-1004:34:46 25824 681 -37472 A -p -0.5352 0.9794 15S 129W 58 8502m14s
45 9 -1012-May-2011:14:33 25498 645 -37249 A -p -0.6166 0.9821 18S 129E 52 7901m57s
46 10 -0994-May-3117:55:14 25174 620 -37026 A -p -0.6983 0.9841 22S 28E 46 7701m44s
47 11 -0976-Jun-1100:40:04 24852 613 -36803 A -p -0.7772 0.9854 28S 76W 39 8101m34s
48 12 -0958-Jun-2207:29:15 24532 606 -36580 A -p -0.8534 0.9859 35S 179E 31 9501m27s
49 13 -0940-Jul-0214:24:04 24215 599 -36357 A -p -0.9256 0.9853 44S 71E 22 13801m24s
50 14 -0922-Jul-1321:26:28 23899 592 -36134 As -t -0.9924 0.9822 61S 41W 6 - 01m27s
51 15 -0904-Jul-2404:37:05 23585 585 -35911 P -t -1.0529 0.8905 68S 160W 0 - -
52 16 -0886-Aug-0411:57:15 23274 578 -35688 P -t -1.1066 0.7941 69S 77E 0 - -
53 17 -0868-Aug-1419:26:30 22964 572 -35465 P -t -1.1536 0.7097 70S 49W 0 - -
54 18 -0850-Aug-2603:06:28 22657 565 -35242 P -t -1.1925 0.6397 70S 177W 0 - -
55 19 -0832-Sep-0510:56:23 22351 558 -35019 P -t -1.2240 0.5829 71S 51E 0 - -
56 20 -0814-Sep-1618:55:56 22048 551 -34796 P -t -1.2485 0.5388 71S 84W 0 - -
57 21 -0796-Sep-2703:05:27 21747 544 -34573 P -t -1.2659 0.5075 72S 138E 0 - -
58 22 -0778-Oct-0811:23:39 21448 537 -34350 P -t -1.2771 0.4873 72S 2W 0 - -
59 23 -0760-Oct-1819:50:15 21151 530 -34127 P -t -1.2823 0.4779 71S 144W 0 - -
60 24 -0742-Oct-3004:22:02 20856 524 -33904 P -t -1.2843 0.4744 71S 73E 0 - -
61 25 -0724-Nov-0913:00:17 20563 517 -33681 P -t -1.2819 0.4787 70S 71W 0 - -
62 26 -0706-Nov-2021:40:53 20272 510 -33458 P -t -1.2788 0.4844 69S 145E 0 - -
63 27 -0688-Dec-0106:23:54 19983 503 -33235 P -t -1.2744 0.4924 68S 2E 0 - -
64 28 -0670-Dec-1215:05:17 19696 496 -33012 P -t -1.2721 0.4966 67S 141W 0 - -
65 29 -0652-Dec-2223:46:09 19411 488 -32789 P -t -1.2711 0.4985 66S 77E 0 - -
66 30 -0633-Jan-0308:22:46 19129 481 -32566 P -t -1.2744 0.4925 65S 64W 0 - -
67 31 -0615-Jan-1316:55:01 18848 474 -32343 P -t -1.2819 0.4787 64S 157E 0 - -
68 32 -0597-Jan-2501:20:44 18570 467 -32120 P -t -1.2955 0.4534 63S 20E 0 - -
69 33 -0579-Feb-0409:40:23 18293 460 -31897 P -t -1.3145 0.4177 62S 116W 0 - -
70 34 -0561-Feb-1517:51:58 18019 453 -31674 P -t -1.3407 0.3683 62S 111E 0 - -
71 35 -0543-Feb-2601:56:32 17747 447 -31451 P -t -1.3733 0.3062 61S 20W 0 - -
72 36 -0525-Mar-0909:53:13 17477 440 -31228 P -t -1.4128 0.2304 61S 149W 0 - -
73 37 -0507-Mar-1917:44:01 17209 433 -31005 P -t -1.4577 0.1434 61S 83E 0 - -
74 38 -0489-Mar-3101:26:30 16908 426 -30782 Pe -t -1.5098 0.0422 61S 42W 0 - -

Statistics for Solar Eclipses of Saros 31

Solar eclipses of Saros 31 all occur at the Moon’s ascending node and the Moon moves southward with each eclipse. The series began with a partial eclipse in the northern hemisphere on -1805 Jan 31. The series ended with a partial eclipse in the southern hemisphere on -0489 Mar 31. The total duration of Saros series 31 is 1316.20 years.

