Saros 77

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 77

Fred Espenak

Introduction

The periodicity and recurrence of solar eclipses is governed by the Saros cycle, a period of approximately 6,585.3 days (18 years 11 days 8 hours). When two eclipses are separated by a period of one Saros, they share a very similar geometry. The two eclipses occur at the same node with the Moon at nearly the same distance from Earth and the same time of year due to a harmonic in three cycles of the Moon's orbit. Thus, the Saros is useful for organizing eclipses into families or series. Each series typically lasts 12 to 13 centuries and contains 70 or more eclipses. Every saros series begins with a number of partial eclipses near one of Earth's polar regions. The series will then produce several dozen central eclipses before ending with a group of partial eclipses near the opposite pole. For more information, see Periodicity of Solar Eclipses.

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 77

The table below lists the concise characteristics of every solar eclipse belonging to Saros 77 . The date and time of each eclipse is given for the instant of Greatest Eclipse. For eclipses between the years -1999 to 3000, the calendar date links to a web page containing additional details and a map showing the geographic region of eclipse visibility for that eclipse. A description of each parameter in the catalog table can be found in Key to Saros Catalog of Solar Eclipses.

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 77
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QLE Gamma Ecl Mag Lat

°
Long

°
Sun Alt
°
Path Width km Central Dur
1-33 -0474-Jul-1114:09:14 16641 421 -30593 Pb t- 1.4888 0.1190 67N 142W 0 - -
2-32 -0456-Jul-2120:56:46 16334 414 -30370 P t- 1.4222 0.2364 68N 104E 0 - -
3-31 -0438-Aug-0203:47:56 16036 408 -30147 P t- 1.3587 0.3473 69N 12W 0 - -
4-30 -0420-Aug-1210:47:20 15746 401 -29924 P t- 1.3023 0.4448 70N 130W 0 - -
5-29 -0402-Aug-2317:52:49 15464 395 -29701 P t- 1.2511 0.5325 71N 110E 0 - -
6-28 -0384-Sep-0301:07:30 15189 388 -29478 P t- 1.2074 0.6065 71N 13W 0 - -
7-27 -0366-Sep-1408:29:17 14920 382 -29255 P t- 1.1698 0.6695 72N 139W 0 - -
8-26 -0348-Sep-2416:00:52 14657 376 -29032 P t- 1.1403 0.7183 72N 93E 0 - -
9-25 -0330-Oct-0523:39:29 14401 370 -28809 P t- 1.1169 0.7566 72N 37W 0 - -
10-24 -0312-Oct-1607:25:04 14151 363 -28586 P t- 1.0995 0.7847 72N 168W 0 - -
11-23 -0294-Oct-2715:16:58 13906 357 -28363 P t- 1.0874 0.8040 71N 59E 0 - -
12-22 -0276-Nov-0623:14:10 13666 351 -28140 P t- 1.0794 0.8165 70N 75W 0 - -
13-21 -0258-Nov-1807:14:35 13431 345 -27917 P t- 1.0745 0.8241 69N 152E 0 - -
14-20 -0240-Nov-2815:16:02 13201 339 -27694 P t- 1.0703 0.8308 68N 19E 0 - -
15-19 -0222-Dec-0923:18:00 12976 333 -27471 P t- 1.0666 0.8369 67N 114W 0 - -
16-18 -0204-Dec-2007:18:15 12755 327 -27248 P t- 1.0611 0.8462 66N 114E 0 - -
17-17 -0186-Dec-3115:14:19 12539 322 -27025 P t- 1.0523 0.8613 65N 16W 0 - -
18-16 -0167-Jan-1023:05:20 12326 316 -26802 P t- 1.0391 0.8839 64N 144W 0 - -
19-15 -0149-Jan-2206:49:33 12118 310 -26579 A+ t- 1.0201 0.9163 63N 90E 0 - -
20-14 -0131-Feb-0114:26:51 11913 304 -26356 An t- 0.9953 0.9121 60N 29W 4 - 07m45s
21-13 -0113-Feb-1221:54:28 11712 299 -26133 A t- 0.9622 0.9179 52N 135W 15 113807m42s
22-12 -0095-Feb-2305:14:12 11515 293 -25910 A p- 0.9223 0.9229 48N 115E 22 73307m19s
23-11 -0077-Mar-0612:24:15 11320 288 -25687 A p- 0.8743 0.9279 45N 8E 29 54006m50s
24-10 -0059-Mar-1619:25:25 11129 282 -25464 A p- 0.8186 0.9329 44N 96W 35 42206m19s
25 -9 -0041-Mar-2802:17:58 10940 277 -25241 A p- 0.7553 0.9377 43N 162E 41 34305m50s
26 -8 -0023-Apr-0709:03:25 10754 272 -25018 A p- 0.6857 0.9425 43N 63E 46 28505m23s
27 -7 -0005-Apr-1815:42:55 10571 266 -24795 A p- 0.6105 0.9470 42N 34W 52 24205m00s
28 -6 0013-Apr-2822:16:00 10389 261 -24572 A p- 0.5295 0.9512 42N 130W 58 20804m41s
29 -5 0031-May-1004:46:34 10210 256 -24349 A p- 0.4458 0.9549 41N 136E 63 18304m26s
30 -4 0049-May-2011:14:10 10033 251 -24126 A p- 0.3590 0.9583 39N 43E 69 16204m15s
31 -3 0067-May-3117:42:07 9857 246 -23903 A pn 0.2715 0.9612 37N 51W 74 14604m08s
32 -2 0085-Jun-1100:09:45 9682 241 -23680 A nn 0.1829 0.9636 34N 146W 79 13404m04s
33 -1 0103-Jun-2206:41:55 9509 236 -23457 A nn 0.0973 0.9654 29N 118E 84 12504m02s
34 0 0121-Jul-0213:17:21 9337 231 -23234 A nn 0.0137 0.9668 24N 19E 89 12004m02s
35 1 0139-Jul-1319:59:05 9165 226 -23011 A nn -0.0654 0.9678 19N 81W 86 11604m02s
36 2 0157-Jul-2402:47:20 8994 221 -22788 Am nn -0.1400 0.9683 13N 176E 82 11504m01s
37 3 0175-Aug-0409:44:43 8823 216 -22565 A nn -0.2077 0.9684 6N 69E 78 11603m59s
38 4 0193-Aug-1416:50:41 8652 212 -22342 A nn -0.2691 0.9683 0S 39W 74 11803m56s
39 5 0211-Aug-2600:06:04 8481 207 -22119 A -n -0.3233 0.9680 7S 151W 71 12203m51s
40 6 0229-Sep-0507:31:54 8310 202 -21896 A -n -0.3695 0.9676 14S 95E 68 12503m46s
Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 77
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QLE Gamma Ecl Mag Lat

