Saros 34

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 34

Fred Espenak

Introduction

The periodicity and recurrence of solar eclipses is governed by the Saros cycle, a period of approximately 6,585.3 days (18 years 11 days 8 hours). When two eclipses are separated by a period of one Saros, they share a very similar geometry. The two eclipses occur at the same node with the Moon at nearly the same distance from Earth and the same time of year due to a harmonic in three cycles of the Moon's orbit. Thus, the Saros is useful for organizing eclipses into families or series. Each series typically lasts 12 to 13 centuries and contains 70 or more eclipses. Every saros series begins with a number of partial eclipses near one of Earth's polar regions. The series will then produce several dozen central eclipses before ending with a group of partial eclipses near the opposite pole. For more information, see Periodicity of Solar Eclipses.

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 34

The table below lists the concise characteristics of every solar eclipse belonging to Saros 34 . The date and time of each eclipse is given for the instant of Greatest Eclipse. For eclipses between the years -1999 to 3000, the calendar date links to a web page containing additional details and a map showing the geographic region of eclipse visibility for that eclipse. A description of each parameter in the catalog table can be found in Key to Saros Catalog of Solar Eclipses.

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 34
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QLE Gamma Ecl Mag Lat

°
Long

°
Sun Alt
°
Path Width km Central Dur
1-37 -1917-Aug-0407:50:32 44417 3388 -48440 Pb t- -1.5250 0.0344 64S 149W 0 - -
2-36 -1899-Aug-1415:30:53 43989 3316 -48217 P t- -1.4865 0.1075 63S 85E 0 - -
3-35 -1881-Aug-2523:19:16 43563 3245 -47994 P t- -1.4551 0.1668 62S 43W 0 - -
4-34 -1863-Sep-0507:15:21 43139 3174 -47771 P t- -1.4305 0.2131 61S 173W 0 - -
5-33 -1845-Sep-1615:17:36 42718 3104 -47548 P t- -1.4114 0.2490 61S 56E 0 - -
6-32 -1827-Sep-2623:27:31 42298 3034 -47325 P t- -1.3991 0.2722 61S 77W 0 - -
7-31 -1809-Oct-0807:43:01 41881 2966 -47102 P t- -1.3922 0.2856 61S 149E 0 - -
8-30 -1791-Oct-1816:04:07 41465 2898 -46879 P t- -1.3902 0.2903 61S 13E 0 - -
9-29 -1773-Oct-3000:27:23 41052 2831 -46656 P t- -1.3907 0.2902 61S 123W 0 - -
10-28 -1755-Nov-0908:53:41 40640 2764 -46433 P t- -1.3943 0.2848 61S 100E 0 - -
11-27 -1737-Nov-2017:19:23 40231 2698 -46210 P t- -1.3981 0.2786 62S 37W 0 - -
