Saros 38

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 38

Fred Espenak

Introduction

The periodicity and recurrence of solar eclipses is governed by the Saros cycle, a period of approximately 6,585.3 days (18 years 11 days 8 hours). When two eclipses are separated by a period of one Saros, they share a very similar geometry. The two eclipses occur at the same node with the Moon at nearly the same distance from Earth and the same time of year due to a harmonic in three cycles of the Moon's orbit. Thus, the Saros is useful for organizing eclipses into families or series. Each series typically lasts 12 to 13 centuries and contains 70 or more eclipses. Every saros series begins with a number of partial eclipses near one of Earth's polar regions. The series will then produce several dozen central eclipses before ending with a group of partial eclipses near the opposite pole. For more information, see Periodicity of Solar Eclipses.

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 38

The table below lists the concise characteristics of every solar eclipse belonging to Saros 38 . The date and time of each eclipse is given for the instant of Greatest Eclipse. For eclipses between the years -1999 to 3000, the calendar date links to a web page containing additional details and a map showing the geographic region of eclipse visibility for that eclipse. A description of each parameter in the catalog table can be found in Key to Saros Catalog of Solar Eclipses.

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 38
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QLE Gamma Ecl Mag Lat

°
Long

°
Sun Alt
°
Path Width km Central Dur
1-35 -1729-Jun-2622:01:31 40059 2670 -46116 Pb t- -1.5246 0.0648 67S 14E 0 - -
2-34 -1711-Jul-0704:34:48 39653 2606 -45893 P t- -1.4483 0.1958 66S 97W 0 - -
3-33 -1693-Jul-1811:14:56 39249 2541 -45670 P t- -1.3764 0.3190 65S 152E 0 - -
4-32 -1675-Jul-2818:05:06 38847 2478 -45447 P t- -1.3116 0.4298 64S 38E 0 - -
5-31 -1657-Aug-0901:04:29 38446 2415 -45224 P t- -1.2532 0.5294 63S 78W 0 - -
6-30 -1639-Aug-1908:14:56 38048 2353 -45001 P t- -1.2029 0.6150 62S 163E 0 - -
7-29 -1621-Aug-3015:34:32 37652 2292 -44778 P t- -1.1591 0.6892 61S 43E 0 - -
8-28 -1603-Sep-0923:06:18 37259 2231 -44555 P t- -1.1242 0.7482 61S 81W 0 - -
9-27 -1585-Sep-2106:47:04 36867 2171 -44332 P t- -1.0956 0.7965 61S 154E 0 - -
10-26 -1567-Oct-0114:37:57 36477 2112 -44109 P t- -1.0747 0.8319 60S 26E 0 - -
11-25 -1549-Oct-1222:36:34 36089 2053 -43886 P t- -1.0590 0.8584 60S 104W 0 - -
