Saros 42

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 42

Fred Espenak

Introduction

The periodicity and recurrence of solar eclipses is governed by the Saros cycle, a period of approximately 6,585.3 days (18 years 11 days 8 hours). When two eclipses are separated by a period of one Saros, they share a very similar geometry. The two eclipses occur at the same node with the Moon at nearly the same distance from Earth and the same time of year due to a harmonic in three cycles of the Moon's orbit. Thus, the Saros is useful for organizing eclipses into families or series. Each series typically lasts 12 to 13 centuries and contains 70 or more eclipses. Every saros series begins with a number of partial eclipses near one of Earth's polar regions. The series will then produce several dozen central eclipses before ending with a group of partial eclipses near the opposite pole. For more information, see Periodicity of Solar Eclipses.

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 42

The table below lists the concise characteristics of every solar eclipse belonging to Saros 42 . The date and time of each eclipse is given for the instant of Greatest Eclipse. For eclipses between the years -1999 to 3000, the calendar date links to a web page containing additional details and a map showing the geographic region of eclipse visibility for that eclipse. A description of each parameter in the catalog table can be found in Key to Saros Catalog of Solar Eclipses.

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 42
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QLE Gamma Ecl Mag Lat

°
Long

°
Sun Alt
°
Path Width km Central Dur
1-37 -1577-Apr-2809:27:58 36702 2146 -44238 Pb t- -1.5198 0.0232 71S 107W 0 - -
2-36 -1559-May-0816:46:02 36313 2087 -44015 P t- -1.4451 0.1648 71S 129E 0 - -
3-35 -1541-May-2000:02:56 35926 2029 -43792 P t- -1.3685 0.3110 70S 5E 0 - -
4-34 -1523-May-3007:22:12 35542 1971 -43569 P t- -1.2930 0.4561 69S 119W 0 - -
5-33 -1505-Jun-1014:43:08 35159 1914 -43346 P t- -1.2179 0.6007 68S 118E 0 - -
6-32 -1487-Jun-2022:09:10 34778 1858 -43123 P t- -1.1464 0.7385 67S 6W 0 - -
7-31 -1469-Jul-0205:38:21 34400 1803 -42900 P t- -1.0771 0.8720 66S 131W 0 - -
8-30 -1451-Jul-1213:15:12 34023 1748 -42677 P t- -1.0136 0.9941 65S 103E 0 - -
9-29 -1433-Jul-2320:57:16 33649 1694 -42454 T t- -0.9539 1.0553 48S 12W 17 61604m08s
10-28 -1415-Aug-0304:47:41 33277 1641 -42231 T t- -0.9010 1.0560 41S 133W 25 42304m22s
11-27 -1397-Aug-1412:44:56 32906 1589 -42008 T p- -0.8536 1.0554 36S 105E 31 34604m22s