12-26 -1719-Dec-0101:43:36 39824 2633 -45987 P t- -1.4017 0.2730 63S 174W 0 - -
13-25 -1701-Dec-1210:03:30 39419 2568 -45764 P t- -1.4027 0.2716 63S 50E 0 - -
14-24 -1683-Dec-2218:18:42 39016 2505 -45541 P t- -1.4007 0.2751 64S 86W 0 - -
15-23 -1664-Jan-0302:26:01 38615 2441 -45318 P t- -1.3934 0.2878 65S 141E 0 - -
16-22 -1646-Jan-1310:25:03 38216 2379 -45095 P t- -1.3802 0.3106 66S 9E 0 - -
17-21 -1628-Jan-2418:14:26 37819 2317 -44872 P t- -1.3602 0.3449 67S 121W 0 - -
18-20 -1610-Feb-0401:54:33 37424 2256 -44649 P t- -1.3338 0.3903 69S 111E 0 - -
19-19 -1592-Feb-1509:22:03 37031 2196 -44426 P t- -1.2978 0.4523 69S 14W 0 - -
20-18 -1574-Feb-2516:40:17 36641 2137 -44203 P t- -1.2551 0.5261 70S 138W 0 - -
21-17 -1556-Mar-0723:46:41 36252 2078 -43980 P t- -1.2032 0.6156 71S 100E 0 - -
22-16 -1538-Mar-1906:45:13 35866 2020 -43757 P t- -1.1457 0.7151 71S 19W 0 - -
23-15 -1520-Mar-2913:31:49 35481 1962 -43534 P t- -1.0789 0.8306 72S 137W 0 - -
24-14 -1502-Apr-0920:12:55 35099 1906 -43311 A- t- -1.0081 0.9530 72S 107E 0 - -
25-13 -1484-Apr-2002:45:06 34719 1850 -43088 A t- -0.9299 0.9493 58S 45W 21 50604m24s
26-12 -1466-May-0109:13:18 34341 1794 -42865 A p- -0.8490 0.9511 45S 157W 32 33604m54s
27-11 -1448-May-1115:35:27 33964 1740 -42642 A p- -0.7633 0.9518 35S 99E 40 27105m26s
28-10 -1430-May-2221:57:19 33590 1686 -42419 A p- -0.6776 0.9517 25S 3W 47 23905m58s
29 -9 -1412-Jun-0204:17:03 33218 1633 -42196 A p- -0.5902 0.9509 16S 104W 54 22206m30s
30 -8 -1394-Jun-1310:38:20 32848 1580 -41973 A p- -0.5043 0.9497 8S 157E 60 21406m58s
31 -7 -1376-Jun-2317:01:42 32481 1529 -41750 A p- -0.4202 0.9478 2S 58E 65 21107m22s
32 -6 -1358-Jul-0423:30:17 32115 1478 -41527 A pn -0.3403 0.9456 4N 42W 70 21307m38s
33 -5 -1340-Jul-1506:04:13 31751 1428 -41304 A nn -0.2649 0.9430 8N 142W 75 21807m50s
34 -4 -1322-Jul-2612:44:42 31389 1378 -41081 A nn -0.1949 0.9402 12N 117E 79 22607m57s
35 -3 -1304-Aug-0519:34:00 31030 1329 -40858 A nn -0.1320 0.9373 13N 14E 82 23508m03s
36 -2 -1286-Aug-1702:32:04 30672 1281 -40635 A nn -0.0761 0.9343 14N 91W 86 24608m08s
37 -1 -1268-Aug-2709:39:38 30317 1234 -40412 A nn -0.0280 0.9313 13N 161E 88 25708m15s
38 0 -1250-Sep-0716:57:03 29964 1188 -40189 A nn 0.0123 0.9286 11N 51E 89 26808m24s
39 1 -1232-Sep-1800:24:46 29612 1142 -39966 A nn 0.0442 0.9261 9N 62W 87 27808m36s
40 2 -1214-Sep-2908:01:42 29263 1097 -39743 A nn 0.0689 0.9240 6N 177W 86 28708m49s
Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 34
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QLE Gamma Ecl Mag Lat