12-24 -1531-Oct-2306:43:30 35704 1995 -43663 P t- -1.0496 0.8746 61S 124E 0 - -
13-23 -1513-Nov-0314:54:52 35320 1938 -43440 P t- -1.0427 0.8867 61S 9W 0 - -
14-22 -1495-Nov-1323:10:08 34939 1882 -43217 P t- -1.0382 0.8951 62S 143W 0 - -
15-21 -1477-Nov-2507:26:58 34559 1826 -42994 P t- -1.0342 0.9029 62S 82E 0 - -
16-20 -1459-Dec-0515:44:48 34182 1771 -42771 P t- -1.0306 0.9103 63S 53W 0 - -
17-19 -1441-Dec-1623:59:12 33807 1717 -42548 P t- -1.0233 0.9244 64S 172E 0 - -
18-18 -1423-Dec-2708:11:08 33433 1663 -42325 A- t- -1.0133 0.9436 65S 38E 0 - -
19-17 -1404-Jan-0716:16:53 33062 1611 -42102 A- t- -0.9975 0.9732 66S 96W 0 - -
20-16 -1386-Jan-1800:18:25 32693 1558 -41879 A t- -0.9774 0.9560 78S 129E 11 82002m35s
21-15 -1368-Jan-2908:10:46 32326 1507 -41656 A t- -0.9493 0.9636 84S 43W 18 43302m15s
22-14 -1350-Feb-0815:57:51 31961 1456 -41433 A t- -0.9159 0.9712 80S 139E 23 26201m53s
23-13 -1332-Feb-1923:35:36 31598 1407 -41210 A t- -0.8739 0.9789 72S 2E 29 15501m28s
24-12 -1314-Mar-0207:07:52 31238 1357 -40987 A p- -0.8264 0.9867 64S 123W 34 8400m59s
25-11 -1296-Mar-1214:31:20 30879 1309 -40764 A p- -0.7706 0.9943 55S 118E 39 3100m27s
26-10 -1278-Mar-2321:50:46 30522 1261 -40541 H p- -0.7102 1.0018 46S 1E 44 900m09s
27 -9 -1260-Apr-0305:03:33 30168 1214 -40318 H p- -0.6433 1.0088 37S 114W 50 4000m48s
28 -8 -1242-Apr-1412:12:54 29815 1168 -40095 T p- -0.5723 1.0155 29S 133E 55 6501m29s
29 -7 -1224-Apr-2419:18:40 29465 1123 -39872 T p- -0.4971 1.0216 20S 21E 60 8402m09s
30 -6 -1206-May-0602:23:41 29116 1078 -39649 T p- -0.4199 1.0271 11S 90W 65 10102m47s
31 -5 -1188-May-1609:28:19 28770 1034 -39426 T p- -0.3415 1.0319 4S 160E 70 11403m20s
32 -4 -1170-May-2716:33:33 28426 991 -39203 T n- -0.2625 1.0360 4N 50E 75 12503m46s
33 -3 -1152-Jun-0623:41:51 28084 948 -38980 T n- -0.1850 1.0392 11N 60W 79 13404m04s
34 -2 -1134-Jun-1806:53:38 27744 907 -38757 T nn -0.1093 1.0418 17N 170W 84 14104m13s
35 -1 -1116-Jun-2814:10:04 27406 866 -38534 T nn -0.0368 1.0436 22N 80E 88 14604m16s
36 0 -1098-Jul-0921:32:33 27070 826 -38311 T nn 0.0314 1.0447 26N 31W 88 14904m12s
37 1 -1080-Jul-2005:02:28 26736 786 -38088 Tm nn 0.0941 1.0452 28N 143W 84 15104m05s
38 2 -1062-Jul-3112:40:42 26404 748 -37865 T nn 0.1508 1.0452 30N 103E 81 15203m57s
39 3 -1044-Aug-1020:26:37 26074 710 -37642 T -n 0.2017 1.0447 30N 13W 78 15203m47s
40 4 -1026-Aug-2204:22:32 25747 673 -37419 T -n 0.2449 1.0439 29N 131W 76 15103m38s
Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 38
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QLE Gamma Ecl Mag Lat