Summary of Saros 31
First Eclipse -1805 Jan 31
Last Eclipse -0489 Mar 31
Series Duration 1316.20 Years
No. of Eclipses 74
Sequence 10P 40A 24P

Saros 31 is composed of 74 solar eclipses as follows:

Solar Eclipses of Saros 31
Eclipse Type Symbol Number Percent
All Eclipses - 74100.0%
PartialP 34 45.9%
AnnularA 40 54.1%
TotalT 0 0.0%
HybridH 0 0.0%

Umbral eclipses (annular, total and hybrid) can be further classified as either: 1) Central (two limits), 2) Central (one limit) or 3) Non-Central (one limit). The statistical distribution of these classes in Saros series 31 appears in the following table.

Umbral Eclipses of Saros 31
Classification Number Percent
All Umbral Eclipses 40100.0%
Central (two limits) 39 97.5%
Central (one limit) 1 2.5%
Non-Central (one limit) 0 0.0%

The 74 eclipses in Saros 31 occur in the following order : 10P 40A 24P

The longest and shortest central eclipses of Saros 31 as well as largest and smallest partial eclipses appear below.

Extreme Durations and Magnitudes of Solar Eclipses of Saros 31
Extrema Type Date Duration Magnitude
Longest Annular Solar Eclipse -1319 Nov 1811m30s -
Shortest Annular Solar Eclipse -0940 Jul 0201m24s -
Largest Partial Solar Eclipse -1643 May 07 - 0.94779
Smallest Partial Solar Eclipse -1805 Jan 31 - 0.00778

Links to Additional Solar Eclipse Predictions

Calendar

The Gregorian calendar (also called the Western calendar) is internationally the most widely used civil calendar. It is named for Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in 1582. On this website, the Gregorian calendar is used for all calendar dates from 1582 Oct 15 onwards. Before that date, the Julian calendar is used. For more information on this topic, see Calendar Dates.

The Julian calendar does not include the year 0. Thus the year 1 BCE is followed by the year 1 CE (See: BCE/CE Dating Conventions). This is awkward for arithmetic calculations. Years in this catalog are numbered astronomically and include the year 0. Historians should note there is a difference of one year between astronomical dates and BCE dates. Thus, the astronomical year 0 corresponds to 1 BCE, and astronomical year -1 corresponds to 2 BCE, etc..

Eclipse Predictions

The eclipse predictions presented here were generated using the JPL DE406 solar and lunar ephemerides. The lunar coordinates have been calculated with respect to the Moon's Center of Mass.

The largest uncertainty in the eclipse predictions is caused by fluctuations in Earth's rotation due primarily to tidal friction of the Moon. The resultant drift in apparent clock time is expressed as ΔT and is determined as follows:

  1. pre-1950's: ΔT calculated from empirical fits to historical records derived by Morrison and Stephenson (2004)
  2. 1955-present: ΔT obtained from published observations
  3. future: ΔT is extrapolated from current values weighted by the long term trend from tidal effects

A series of polynomial expressions have been derived to simplify the evaluation of ΔT for any time from -2999 to +3000. The uncertainty in ΔT over this period can be estimated from scatter in the measurements.

Acknowledgments

Some of the content on this web site is based on the books Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 and Thousand Year Canon of Solar Eclipses 1501 to 2500. All eclipse calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy.

Permission is granted to reproduce data from this page when accompanied by an acknowledgment:

"Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak, www.EclipseWise.com"

The use of diagrams and maps is permitted provided that they are NOT altered (except for re-sizing) and the embedded credit line is NOT removed or covered.