Saros 54

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 54

Fred Espenak

Introduction

The periodicity and recurrence of solar eclipses is governed by the Saros cycle, a period of approximately 6,585.3 days (18 years 11 days 8 hours). When two eclipses are separated by a period of one Saros, they share a very similar geometry. The two eclipses occur at the same node with the Moon at nearly the same distance from Earth and the same time of year due to a harmonic in three cycles of the Moon's orbit. Thus, the Saros is useful for organizing eclipses into families or series. Each series typically lasts 12 to 13 centuries and contains 70 or more eclipses. Every saros series begins with a number of partial eclipses near one of Earth's polar regions. The series will then produce several dozen central eclipses before ending with a group of partial eclipses near the opposite pole. For more information, see Periodicity of Solar Eclipses.

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 54

The table below lists the concise characteristics of every solar eclipse belonging to Saros 54 . The date and time of each eclipse is given for the instant of Greatest Eclipse. For eclipses between the years -1999 to 3000, the calendar date links to a web page containing additional details and a map showing the geographic region of eclipse visibility for that eclipse. A description of each parameter in the catalog table can be found in Key to Saros Catalog of Solar Eclipses.

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 54
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QLE Gamma Ecl Mag Lat

°
Long

°
Sun Alt
°
Path Width km Central Dur
1-37 -1284-Jul-2511:02:12 30634 1276 -40611 Pb t- -1.4895 0.0989 64S 109E 0 - -
2-36 -1266-Aug-0518:33:33 30279 1229 -40388 P t- -1.4314 0.2053 63S 15W 0 - -
3-35 -1248-Aug-1602:16:35 29926 1183 -40165 P t- -1.3815 0.2966 62S 141W 0 - -
4-34 -1230-Aug-2710:08:22 29575 1137 -39942 P t- -1.3378 0.3768 62S 90E 0 - -
5-33 -1212-Sep-0618:10:33 29226 1092 -39719 P t- -1.3016 0.4430 61S 40W 0 - -
6-32 -1194-Sep-1802:21:33 28879 1048 -39496 P t- -1.2719 0.4974 61S 173W 0 - -
7-31 -1176-Sep-2810:42:46 28534 1004 -39273 P t- -1.2502 0.5372 61S 51E 0 - -
8-30 -1158-Oct-0919:11:05 28191 962 -39050 P t- -1.2335 0.5679 61S 86W 0 - -
9-29 -1140-Oct-2003:46:21 27850 920 -38827 P t- -1.2219 0.5890 61S 135E 0 - -
10-28 -1122-Oct-3112:26:55 27512 878 -38604 P t- -1.2144 0.6029 61S 5W 0 - -
11-27 -1104-Nov-1021:12:27 27175 838 -38381 P t- -1.2107 0.6098 62S 147W 0 - -