°
Long

°
Sun Alt
°
Path Width km Central Dur
41 5 -1008-Sep-0112:27:20 25421 636 -37196 T -n 0.2812 1.0428 27N 108E 74 14903m30s
42 6 -0990-Sep-1220:41:38 25098 618 -36973 T -n 0.3104 1.0418 24N 17W 72 14603m24s
43 7 -0972-Sep-2305:03:52 24776 611 -36750 T -n 0.3333 1.0406 21N 144W 70 14303m19s
44 8 -0954-Oct-0413:34:57 24457 604 -36527 T -n 0.3497 1.0398 17N 87E 69 14103m17s
45 9 -0936-Oct-1422:13:02 24139 597 -36304 T -n 0.3607 1.0391 13N 45W 69 13903m17s
46 10 -0918-Oct-2606:56:43 23824 591 -36081 T -n 0.3673 1.0389 10N 178W 68 13903m21s
47 11 -0900-Nov-0515:45:34 23511 584 -35858 T -n 0.3700 1.0389 6N 48E 68 14003m26s
48 12 -0882-Nov-1700:37:01 23200 577 -35635 T -n 0.3707 1.0396 3N 87W 68 14203m35s
49 13 -0864-Nov-2709:30:12 22891 570 -35412 T -n 0.3704 1.0406 1N 138E 68 14603m46s
50 14 -0846-Dec-0818:21:43 22584 563 -35189 T -n 0.3717 1.0423 1S 3E 68 15204m01s
51 15 -0828-Dec-1903:12:38 22279 556 -34966 T -n 0.3736 1.0443 2S 131W 68 15904m16s
52 16 -0810-Dec-3011:59:12 21976 549 -34743 T -n 0.3789 1.0467 2S 95E 68 16804m33s
53 17 -0791-Jan-0920:41:10 21676 543 -34520 T -n 0.3886 1.0495 0S 37W 67 17804m49s
54 18 -0773-Jan-2105:16:12 21377 536 -34297 T -n 0.4041 1.0525 2N 168W 66 19005m04s
55 19 -0755-Jan-3113:45:08 21080 529 -34074 T -n 0.4249 1.0556 6N 62E 65 20205m17s
56 20 -0737-Feb-1122:06:09 20786 522 -33851 T -p 0.4524 1.0587 10N 66W 63 21605m27s
57 21 -0719-Feb-2206:19:02 20493 515 -33628 T -p 0.4867 1.0617 15N 168E 61 23105m32s
58 22 -0701-Mar-0514:23:55 20203 508 -33405 T -p 0.5279 1.0643 22N 43E 58 24605m33s
59 23 -0683-Mar-1522:21:06 19915 501 -33182 T -p 0.5757 1.0665 29N 81W 55 26405m28s
60 24 -0665-Mar-2706:10:41 19628 494 -32959 T -p 0.6298 1.0681 36N 157E 51 28405m18s
61 25 -0647-Apr-0613:53:15 19344 487 -32736 T -p 0.6897 1.0689 45N 36E 46 30805m02s
62 26 -0629-Apr-1721:29:40 19062 480 -32513 T -p 0.7546 1.0689 54N 85W 41 34104m42s
63 27 -0611-Apr-2805:01:20 18782 473 -32290 T -p 0.8232 1.0678 64N 153E 34 39004m16s
64 28 -0593-May-0912:27:46 18504 466 -32067 T -t 0.8960 1.0653 74N 22E 26 48703m45s
65 29 -0575-May-1919:52:16 18228 459 -31844 T -t 0.9699 1.0606 79N 160W 13 86403m06s
66 30 -0557-May-3103:14:03 17954 452 -31621 P -t 1.0458 0.9333 68N 42E 0 - -
67 31 -0539-Jun-1010:36:59 17682 445 -31398 P -t 1.1202 0.7891 67N 82W 0 - -
68 32 -0521-Jun-2117:58:34 17413 438 -31175 P -t 1.1950 0.6446 66N 156E 0 - -
69 33 -0503-Jul-0201:24:07 17145 432 -30952 P -t 1.2661 0.5080 65N 33E 0 - -
70 34 -0485-Jul-1308:51:16 16832 425 -30729 P -t 1.3355 0.3757 64N 90W 0 - -
71 35 -0467-Jul-2316:24:07 16520 418 -30506 P -t 1.3996 0.2547 64N 146E 0 - -
72 36 -0449-Aug-0400:00:48 16217 412 -30283 P -t 1.4599 0.1420 63N 21E 0 - -
73 37 -0431-Aug-1407:45:24 15922 405 -30060 Pe -t 1.5134 0.0435 62N 105W 0 - -

Statistics for Solar Eclipses of Saros 38

Solar eclipses of Saros 38 all occur at the Moon’s descending node and the Moon moves northward with each eclipse. The series began with a partial eclipse in the southern hemisphere on -1729 Jun 26. The series ended with a partial eclipse in the northern hemisphere on -0431 Aug 14. The total duration of Saros series 38 is 1298.17 years.

