Saros 68

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 68

Fred Espenak

Introduction

The periodicity and recurrence of solar eclipses is governed by the Saros cycle, a period of approximately 6,585.3 days (18 years 11 days 8 hours). When two eclipses are separated by a period of one Saros, they share a very similar geometry. The two eclipses occur at the same node with the Moon at nearly the same distance from Earth and the same time of year due to a harmonic in three cycles of the Moon's orbit. Thus, the Saros is useful for organizing eclipses into families or series. Each series typically lasts 12 to 13 centuries and contains 70 or more eclipses. Every saros series begins with a number of partial eclipses near one of Earth's polar regions. The series will then produce several dozen central eclipses before ending with a group of partial eclipses near the opposite pole. For more information, see Periodicity of Solar Eclipses.

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 68

The table below lists the concise characteristics of every solar eclipse belonging to Saros 68 . The date and time of each eclipse is given for the instant of Greatest Eclipse. For eclipses between the years -1999 to 3000, the calendar date links to a web page containing additional details and a map showing the geographic region of eclipse visibility for that eclipse. A description of each parameter in the catalog table can be found in Key to Saros Catalog of Solar Eclipses.

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 68
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QLE Gamma Ecl Mag Lat

°
Long

°
Sun Alt
°
Path Width km Central Dur
1-34 -0626-Mar-1601:05:22 19017 479 -32477 Pb t- -1.5404 0.0421 72S 10W 0 - -
2-33 -0608-Mar-2607:52:44 18737 472 -32254 P t- -1.4782 0.1466 72S 127W 0 - -
3-32 -0590-Apr-0614:33:48 18459 465 -32031 P t- -1.4109 0.2604 72S 118E 0 - -
4-31 -0572-Apr-1621:05:02 18184 458 -31808 P t- -1.3355 0.3885 71S 5E 0 - -
5-30 -0554-Apr-2803:32:54 17910 451 -31585 P t- -1.2570 0.5224 71S 106W 0 - -
6-29 -0536-May-0809:54:27 17639 444 -31362 P t- -1.1726 0.6668 70S 144E 0 - -
7-28 -0518-May-1916:14:29 17369 437 -31139 P t- -1.0866 0.8142 69S 36E 0 - -
8-27 -0500-May-2922:31:48 17101 430 -30916 A- t- -0.9976 0.9669 68S 72W 0 - -
9-26 -0482-Jun-1004:51:36 16781 424 -30693 A t- -0.9099 0.9417 43S 178E 24 52506m26s
10-25 -0464-Jun-2011:12:50 16471 417 -30470 A p- -0.8225 0.9439 32S 77E 34 36506m51s
11-24 -0446-Jul-0117:38:12 16169 411 -30247 A p- -0.7377 0.9451 24S 23W 42 29907m03s