°
Long

°
Sun Alt
°
Path Width km Central Dur
41 7 0247-Sep-1615:08:14 8139 198 -21673 A -n -0.4078 0.9671 20S 22W 66 12903m40s
42 8 0265-Sep-2622:54:30 7967 193 -21450 A -p -0.4386 0.9669 26S 141W 64 13203m32s
43 9 0283-Oct-0806:50:49 7794 189 -21227 A -p -0.4619 0.9669 32S 98E 62 13403m24s
44 10 0301-Oct-1814:56:09 7620 184 -21004 A -p -0.4786 0.9672 37S 25W 61 13403m15s
45 11 0319-Oct-2923:09:56 7446 180 -20781 A -p -0.4891 0.9679 42S 149W 60 13203m04s
46 12 0337-Nov-0907:29:07 7271 176 -20558 A -p -0.4960 0.9691 47S 87E 60 12802m52s
47 13 0355-Nov-2015:55:03 7095 171 -20335 A -p -0.4983 0.9709 50S 37W 60 12102m38s
48 14 0373-Dec-0100:23:32 6918 167 -20112 A -p -0.4995 0.9732 52S 161W 60 11102m22s
49 15 0391-Dec-1208:54:56 6740 163 -19889 A -p -0.4990 0.9762 54S 75E 60 9802m04s
50 16 0409-Dec-2217:24:38 6562 159 -19666 A -p -0.5008 0.9797 54S 47W 60 8401m44s
51 17 0428-Jan-0301:54:37 6384 155 -19443 A -p -0.5032 0.9838 53S 170W 60 6601m22s
52 18 0446-Jan-1310:20:11 6206 151 -19220 A -p -0.5104 0.9884 51S 67E 59 4700m58s
53 19 0464-Jan-2418:41:51 6028 147 -18997 A -p -0.5214 0.9935 48S 56W 58 2600m32s
54 20 0482-Feb-0402:56:48 5851 143 -18774 A -p -0.5388 0.9989 45S 178W 57 400m05s
55 21 0500-Feb-1511:06:13 5675 139 -18551 H -p -0.5615 1.0046 42S 61E 56 1900m22s
56 22 0518-Feb-2519:08:12 5498 136 -18328 H -p -0.5911 1.0104 40S 60W 54 4400m50s
57 23 0536-Mar-0803:03:03 5322 132 -18105 T -p -0.6275 1.0162 37S 178W 51 7001m18s
58 24 0554-Mar-1910:50:36 5148 128 -17882 T -p -0.6707 1.0217 36S 65E 48 9801m44s
59 25 0572-Mar-2918:31:59 4974 125 -17659 T -p -0.7196 1.0270 35S 51W 44 12902m10s
60 26 0590-Apr-1002:06:30 4802 121 -17436 T -p -0.7751 1.0318 36S 165W 39 16602m33s
61 27 0608-Apr-2009:36:27 4632 117 -17213 T -p -0.8351 1.0358 38S 82E 33 21402m51s
62 28 0626-May-0117:01:37 4462 114 -16990 T -p -0.8996 1.0389 43S 29W 26 29403m02s
63 29 0644-May-1200:24:57 4295 111 -16767 T -t -0.9665 1.0400 52S 138W 14 53002m56s
64 30 0662-May-2307:44:32 4129 107 -16544 P -t -1.0370 0.9442 64S 119E 0 - -
65 31 0680-Jun-0215:04:49 3964 104 -16321 P -t -1.1074 0.8110 64S 2W 0 - -
66 32 0698-Jun-1322:24:13 3802 101 -16098 P -t -1.1788 0.6752 65S 122W 0 - -
67 33 0716-Jun-2405:46:42 3642 97 -15875 P -t -1.2483 0.5421 66S 116E 0 - -
68 34 0734-Jul-0513:10:09 3484 94 -15652 P -t -1.3171 0.4100 67S 6W 0 - -
69 35 0752-Jul-1520:39:30 3329 91 -15429 P -t -1.3815 0.2861 68S 130W 0 - -
70 36 0770-Jul-2704:12:45 3177 88 -15206 P -t -1.4428 0.1684 69S 104E 0 - -
71 37 0788-Aug-0611:52:45 3027 85 -14983 Pe -t -1.4989 0.0608 70S 24W 0 - -