Summary of Saros 38
First Eclipse -1729 Jun 26
Last Eclipse -0431 Aug 14
Series Duration 1298.17 Years
No. of Eclipses 73
Sequence 17P 8A 2H 38T 8P

Saros 38 is composed of 73 solar eclipses as follows:

Solar Eclipses of Saros 38
Eclipse Type Symbol Number Percent
All Eclipses - 73100.0%
PartialP 25 34.2%
AnnularA 8 11.0%
TotalT 38 52.1%
HybridH 2 2.7%

Umbral eclipses (annular, total and hybrid) can be further classified as either: 1) Central (two limits), 2) Central (one limit) or 3) Non-Central (one limit). The statistical distribution of these classes in Saros series 38 appears in the following table.

Umbral Eclipses of Saros 38
Classification Number Percent
All Umbral Eclipses 48100.0%
Central (two limits) 46 95.8%
Central (one limit) 0 0.0%
Non-Central (one limit) 2 4.2%

The 73 eclipses in Saros 38 occur in the following order : 17P 8A 2H 38T 8P

The longest and shortest central eclipses of Saros 38 as well as largest and smallest partial eclipses appear below.

Extreme Durations and Magnitudes of Solar Eclipses of Saros 38
Extrema Type Date Duration Magnitude
Longest Annular Solar Eclipse -1386 Jan 1802m35s -
Shortest Annular Solar Eclipse -1296 Mar 1200m27s -
Longest Total Solar Eclipse -0701 Mar 0505m33s -
Shortest Total Solar Eclipse -1242 Apr 1401m29s -
Longest Hybrid Solar Eclipse -1260 Apr 0300m48s -
Shortest Hybrid Solar Eclipse -1278 Mar 2300m09s -
Largest Partial Solar Eclipse -0557 May 31 - 0.93327
Smallest Partial Solar Eclipse -0431 Aug 14 - 0.04355

Links to Additional Solar Eclipse Predictions

Calendar

The Gregorian calendar (also called the Western calendar) is internationally the most widely used civil calendar. It is named for Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in 1582. On this website, the Gregorian calendar is used for all calendar dates from 1582 Oct 15 onwards. Before that date, the Julian calendar is used. For more information on this topic, see Calendar Dates.

The Julian calendar does not include the year 0. Thus the year 1 BCE is followed by the year 1 CE (See: BCE/CE Dating Conventions). This is awkward for arithmetic calculations. Years in this catalog are numbered astronomically and include the year 0. Historians should note there is a difference of one year between astronomical dates and BCE dates. Thus, the astronomical year 0 corresponds to 1 BCE, and astronomical year -1 corresponds to 2 BCE, etc..

Eclipse Predictions

The eclipse predictions presented here were generated using the JPL DE406 solar and lunar ephemerides. The lunar coordinates have been calculated with respect to the Moon's Center of Mass.

The largest uncertainty in the eclipse predictions is caused by fluctuations in Earth's rotation due primarily to tidal friction of the Moon. The resultant drift in apparent clock time is expressed as ΔT and is determined as follows:

  1. pre-1950's: ΔT calculated from empirical fits to historical records derived by Morrison and Stephenson (2004)
  2. 1955-present: ΔT obtained from published observations
  3. future: ΔT is extrapolated from current values weighted by the long term trend from tidal effects

A series of polynomial expressions have been derived to simplify the evaluation of ΔT for any time from -2999 to +3000. The uncertainty in ΔT over this period can be estimated from scatter in the measurements.

Acknowledgments

Some of the content on this web site is based on the books Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 and Thousand Year Canon of Solar Eclipses 1501 to 2500. All eclipse calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy.

Permission is granted to reproduce data from this page when accompanied by an acknowledgment:

"Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak, www.EclipseWise.com"

The use of diagrams and maps is permitted provided that they are NOT altered (except for re-sizing) and the embedded credit line is NOT removed or covered.