12-26 -1379-Aug-2420:51:54 32538 1537 -41785 T p- -0.8143 1.0540 34S 20W 35 30204m14s
13-25 -1361-Sep-0505:06:27 32172 1486 -41562 T p- -0.7812 1.0521 34S 147W 38 27104m01s
14-24 -1343-Sep-1513:29:21 31808 1435 -41339 T p- -0.7549 1.0500 35S 84E 41 24703m46s
15-23 -1325-Sep-2621:59:52 31446 1386 -41116 T p- -0.7350 1.0477 37S 46W 42 22903m30s
16-22 -1307-Oct-0706:38:10 31086 1337 -40893 T p- -0.7219 1.0456 40S 179W 44 21503m16s
17-21 -1289-Oct-1815:21:50 30728 1289 -40670 T p- -0.7130 1.0436 44S 47E 44 20403m03s
18-20 -1271-Oct-2900:10:33 30373 1241 -40447 T p- -0.7086 1.0418 48S 88W 45 19602m51s
19-19 -1253-Nov-0909:02:16 30019 1195 -40224 T p- -0.7066 1.0405 52S 137E 45 19002m43s
20-18 -1235-Nov-1917:56:40 29667 1149 -40001 T p- -0.7071 1.0396 57S 3E 45 18702m36s
21-17 -1217-Dec-0102:49:43 29318 1104 -39778 T p- -0.7068 1.0392 61S 130W 45 18602m33s
22-16 -1199-Dec-1111:42:37 28970 1059 -39555 T p- -0.7067 1.0393 65S 100E 45 18702m32s
23-15 -1181-Dec-2220:30:59 28625 1016 -39332 T p- -0.7033 1.0399 67S 26W 45 18902m34s
24-14 -1162-Jan-0205:15:29 28281 973 -39109 T p- -0.6970 1.0409 68S 148W 46 19202m40s
25-13 -1144-Jan-1313:52:09 27940 931 -38886 T p- -0.6847 1.0423 67S 91E 46 19502m48s
26-12 -1126-Jan-2322:23:14 27601 889 -38663 T p- -0.6683 1.0440 64S 30W 48 19802m58s
27-11 -1108-Feb-0406:45:20 27264 849 -38440 T p- -0.6452 1.0458 59S 152W 50 20003m12s
28-10 -1090-Feb-1414:58:57 26929 809 -38217 T p- -0.6153 1.0477 53S 85E 52 20103m27s
29 -9 -1072-Feb-2523:03:12 26596 770 -37994 T p- -0.5782 1.0495 47S 38W 54 20103m45s
30 -8 -1054-Mar-0806:59:05 26265 731 -37771 T p- -0.5346 1.0511 40S 160W 57 20004m03s
31 -7 -1036-Mar-1814:46:27 25936 694 -37548 T p- -0.4844 1.0523 32S 80E 61 19704m22s
32 -6 -1018-Mar-2922:25:10 25609 657 -37325 T n- -0.4277 1.0531 25S 39W 65 19404m38s
33 -5 -1000-Apr-0905:57:05 25284 622 -37102 T n- -0.3657 1.0533 17S 156W 68 18904m51s
34 -4 -0982-Apr-2013:22:31 24962 615 -36879 T n- -0.2986 1.0528 9S 88E 73 18304m59s
35 -3 -0964-Apr-3020:42:29 24641 608 -36656 T n- -0.2275 1.0517 1S 26W 77 17605m00s
36 -2 -0946-May-1203:57:54 24323 601 -36433 T nn -0.1533 1.0497 7N 138W 81 16704m54s
37 -1 -0928-May-2211:10:20 24006 594 -36210 Tm nn -0.0772 1.0470 14N 111E 86 15704m39s
38 0 -0910-Jun-0218:21:12 23692 588 -35987 T nn -0.0006 1.0435 21N 1E 90 14504m16s
39 1 -0892-Jun-1301:30:41 23380 581 -35764 T nn 0.0764 1.0392 27N 107W 85 13203m47s
40 2 -0874-Jun-2408:41:43 23069 574 -35541 T nn 0.1511 1.0343 32N 145E 81 11703m13s
Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 42
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QLE Gamma Ecl Mag Lat