12-23 -0428-Jul-1200:09:13 15876 404 -30024 A p- -0.6566 0.9456 17S 124W 49 26407m07s
13-22 -0410-Jul-2306:47:27 15590 398 -29801 A p- -0.5806 0.9456 13S 134E 54 24407m03s
14-21 -0392-Aug-0213:33:51 15311 391 -29578 A p- -0.5106 0.9452 10S 31E 59 23206m56s
15-20 -0374-Aug-1320:28:32 15040 385 -29355 A p- -0.4467 0.9446 8S 74W 63 22606m47s
16-19 -0356-Aug-2403:34:05 14774 379 -29132 A p- -0.3909 0.9437 8S 179E 67 22406m39s
17-18 -0338-Sep-0410:49:16 14515 372 -28909 A p- -0.3422 0.9427 9S 69E 70 22306m33s
18-17 -0320-Sep-1418:14:55 14262 366 -28686 A p- -0.3017 0.9418 10S 44W 72 22406m29s
19-16 -0302-Sep-2601:50:36 14015 360 -28463 A n- -0.2688 0.9411 13S 159W 74 22506m26s
20-15 -0284-Oct-0609:36:43 13773 354 -28240 A n- -0.2440 0.9406 16S 84E 76 22606m25s
21-14 -0266-Oct-1717:31:12 13536 348 -28017 A n- -0.2253 0.9405 20S 36W 77 22506m24s
22-13 -0248-Oct-2801:32:54 13304 342 -27794 A n- -0.2117 0.9408 23S 157W 78 22406m21s
23-12 -0230-Nov-0809:41:11 13076 336 -27571 A n- -0.2030 0.9417 27S 81E 78 22006m17s
24-11 -0212-Nov-1817:54:45 12854 330 -27348 A n- -0.1983 0.9431 30S 42W 78 21406m10s
25-10 -0194-Nov-3002:10:28 12635 324 -27125 A n- -0.1944 0.9453 32S 166W 79 20605m58s
26 -9 -0176-Dec-1010:27:48 12421 318 -26902 A n- -0.1912 0.9479 34S 71E 79 19505m43s
27 -8 -0158-Dec-2118:43:58 12211 313 -26679 A n- -0.1863 0.9514 35S 51W 79 18105m22s
28 -7 -0139-Jan-0102:59:10 12005 307 -26456 A n- -0.1798 0.9554 34S 173W 79 16604m57s
29 -6 -0121-Jan-1211:08:46 11802 301 -26233 A n- -0.1680 0.9601 32S 66E 80 14704m26s
30 -5 -0103-Jan-2219:14:57 11603 296 -26010 A nn -0.1528 0.9652 29S 55W 81 12703m53s
31 -4 -0085-Feb-0303:13:23 11407 290 -25787 A nn -0.1303 0.9709 25S 175W 82 10503m15s
32 -3 -0067-Feb-1311:06:30 11214 285 -25564 A nn -0.1027 0.9769 20S 66E 84 8302m35s
33 -2 -0049-Feb-2418:50:29 11024 279 -25341 A nn -0.0667 0.9831 14S 52W 86 6001m52s
34 -1 -0031-Mar-0702:28:59 10837 274 -25118 A nn -0.0253 0.9895 8S 168W 89 3701m09s
35 0 -0013-Mar-1809:59:12 10653 269 -24895 A nn 0.0237 0.9959 1S 77E 89 1400m27s
36 1 0005-Mar-2817:23:13 10470 263 -24672 H nn 0.0788 1.0022 7N 37W 85 800m14s
37 2 0023-Apr-0900:40:50 10290 258 -24449 Hm nn 0.1403 1.0082 14N 149W 82 2900m51s
38 3 0041-Apr-1907:54:29 10112 253 -24226 H nn 0.2061 1.0139 22N 100E 78 4901m24s
39 4 0059-Apr-3015:04:18 9935 248 -24003 T -n 0.2761 1.0191 30N 10W 74 6801m50s
40 5 0077-May-1022:11:21 9760 243 -23780 T -n 0.3492 1.0238 37N 119W 69 8602m10s
Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 68
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QLE Gamma Ecl Mag Lat