°
Long

°
Sun Alt
°
Path Width km Central Dur
41 3 -1196-Oct-0915:45:58 28916 1052 -39520 A nn 0.0880 0.9223 2N 65E 85 29409m03s
42 4 -1178-Oct-2023:38:09 28571 1009 -39297 A nn 0.1007 0.9212 2S 55W 84 29909m18s
43 5 -1160-Oct-3107:36:01 28228 966 -39074 A nn 0.1086 0.9207 5S 176W 84 30209m32s
44 6 -1142-Nov-1115:37:57 27887 924 -38851 Am nn 0.1137 0.9209 9S 62E 84 30109m43s
45 7 -1124-Nov-2123:41:35 27548 883 -38628 A nn 0.1177 0.9218 12S 60W 83 29809m52s
46 8 -1106-Dec-0307:46:03 27211 842 -38405 A nn 0.1212 0.9234 14S 177E 83 29109m54s
47 9 -1088-Dec-1315:49:30 26876 803 -38182 A nn 0.1260 0.9256 16S 56E 83 28209m49s
48 10 -1070-Dec-2423:48:59 26544 764 -37959 A nn 0.1343 0.9286 16S 65W 82 27009m35s
49 11 -1051-Jan-0407:44:32 26213 726 -37736 A nn 0.1462 0.9321 15S 176E 82 25609m13s
50 12 -1033-Jan-1515:33:32 25885 688 -37513 A nn 0.1639 0.9363 13S 58E 81 24008m40s
51 13 -1015-Jan-2523:16:28 25558 652 -37290 A nn 0.1873 0.9408 10S 59W 79 22308m00s
52 14 -0997-Feb-0606:50:36 25234 621 -37067 A nn 0.2185 0.9458 6S 175W 77 20507m12s
53 15 -0979-Feb-1614:18:12 24911 614 -36844 A nn 0.2558 0.9509 1S 71E 75 18606m21s
54 16 -0961-Feb-2721:37:14 24591 607 -36621 A nn 0.3007 0.9563 5N 42W 72 16705m29s
55 17 -0943-Mar-1004:48:29 24273 600 -36398 A -n 0.3528 0.9616 12N 153W 69 14804m36s
56 18 -0925-Mar-2111:52:33 23957 593 -36175 A -p 0.4117 0.9668 20N 97E 66 13003m47s
57 19 -0907-Mar-3118:50:48 23643 587 -35952 A -p 0.4761 0.9718 28N 12W 61 11403m01s
58 20 -0889-Apr-1201:44:22 23331 580 -35729 A -p 0.5450 0.9765 36N 120W 57 9902m21s
59 21 -0871-Apr-2208:32:59 23021 573 -35506 A -p 0.6188 0.9806 45N 133E 52 8701m47s
60 22 -0853-May-0315:20:04 22713 566 -35283 A -p 0.6945 0.9842 55N 26E 46 7801m20s
61 23 -0835-May-1322:05:36 22407 559 -35060 A -p 0.7726 0.9870 65N 82W 39 7200m59s
62 24 -0817-May-2504:51:37 22104 552 -34837 A -p 0.8507 0.9891 75N 166E 31 7400m45s
63 25 -0799-Jun-0411:39:07 21802 545 -34614 A -p 0.9285 0.9898 85N 5E 21 9900m38s
64 26 -0781-Jun-1518:30:46 21502 539 -34391 P -t 1.0036 0.9817 67N 173E 0 - -
65 27 -0763-Jun-2601:27:23 21205 532 -34168 P -t 1.0756 0.8524 66N 57E 0 - -
66 28 -0745-Jul-0708:29:27 20910 525 -33945 P -t 1.1441 0.7290 65N 60W 0 - -
67 29 -0727-Jul-1715:39:42 20616 518 -33722 P -t 1.2067 0.6156 64N 179W 0 - -
68 30 -0709-Jul-2822:57:46 20325 511 -33499 P -t 1.2639 0.5119 63N 61E 0 - -
69 31 -0691-Aug-0806:25:48 20036 504 -33276 P -t 1.3139 0.4209 63N 61W 0 - -
70 32 -0673-Aug-1914:01:50 19749 497 -33053 P -t 1.3583 0.3402 62N 174E 0 - -
71 33 -0655-Aug-2921:49:36 19464 490 -32830 P -t 1.3944 0.2746 61N 47E 0 - -
72 34 -0637-Sep-1005:45:53 19181 483 -32607 P -t 1.4245 0.2197 61N 82W 0 - -
73 35 -0619-Sep-2013:53:02 18900 476 -32384 P -t 1.4467 0.1795 61N 146E 0 - -
74 36 -0601-Oct-0122:08:14 18621 469 -32161 P -t 1.4632 0.1493 61N 13E 0 - -
75 37 -0583-Oct-1206:33:18 18344 462 -31938 P -t 1.4726 0.1320 61N 123W 0 - -
76 38 -0565-Oct-2315:04:17 18069 455 -31715 P -t 1.4782 0.1215 61N 99E 0 - -
77 39 -0547-Nov-0223:41:34 17797 448 -31492 P -t 1.4796 0.1186 62N 40W 0 - -
78 40 -0529-Nov-1408:22:52 17526 441 -31269 P -t 1.4785 0.1199 62N 179E 0 - -
79 41 -0511-Nov-2417:08:00 17258 434 -31046 P -t 1.4747 0.1261 63N 38E 0 - -
80 42 -0493-Dec-0601:53:00 16966 428 -30823 P -t 1.4720 0.1299 64N 104W 0 - -
Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 34
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QLE Gamma Ecl Mag Lat

°
Long

°
Sun Alt
°
Path Width km Central Dur
81 43 -0475-Dec-1610:38:02 16651 421 -30600 P -t 1.4699 0.1326 65N 113E 0 - -
82 44 -0457-Dec-2719:20:09 16344 414 -30377 P -t 1.4708 0.1295 66N 29W 0 - -
83 45 -0438-Jan-0703:59:52 16046 408 -30154 P -t 1.4743 0.1214 67N 170W 0 - -
84 46 -0420-Jan-1812:32:47 15755 401 -29931 P -t 1.4837 0.1022 68N 49E 0 - -
85 47 -0402-Jan-2821:01:16 15473 395 -29708 P -t 1.4973 0.0748 69N 91W 0 - -
86 48 -0384-Feb-0905:21:18 15197 389 -29485 Pe -t 1.5181 0.0335 70N 131E 0 - -