Statistics for Solar Eclipses of Saros 77

Solar eclipses of Saros 77 all occur at the Moon’s ascending node and the Moon moves southward with each eclipse. The series began with a partial eclipse in the northern hemisphere on -0474 Jul 11. The series ended with a partial eclipse in the southern hemisphere on 0788 Aug 06. The total duration of Saros series 77 is 1262.11 years.

Summary of Saros 77
First Eclipse -0474 Jul 11
Last Eclipse 0788 Aug 06
Series Duration 1262.11 Years
No. of Eclipses 71
Sequence 18P 36A 2H 7T 8P

Saros 77 is composed of 71 solar eclipses as follows:

Solar Eclipses of Saros 77
Eclipse Type Symbol Number Percent
All Eclipses - 71100.0%
PartialP 26 36.6%
AnnularA 36 50.7%
TotalT 7 9.9%
HybridH 2 2.8%

Umbral eclipses (annular, total and hybrid) can be further classified as either: 1) Central (two limits), 2) Central (one limit) or 3) Non-Central (one limit). The statistical distribution of these classes in Saros series 77 appears in the following table.

Umbral Eclipses of Saros 77
Classification Number Percent
All Umbral Eclipses 45100.0%
Central (two limits) 43 95.6%
Central (one limit) 1 2.2%
Non-Central (one limit) 1 2.2%

The 71 eclipses in Saros 77 occur in the following order : 18P 36A 2H 7T 8P

The longest and shortest central eclipses of Saros 77 as well as largest and smallest partial eclipses appear below.

Extreme Durations and Magnitudes of Solar Eclipses of Saros 77
Extrema Type Date Duration Magnitude
Longest Annular Solar Eclipse -0131 Feb 0107m45s -
Shortest Annular Solar Eclipse 0482 Feb 0400m05s -
Longest Total Solar Eclipse 0626 May 0103m02s -
Shortest Total Solar Eclipse 0536 Mar 0801m18s -
Longest Hybrid Solar Eclipse 0518 Feb 2500m50s -
Shortest Hybrid Solar Eclipse 0500 Feb 1500m22s -
Largest Partial Solar Eclipse 0662 May 23 - 0.94416
Smallest Partial Solar Eclipse 0788 Aug 06 - 0.06084

Links to Additional Solar Eclipse Predictions

Calendar

The Gregorian calendar (also called the Western calendar) is internationally the most widely used civil calendar. It is named for Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in 1582. On this website, the Gregorian calendar is used for all calendar dates from 1582 Oct 15 onwards. Before that date, the Julian calendar is used. For more information on this topic, see Calendar Dates.

The Julian calendar does not include the year 0. Thus the year 1 BCE is followed by the year 1 CE (See: BCE/CE Dating Conventions). This is awkward for arithmetic calculations. Years in this catalog are numbered astronomically and include the year 0. Historians should note there is a difference of one year between astronomical dates and BCE dates. Thus, the astronomical year 0 corresponds to 1 BCE, and astronomical year -1 corresponds to 2 BCE, etc..

Eclipse Predictions

The eclipse predictions presented here were generated using the JPL DE406 solar and lunar ephemerides. The lunar coordinates have been calculated with respect to the Moon's Center of Mass.

The largest uncertainty in the eclipse predictions is caused by fluctuations in Earth's rotation due primarily to tidal friction of the Moon. The resultant drift in apparent clock time is expressed as ΔT and is determined as follows:

  1. pre-1950's: ΔT calculated from empirical fits to historical records derived by Morrison and Stephenson (2004)
  2. 1955-present: ΔT obtained from published observations
  3. future: ΔT is extrapolated from current values weighted by the long term trend from tidal effects

A series of polynomial expressions have been derived to simplify the evaluation of ΔT for any time from -2999 to +3000. The uncertainty in ΔT over this period can be estimated from scatter in the measurements.

Acknowledgments

Some of the content on this web site is based on the books Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 and Thousand Year Canon of Solar Eclipses 1501 to 2500. All eclipse calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy.

Permission is granted to reproduce data from this page when accompanied by an acknowledgment:

"Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak, www.EclipseWise.com"

The use of diagrams and maps is permitted provided that they are NOT altered (except for re-sizing) and the embedded credit line is NOT removed or covered.