°
Long

°
Sun Alt
°
Path Width km Central Dur
41 3 -0856-Jul-0415:54:24 22761 567 -35318 T -n 0.2238 1.0287 37N 37E 77 10002m37s
42 4 -0838-Jul-1523:11:27 22455 560 -35095 T -n 0.2917 1.0227 40N 70W 73 8102m01s
43 5 -0820-Jul-2606:31:40 22151 553 -34872 H3 -p 0.3560 1.0161 42N 178W 69 5901m24s
44 6 -0802-Aug-0613:58:29 21849 547 -34649 H -p 0.4139 1.0094 42N 73E 65 3600m48s
45 7 -0784-Aug-1621:30:51 21549 540 -34426 H -p 0.4664 1.0024 42N 38W 62 900m12s
46 8 -0766-Aug-2805:10:27 21252 533 -34203 A -p 0.5118 0.9955 40N 152W 59 1800m23s
47 9 -0748-Sep-0712:57:07 20956 526 -33980 A -p 0.5507 0.9886 38N 92E 56 4700m58s
48 10 -0730-Sep-1820:51:38 20662 519 -33757 A -p 0.5821 0.9821 35N 27W 54 7701m34s
49 11 -0712-Sep-2904:53:39 20371 512 -33534 A -p 0.6066 0.9758 33N 149W 52 10702m11s
50 12 -0694-Oct-1013:01:03 20081 505 -33311 A -p 0.6260 0.9701 30N 87E 51 13502m48s
51 13 -0676-Oct-2021:15:04 19794 498 -33088 A -p 0.6392 0.9648 27N 39W 50 16103m26s
52 14 -0658-Nov-0105:32:59 19508 491 -32865 A -p 0.6480 0.9603 24N 167W 49 18504m05s
53 15 -0640-Nov-1113:54:35 19225 484 -32642 A -p 0.6534 0.9563 22N 65E 49 20604m43s
54 16 -0622-Nov-2222:16:06 18944 477 -32419 A -p 0.6578 0.9530 20N 64W 49 22405m19s
55 17 -0604-Dec-0306:38:24 18664 470 -32196 A -p 0.6610 0.9504 19N 168E 48 24005m51s
56 18 -0586-Dec-1414:57:46 18387 463 -31973 A -p 0.6656 0.9484 18N 40E 48 25306m18s
57 19 -0568-Dec-2423:13:17 18112 456 -31750 A -p 0.6724 0.9470 18N 87W 48 26306m37s
58 20 -0549-Jan-0507:22:33 17839 449 -31527 A -p 0.6835 0.9460 20N 147E 47 27306m47s
59 21 -0531-Jan-1515:25:18 17568 442 -31304 A -p 0.6992 0.9455 22N 23E 45 28106m47s
60 22 -0513-Jan-2623:18:48 17300 435 -31081 A -p 0.7216 0.9452 26N 99W 44 29106m38s
61 23 -0495-Feb-0607:03:08 17017 429 -30858 A -p 0.7508 0.9451 31N 140E 41 30506m22s
62 24 -0477-Feb-1714:37:08 16700 422 -30635 A -p 0.7876 0.9451 37N 21E 38 32606m00s
63 25 -0459-Feb-2722:01:52 16392 415 -30412 A -p 0.8310 0.9449 44N 96W 33 36205m35s
64 26 -0441-Mar-1105:14:03 16092 409 -30189 A -t 0.8841 0.9444 53N 146E 27 43605m08s
65 27 -0423-Mar-2112:17:43 15801 402 -29966 A -t 0.9432 0.9430 63N 24E 19 63904m39s
66 28 -0405-Apr-0119:10:26 15517 396 -29743 A+ -t 1.0106 0.9461 72N 139W 0 - -
67 29 -0387-Apr-1201:56:34 15240 390 -29520 P -t 1.0822 0.8232 72N 105E 0 - -
68 30 -0369-Apr-2308:32:18 14970 383 -29297 P -t 1.1613 0.6872 71N 9W 0 - -
69 31 -0351-May-0315:04:18 14706 377 -29074 P -t 1.2424 0.5477 70N 121W 0 - -
70 32 -0333-May-1421:29:29 14449 371 -28851 P -t 1.3283 0.4000 70N 129E 0 - -
71 33 -0315-May-2503:52:52 14197 365 -28628 P -t 1.4144 0.2523 69N 20E 0 - -
72 34 -0297-Jun-0510:12:29 13951 358 -28405 Pe -t 1.5026 0.1014 68N 87W 0 - -

Statistics for Solar Eclipses of Saros 42

Solar eclipses of Saros 42 all occur at the Moon’s descending node and the Moon moves northward with each eclipse. The series began with a partial eclipse in the southern hemisphere on -1577 Apr 28. The series ended with a partial eclipse in the northern hemisphere on -0297 Jun 05. The total duration of Saros series 42 is 1280.14 years.