°
Long

°
Sun Alt
°
Path Width km Central Dur
41 6 0095-May-2205:17:38 9587 238 -23557 T -p 0.4241 1.0277 45N 134E 65 10402m22s
42 7 0113-Jun-0112:24:14 9414 233 -23334 T -p 0.4999 1.0310 52N 29E 60 12102m29s
43 8 0131-Jun-1219:31:55 9242 228 -23111 T -p 0.5755 1.0335 59N 75W 55 13902m31s
44 9 0149-Jun-2302:42:36 9071 223 -22888 T -p 0.6494 1.0352 64N 176W 49 15602m29s
45 10 0167-Jul-0409:57:35 8900 218 -22665 T -p 0.7206 1.0361 68N 87E 44 17602m24s
46 11 0185-Jul-1417:18:23 8729 214 -22442 T -p 0.7878 1.0362 70N 8W 38 19802m17s
47 12 0203-Jul-2600:44:22 8558 209 -22219 T -p 0.8515 1.0355 70N 103W 31 22802m09s
48 13 0221-Aug-0508:18:43 8387 204 -21996 T -p 0.9088 1.0339 69N 159E 24 27601m58s
49 14 0239-Aug-1616:00:02 8216 200 -21773 T -t 0.9609 1.0313 66N 59E 15 39101m45s
50 15 0257-Aug-2623:50:55 8044 195 -21550 P -t 1.0059 0.9971 61N 34W 0 - -
51 16 0275-Sep-0707:48:59 7871 191 -21327 P -t 1.0455 0.9225 61N 163W 0 - -
52 17 0293-Sep-1715:57:40 7698 186 -21104 P -t 1.0772 0.8626 61N 65E 0 - -
53 18 0311-Sep-2900:13:57 7524 182 -20881 P -t 1.1034 0.8132 61N 68W 0 - -
54 19 0329-Oct-0908:39:22 7349 178 -20658 P -t 1.1225 0.7772 61N 156E 0 - -
55 20 0347-Oct-2017:11:58 7174 173 -20435 P -t 1.1366 0.7506 61N 18E 0 - -
56 21 0365-Oct-3101:52:06 6997 169 -20212 P -t 1.1449 0.7349 62N 121W 0 - -
57 22 0383-Nov-1110:37:03 6820 165 -19989 P -t 1.1501 0.7251 62N 98E 0 - -
58 23 0401-Nov-2119:25:51 6642 161 -19766 P -t 1.1527 0.7204 63N 44W 0 - -
59 24 0419-Dec-0304:17:26 6464 157 -19543 P -t 1.1535 0.7189 64N 172E 0 - -
60 25 0437-Dec-1313:10:14 6286 153 -19320 P -t 1.1532 0.7195 65N 29E 0 - -
61 26 0455-Dec-2422:01:30 6108 149 -19097 P -t 1.1550 0.7165 66N 115W 0 - -
62 27 0474-Jan-0406:50:26 5930 145 -18874 P -t 1.1588 0.7097 67N 101E 0 - -
63 28 0492-Jan-1515:35:12 5754 141 -18651 P -t 1.1664 0.6959 68N 42W 0 - -
64 29 0510-Jan-2600:15:28 5577 137 -18428 P -t 1.1777 0.6748 69N 175E 0 - -
65 30 0528-Feb-0608:48:11 5401 134 -18205 P -t 1.1954 0.6419 70N 34E 0 - -
66 31 0546-Feb-1617:14:58 5226 130 -17982 P -t 1.2180 0.5991 71N 107W 0 - -
67 32 0564-Feb-2801:33:08 5052 126 -17759 P -t 1.2480 0.5421 71N 114E 0 - -
68 33 0582-Mar-1009:44:34 4879 123 -17536 P -t 1.2836 0.4739 72N 23W 0 - -
69 34 0600-Mar-2017:46:52 4708 119 -17313 P -t 1.3268 0.3909 72N 158W 0 - -
70 35 0618-Apr-0101:42:48 4538 116 -17090 P -t 1.3753 0.2971 72N 68E 0 - -
71 36 0636-Apr-1109:31:10 4370 112 -16867 P -t 1.4300 0.1911 71N 64W 0 - -
72 37 0654-Apr-2217:13:03 4203 109 -16644 Pe -t 1.4900 0.0745 71N 167E 0 - -

Statistics for Solar Eclipses of Saros 68

Solar eclipses of Saros 68 all occur at the Moon’s descending node and the Moon moves northward with each eclipse. The series began with a partial eclipse in the southern hemisphere on -0626 Mar 16. The series ended with a partial eclipse in the northern hemisphere on 0654 Apr 22. The total duration of Saros series 68 is 1280.14 years.