12-26 -1086-Nov-2205:58:50 26840 798 -38158 P t- -1.2074 0.6161 62S 71E 0 - -
13-25 -1068-Dec-0214:46:41 26508 760 -37935 P t- -1.2050 0.6207 63S 71W 0 - -
14-24 -1050-Dec-1323:32:19 26178 721 -37712 P t- -1.2006 0.6292 64S 146E 0 - -
15-23 -1032-Dec-2408:16:40 25849 684 -37489 P t- -1.1948 0.6404 65S 4E 0 - -
16-22 -1013-Jan-0416:54:52 25523 648 -37266 P t- -1.1840 0.6610 66S 137W 0 - -
17-21 -0995-Jan-1501:29:43 25199 620 -37043 P t- -1.1699 0.6878 67S 82E 0 - -
18-20 -0977-Jan-2609:56:25 24877 613 -36820 P t- -1.1494 0.7273 68S 57W 0 - -
19-19 -0959-Feb-0518:17:20 24557 606 -36597 P t- -1.1235 0.7771 69S 164E 0 - -
20-18 -0941-Feb-1702:28:58 24239 600 -36374 P t- -1.0899 0.8421 70S 28E 0 - -
21-17 -0923-Feb-2710:34:44 23923 593 -36151 P t- -1.0512 0.9175 71S 108W 0 - -
22-16 -0905-Mar-1018:31:53 23609 586 -35928 T- t- -1.0054 1.0070 71S 118E 0 - -
23-15 -0887-Mar-2102:22:06 23297 579 -35705 T t- -0.9535 1.0558 68S 64W 17 62403m18s
24-14 -0869-Apr-0110:05:25 22988 572 -35482 T t- -0.8956 1.0623 58S 158E 26 45904m04s
25-13 -0851-Apr-1117:43:12 22680 565 -35259 T p- -0.8328 1.0677 48S 32E 33 39604m50s
26-12 -0833-Apr-2301:16:02 22375 558 -35036 T p- -0.7658 1.0720 39S 90W 40 36105m33s
27-11 -0815-May-0308:44:33 22071 552 -34813 T p- -0.6951 1.0754 30S 151E 46 33806m13s
28-10 -0797-May-1416:10:59 21770 545 -34590 T p- -0.6225 1.0778 22S 34E 51 32006m47s
29 -9 -0779-May-2423:36:05 21470 538 -34367 T p- -0.5484 1.0792 14S 82W 57 30507m12s
30 -8 -0761-Jun-0507:00:39 21173 531 -34144 T p- -0.4738 1.0797 7S 163E 62 29207m25s
31 -7 -0743-Jun-1514:26:47 20878 524 -33921 T p- -0.4005 1.0792 1S 49E 66 27907m28s
32 -6 -0725-Jun-2621:55:04 20585 517 -33698 T n- -0.3290 1.0777 5N 65W 71 26607m18s
33 -5 -0707-Jul-0705:27:27 20294 510 -33475 T n- -0.2610 1.0755 9N 180E 75 25307m00s
34 -4 -0689-Jul-1813:03:10 20005 503 -33252 T n- -0.1958 1.0724 12N 65E 79 24006m35s
35 -3 -0671-Jul-2820:45:34 19718 496 -33029 T nn -0.1365 1.0688 14N 51W 82 22606m07s
36 -2 -0653-Aug-0904:33:39 19433 489 -32806 T nn -0.0821 1.0645 14N 168W 85 21205m37s
37 -1 -0635-Aug-1912:29:31 19150 482 -32583 T nn -0.0346 1.0600 14N 72E 88 19705m08s
38 0 -0617-Aug-3020:31:57 18870 475 -32360 Tm nn 0.0069 1.0550 12N 49W 90 18204m39s
39 1 -0599-Sep-1004:42:57 18591 468 -32137 T nn 0.0410 1.0501 10N 172W 88 16604m13s
40 2 -0581-Sep-2113:00:56 18314 461 -31914 T nn 0.0688 1.0450 7N 62E 86 15003m48s
Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 54
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QLE Gamma Ecl Mag Lat