Statistics for Solar Eclipses of Saros 34

Solar eclipses of Saros 34 all occur at the Moon’s descending node and the Moon moves northward with each eclipse. The series began with a partial eclipse in the southern hemisphere on -1917 Aug 04. The series ended with a partial eclipse in the northern hemisphere on -0384 Feb 09. The total duration of Saros series 34 is 1532.56 years.

Summary of Saros 34
First Eclipse -1917 Aug 04
Last Eclipse -0384 Feb 09
Series Duration 1532.56 Years
No. of Eclipses 86
Sequence 23P 40A 23P

Saros 34 is composed of 86 solar eclipses as follows:

Solar Eclipses of Saros 34
Eclipse Type Symbol Number Percent
All Eclipses - 86100.0%
PartialP 46 53.5%
AnnularA 40 46.5%
TotalT 0 0.0%
HybridH 0 0.0%

Umbral eclipses (annular, total and hybrid) can be further classified as either: 1) Central (two limits), 2) Central (one limit) or 3) Non-Central (one limit). The statistical distribution of these classes in Saros series 34 appears in the following table.

Umbral Eclipses of Saros 34
Classification Number Percent
All Umbral Eclipses 40100.0%
Central (two limits) 39 97.5%
Central (one limit) 0 0.0%
Non-Central (one limit) 1 2.5%

The 86 eclipses in Saros 34 occur in the following order : 23P 40A 23P

The longest and shortest central eclipses of Saros 34 as well as largest and smallest partial eclipses appear below.

Extreme Durations and Magnitudes of Solar Eclipses of Saros 34
Extrema Type Date Duration Magnitude
Longest Annular Solar Eclipse -1106 Dec 0309m54s -
Shortest Annular Solar Eclipse -0799 Jun 0400m38s -
Largest Partial Solar Eclipse -0781 Jun 15 - 0.98175
Smallest Partial Solar Eclipse -0384 Feb 09 - 0.03352

Links to Additional Solar Eclipse Predictions

Calendar

The Gregorian calendar (also called the Western calendar) is internationally the most widely used civil calendar. It is named for Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in 1582. On this website, the Gregorian calendar is used for all calendar dates from 1582 Oct 15 onwards. Before that date, the Julian calendar is used. For more information on this topic, see Calendar Dates.

The Julian calendar does not include the year 0. Thus the year 1 BCE is followed by the year 1 CE (See: BCE/CE Dating Conventions). This is awkward for arithmetic calculations. Years in this catalog are numbered astronomically and include the year 0. Historians should note there is a difference of one year between astronomical dates and BCE dates. Thus, the astronomical year 0 corresponds to 1 BCE, and astronomical year -1 corresponds to 2 BCE, etc..

Eclipse Predictions

The eclipse predictions presented here were generated using the JPL DE406 solar and lunar ephemerides. The lunar coordinates have been calculated with respect to the Moon's Center of Mass.

The largest uncertainty in the eclipse predictions is caused by fluctuations in Earth's rotation due primarily to tidal friction of the Moon. The resultant drift in apparent clock time is expressed as ΔT and is determined as follows:

  1. pre-1950's: ΔT calculated from empirical fits to historical records derived by Morrison and Stephenson (2004)
  2. 1955-present: ΔT obtained from published observations
  3. future: ΔT is extrapolated from current values weighted by the long term trend from tidal effects

A series of polynomial expressions have been derived to simplify the evaluation of ΔT for any time from -2999 to +3000. The uncertainty in ΔT over this period can be estimated from scatter in the measurements.

Acknowledgments

Some of the content on this web site is based on the books Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 and Thousand Year Canon of Solar Eclipses 1501 to 2500. All eclipse calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy.

Permission is granted to reproduce data from this page when accompanied by an acknowledgment:

"Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak, www.EclipseWise.com"

The use of diagrams and maps is permitted provided that they are NOT altered (except for re-sizing) and the embedded credit line is NOT removed or covered.