Summary of Saros 68
First Eclipse -0626 Mar 16
Last Eclipse 0654 Apr 22
Series Duration 1280.14 Years
No. of Eclipses 72
Sequence 7P 28A 3H 11T 23P

Saros 68 is composed of 72 solar eclipses as follows:

Solar Eclipses of Saros 68
Eclipse Type Symbol Number Percent
All Eclipses - 72100.0%
PartialP 30 41.7%
AnnularA 28 38.9%
TotalT 11 15.3%
HybridH 3 4.2%

Umbral eclipses (annular, total and hybrid) can be further classified as either: 1) Central (two limits), 2) Central (one limit) or 3) Non-Central (one limit). The statistical distribution of these classes in Saros series 68 appears in the following table.

Umbral Eclipses of Saros 68
Classification Number Percent
All Umbral Eclipses 42100.0%
Central (two limits) 41 97.6%
Central (one limit) 0 0.0%
Non-Central (one limit) 1 2.4%

The 72 eclipses in Saros 68 occur in the following order : 7P 28A 3H 11T 23P

The longest and shortest central eclipses of Saros 68 as well as largest and smallest partial eclipses appear below.

Extreme Durations and Magnitudes of Solar Eclipses of Saros 68
Extrema Type Date Duration Magnitude
Longest Annular Solar Eclipse -0428 Jul 1207m07s -
Shortest Annular Solar Eclipse -0013 Mar 1800m27s -
Longest Total Solar Eclipse 0131 Jun 1202m31s -
Shortest Total Solar Eclipse 0239 Aug 1601m45s -
Longest Hybrid Solar Eclipse 0041 Apr 1901m24s -
Shortest Hybrid Solar Eclipse 0005 Mar 2800m14s -
Largest Partial Solar Eclipse 0257 Aug 26 - 0.99715
Smallest Partial Solar Eclipse -0626 Mar 16 - 0.04206

Links to Additional Solar Eclipse Predictions

Calendar

The Gregorian calendar (also called the Western calendar) is internationally the most widely used civil calendar. It is named for Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in 1582. On this website, the Gregorian calendar is used for all calendar dates from 1582 Oct 15 onwards. Before that date, the Julian calendar is used. For more information on this topic, see Calendar Dates.

The Julian calendar does not include the year 0. Thus the year 1 BCE is followed by the year 1 CE (See: BCE/CE Dating Conventions). This is awkward for arithmetic calculations. Years in this catalog are numbered astronomically and include the year 0. Historians should note there is a difference of one year between astronomical dates and BCE dates. Thus, the astronomical year 0 corresponds to 1 BCE, and astronomical year -1 corresponds to 2 BCE, etc..

Eclipse Predictions

The eclipse predictions presented here were generated using the JPL DE406 solar and lunar ephemerides. The lunar coordinates have been calculated with respect to the Moon's Center of Mass.

The largest uncertainty in the eclipse predictions is caused by fluctuations in Earth's rotation due primarily to tidal friction of the Moon. The resultant drift in apparent clock time is expressed as ΔT and is determined as follows:

  1. pre-1950's: ΔT calculated from empirical fits to historical records derived by Morrison and Stephenson (2004)
  2. 1955-present: ΔT obtained from published observations
  3. future: ΔT is extrapolated from current values weighted by the long term trend from tidal effects

A series of polynomial expressions have been derived to simplify the evaluation of ΔT for any time from -2999 to +3000. The uncertainty in ΔT over this period can be estimated from scatter in the measurements.

Acknowledgments

Some of the content on this web site is based on the books Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 and Thousand Year Canon of Solar Eclipses 1501 to 2500. All eclipse calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy.

Permission is granted to reproduce data from this page when accompanied by an acknowledgment:

"Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak, www.EclipseWise.com"

The use of diagrams and maps is permitted provided that they are NOT altered (except for re-sizing) and the embedded credit line is NOT removed or covered.