°
Long

°
Sun Alt
°
Path Width km Central Dur
41 3 -0563-Oct-0121:25:46 18040 454 -31691 T -n 0.0904 1.0402 4N 65W 85 13503m25s
42 4 -0545-Oct-1305:57:31 17767 447 -31468 T -n 0.1058 1.0355 0S 165E 84 12003m04s
43 5 -0527-Oct-2314:34:53 17497 440 -31245 T -n 0.1158 1.0313 4S 34E 83 10602m46s
44 6 -0509-Nov-0323:17:13 17229 434 -31022 T -n 0.1215 1.0275 7S 98W 83 9402m29s
45 7 -0491-Nov-1408:01:16 16932 427 -30799 T -n 0.1253 1.0241 10S 130E 83 8302m15s
46 8 -0473-Nov-2516:48:23 16617 420 -30576 T -n 0.1261 1.0213 13S 3W 83 7302m03s
47 9 -0455-Dec-0601:34:39 16311 414 -30353 T -n 0.1268 1.0191 15S 135W 83 6601m53s
48 10 -0437-Dec-1710:19:35 16014 407 -30130 H3 -n 0.1285 1.0173 16S 93E 83 6001m45s
49 11 -0419-Dec-2719:00:00 15725 401 -29907 H -n 0.1331 1.0160 16S 38W 82 5601m39s
50 12 -0400-Jan-0803:36:20 15443 394 -29684 H -n 0.1408 1.0152 15S 167W 82 5301m35s
51 13 -0382-Jan-1812:05:36 15168 388 -29461 H -n 0.1536 1.0147 13S 65E 81 5101m33s
52 14 -0364-Jan-2920:27:12 14900 382 -29238 H -n 0.1720 1.0144 10S 62W 80 5001m31s
53 15 -0346-Feb-0904:39:56 14638 375 -29015 H -n 0.1972 1.0142 5S 173E 79 5001m30s
54 16 -0328-Feb-2012:43:47 14382 369 -28792 H -n 0.2289 1.0141 0N 50E 77 5001m29s
55 17 -0310-Mar-0220:37:03 14132 363 -28569 H -n 0.2686 1.0139 6N 71W 74 4901m26s
56 18 -0292-Mar-1304:20:57 13887 357 -28346 H -p 0.3153 1.0134 13N 170E 72 4801m22s
57 19 -0274-Mar-2411:54:50 13648 351 -28123 H -p 0.3694 1.0126 20N 53E 68 4701m15s
58 20 -0256-Apr-0319:20:38 13413 345 -27900 H -p 0.4292 1.0114 28N 62W 64 4301m05s
59 21 -0238-Apr-1502:36:06 13184 339 -27677 H -p 0.4969 1.0096 37N 174W 60 3800m53s
60 22 -0220-Apr-2509:45:42 12959 333 -27454 H -p 0.5683 1.0072 45N 75E 55 3000m37s
61 23 -0202-May-0616:47:05 12739 327 -27231 H -p 0.6459 1.0041 54N 34W 49 1900m20s
62 24 -0184-May-1623:45:16 12522 321 -27008 H -p 0.7248 1.0003 64N 142W 43 200m01s
63 25 -0166-May-2806:36:55 12310 315 -26785 A -t 0.8081 0.9955 74N 112E 36 2700m19s
64 26 -0148-Jun-0713:28:35 12102 310 -26562 A -t 0.8902 0.9897 86N 5E 27 8100m39s
65 27 -0130-Jun-1820:17:21 11898 304 -26339 A -t 0.9738 0.9819 79N 92E 12 30201m02s
66 28 -0112-Jun-2903:07:55 11697 298 -26116 P -t 1.0546 0.8847 65N 16W 0 - -
67 29 -0094-Jul-1009:58:47 11500 293 -25893 P -t 1.1339 0.7422 64N 129W 0 - -
68 30 -0076-Jul-2016:54:12 11305 287 -25670 P -t 1.2083 0.6097 64N 116E 0 - -
69 31 -0058-Jul-3123:53:10 11114 282 -25447 P -t 1.2786 0.4858 63N 1E 0 - -
70 32 -0040-Aug-1106:57:38 10926 277 -25224 P -t 1.3433 0.3729 62N 115W 0 - -
71 33 -0022-Aug-2214:08:22 10740 271 -25001 P -t 1.4018 0.2722 62N 128E 0 - -
72 34 -0004-Sep-0121:26:44 10557 266 -24778 P -t 1.4532 0.1850 61N 9E 0 - -
73 35 0014-Sep-1304:52:39 10376 261 -24555 P -t 1.4975 0.1108 61N 112W 0 - -
74 36 0032-Sep-2312:26:16 10196 256 -24332 Pe -t 1.5347 0.0495 61N 125E 0 - -
75 37 0050-Oct-0420:07:35 10019 250 -24109 P -t 1.5652 0.0001 61N 0E 0 - -

Statistics for Solar Eclipses of Saros 54

Solar eclipses of Saros 54 all occur at the Moon’s descending node and the Moon moves northward with each eclipse. The series began with a partial eclipse in the southern hemisphere on -1284 Jul 25. The series ended with a partial eclipse in the northern hemisphere on 0050 Oct 04. The total duration of Saros series 54 is 1334.23 years.