Summary of Saros 42
First Eclipse -1577 Apr 28
Last Eclipse -0297 Jun 05
Series Duration 1280.14 Years
No. of Eclipses 72
Sequence 8P 34T 3H 21A 6P

Saros 42 is composed of 72 solar eclipses as follows:

Solar Eclipses of Saros 42
Eclipse Type Symbol Number Percent
All Eclipses - 72100.0%
PartialP 14 19.4%
AnnularA 21 29.2%
TotalT 34 47.2%
HybridH 3 4.2%

Umbral eclipses (annular, total and hybrid) can be further classified as either: 1) Central (two limits), 2) Central (one limit) or 3) Non-Central (one limit). The statistical distribution of these classes in Saros series 42 appears in the following table.

Umbral Eclipses of Saros 42
Classification Number Percent
All Umbral Eclipses 58100.0%
Central (two limits) 57 98.3%
Central (one limit) 0 0.0%
Non-Central (one limit) 1 1.7%

The 72 eclipses in Saros 42 occur in the following order : 8P 34T 3H 21A 6P

The longest and shortest central eclipses of Saros 42 as well as largest and smallest partial eclipses appear below.

Extreme Durations and Magnitudes of Solar Eclipses of Saros 42
Extrema Type Date Duration Magnitude
Longest Annular Solar Eclipse -0531 Jan 1506m47s -
Shortest Annular Solar Eclipse -0766 Aug 2800m23s -
Longest Total Solar Eclipse -0964 Apr 3005m00s -
Shortest Total Solar Eclipse -0838 Jul 1502m01s -
Longest Hybrid Solar Eclipse -0820 Jul 2601m24s -
Shortest Hybrid Solar Eclipse -0784 Aug 1600m12s -
Largest Partial Solar Eclipse -1451 Jul 12 - 0.99413
Smallest Partial Solar Eclipse -1577 Apr 28 - 0.02318

Links to Additional Solar Eclipse Predictions

Calendar

The Gregorian calendar (also called the Western calendar) is internationally the most widely used civil calendar. It is named for Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in 1582. On this website, the Gregorian calendar is used for all calendar dates from 1582 Oct 15 onwards. Before that date, the Julian calendar is used. For more information on this topic, see Calendar Dates.

The Julian calendar does not include the year 0. Thus the year 1 BCE is followed by the year 1 CE (See: BCE/CE Dating Conventions). This is awkward for arithmetic calculations. Years in this catalog are numbered astronomically and include the year 0. Historians should note there is a difference of one year between astronomical dates and BCE dates. Thus, the astronomical year 0 corresponds to 1 BCE, and astronomical year -1 corresponds to 2 BCE, etc..

Eclipse Predictions

The eclipse predictions presented here were generated using the JPL DE406 solar and lunar ephemerides. The lunar coordinates have been calculated with respect to the Moon's Center of Mass.

The largest uncertainty in the eclipse predictions is caused by fluctuations in Earth's rotation due primarily to tidal friction of the Moon. The resultant drift in apparent clock time is expressed as ΔT and is determined as follows:

  1. pre-1950's: ΔT calculated from empirical fits to historical records derived by Morrison and Stephenson (2004)
  2. 1955-present: ΔT obtained from published observations
  3. future: ΔT is extrapolated from current values weighted by the long term trend from tidal effects

A series of polynomial expressions have been derived to simplify the evaluation of ΔT for any time from -2999 to +3000. The uncertainty in ΔT over this period can be estimated from scatter in the measurements.

Acknowledgments

Some of the content on this web site is based on the books Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 and Thousand Year Canon of Solar Eclipses 1501 to 2500. All eclipse calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy.

Permission is granted to reproduce data from this page when accompanied by an acknowledgment:

"Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak, www.EclipseWise.com"

The use of diagrams and maps is permitted provided that they are NOT altered (except for re-sizing) and the embedded credit line is NOT removed or covered.