Summary of Saros 54
First Eclipse -1284 Jul 25
Last Eclipse 0050 Oct 04
Series Duration 1334.23 Years
No. of Eclipses 75
Sequence 21P 26T 15H 3A 10P

Saros 54 is composed of 75 solar eclipses as follows:

Solar Eclipses of Saros 54
Eclipse Type Symbol Number Percent
All Eclipses - 75100.0%
PartialP 31 41.3%
AnnularA 3 4.0%
TotalT 26 34.7%
HybridH 15 20.0%

Umbral eclipses (annular, total and hybrid) can be further classified as either: 1) Central (two limits), 2) Central (one limit) or 3) Non-Central (one limit). The statistical distribution of these classes in Saros series 54 appears in the following table.

Umbral Eclipses of Saros 54
Classification Number Percent
All Umbral Eclipses 44100.0%
Central (two limits) 43 97.7%
Central (one limit) 0 0.0%
Non-Central (one limit) 1 2.3%

The 75 eclipses in Saros 54 occur in the following order : 21P 26T 15H 3A 10P

The longest and shortest central eclipses of Saros 54 as well as largest and smallest partial eclipses appear below.

Extreme Durations and Magnitudes of Solar Eclipses of Saros 54
Extrema Type Date Duration Magnitude
Longest Annular Solar Eclipse -0130 Jun 1801m02s -
Shortest Annular Solar Eclipse -0166 May 2800m19s -
Longest Total Solar Eclipse -0743 Jun 1507m28s -
Shortest Total Solar Eclipse -0455 Dec 0601m53s -
Longest Hybrid Solar Eclipse -0437 Dec 1701m45s -
Shortest Hybrid Solar Eclipse -0184 May 1600m01s -
Largest Partial Solar Eclipse -0923 Feb 27 - 0.91746
Smallest Partial Solar Eclipse 0050 Oct 04 - 0.00008

Links to Additional Solar Eclipse Predictions

Calendar

The Gregorian calendar (also called the Western calendar) is internationally the most widely used civil calendar. It is named for Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in 1582. On this website, the Gregorian calendar is used for all calendar dates from 1582 Oct 15 onwards. Before that date, the Julian calendar is used. For more information on this topic, see Calendar Dates.

The Julian calendar does not include the year 0. Thus the year 1 BCE is followed by the year 1 CE (See: BCE/CE Dating Conventions). This is awkward for arithmetic calculations. Years in this catalog are numbered astronomically and include the year 0. Historians should note there is a difference of one year between astronomical dates and BCE dates. Thus, the astronomical year 0 corresponds to 1 BCE, and astronomical year -1 corresponds to 2 BCE, etc..

Eclipse Predictions

The eclipse predictions presented here were generated using the JPL DE406 solar and lunar ephemerides. The lunar coordinates have been calculated with respect to the Moon's Center of Mass.

The largest uncertainty in the eclipse predictions is caused by fluctuations in Earth's rotation due primarily to tidal friction of the Moon. The resultant drift in apparent clock time is expressed as ΔT and is determined as follows:

  1. pre-1950's: ΔT calculated from empirical fits to historical records derived by Morrison and Stephenson (2004)
  2. 1955-present: ΔT obtained from published observations
  3. future: ΔT is extrapolated from current values weighted by the long term trend from tidal effects

A series of polynomial expressions have been derived to simplify the evaluation of ΔT for any time from -2999 to +3000. The uncertainty in ΔT over this period can be estimated from scatter in the measurements.

Acknowledgments

Some of the content on this web site is based on the books Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 and Thousand Year Canon of Solar Eclipses 1501 to 2500. All eclipse calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy.

Permission is granted to reproduce data from this page when accompanied by an acknowledgment:

"Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak, www.EclipseWise.com"

The use of diagrams and maps is permitted provided that they are NOT altered (except for re-sizing) and the embedded credit line is NOT removed or covered.