Saros 104

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 104

Fred Espenak

Introduction

The periodicity and recurrence of solar eclipses is governed by the Saros cycle, a period of approximately 6,585.3 days (18 years 11 days 8 hours). When two eclipses are separated by a period of one Saros, they share a very similar geometry. The two eclipses occur at the same node with the Moon at nearly the same distance from Earth and the same time of year due to a harmonic in three cycles of the Moon's orbit. Thus, the Saros is useful for organizing eclipses into families or series. Each series typically lasts 12 to 13 centuries and contains 70 or more eclipses. Every saros series begins with a number of partial eclipses near one of Earth's polar regions. The series will then produce several dozen central eclipses before ending with a group of partial eclipses near the opposite pole. For more information, see Periodicity of Solar Eclipses.

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 104

The table below lists the concise characteristics of every solar eclipse belonging to Saros 104 . The date and time of each eclipse is given for the instant of Greatest Eclipse. For eclipses between the years -1999 to 3000, the calendar date links to a web page containing additional details and a map showing the geographic region of eclipse visibility for that eclipse. A description of each parameter in the catalog table can be found in Key to Saros Catalog of Solar Eclipses.

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 104
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QLE Gamma Ecl Mag Lat

°
Long

°
Sun Alt
°
Path Width km Central Dur
1-34 0470-Apr-1710:26:44 5967 146 -18920 Pb t- -1.4982 0.0866 71S 104E 0 - -
2-33 0488-Apr-2717:36:33 5790 142 -18697 P t- -1.4368 0.1982 70S 17W 0 - -
3-32 0506-May-0900:40:00 5614 138 -18474 P t- -1.3710 0.3178 70S 136W 0 - -
4-31 0524-May-1907:37:15 5437 134 -18251 P t- -1.3007 0.4450 69S 107E 0 - -
5-30 0542-May-3014:29:25 5262 131 -18028 P t- -1.2268 0.5780 68S 9W 0 - -
6-29 0560-Jun-0921:18:46 5088 127 -17805 P t- -1.1513 0.7132 67S 123W 0 - -
7-28 0578-Jun-2104:06:22 4915 123 -17582 P t- -1.0746 0.8493 66S 124E 0 - -
8-27 0596-Jul-0110:54:24 4743 120 -17359 A- t- -0.9989 0.9825 65S 11E 0 - -
9-26 0614-Jul-1217:42:45 4573 116 -17136 A p- -0.9238 0.9722 44S 85W 22 26002m41s
10-25 0632-Jul-2300:34:52 4404 113 -16913 A p- -0.8523 0.9696 36S 171E 31 20503m07s
11-24 0650-Aug-0307:30:09 4237 109 -16690 A p- -0.7837 0.9660 31S 66E 38 19303m34s
12-23 0668-Aug-1314:31:07 4072 106 -16467 A p- -0.7203 0.9619 28S 40W 44 19404m00s
13-22 0686-Aug-2421:37:36 3908 103 -16244 A p- -0.6620 0.9573 27S 148W 48 20204m27s
14-21 0704-Sep-0404:51:56 3746 100 -16021 A p- -0.6105 0.9526 27S 103E 52 21404m53s
15-20 0722-Sep-1512:13:34 3587 96 -15798 A p- -0.5656 0.9477 28S 8W 55 22805m19s
16-19 0740-Sep-2519:42:14 3430 93 -15575 A p- -0.5270 0.9431 30S 121W 58 24305m45s
17-18 0758-Oct-0703:19:25 3276 90 -15352 A p- -0.4960 0.9385 33S 124E 60 25906m11s
18-17 0776-Oct-1711:03:17 3125 87 -15129 A p- -0.4713 0.9343 36S 8E 62 27506m37s
19-16 0794-Oct-2818:54:38 2977 84 -14906 A p- -0.4529 0.9305 39S 109W 63 29007m02s
20-15 0812-Nov-0802:49:51 2831 81 -14683 A p- -0.4382 0.9272 42S 133E 64 30307m26s
21-14 0830-Nov-1910:51:02 2690 78 -14460 A p- -0.4289 0.9245 45S 15E 64 31407m47s
22-13 0848-Nov-2918:54:00 2552 75 -14237 A p- -0.4216 0.9224 47S 103W 65 32308m06s
23-12 0866-Dec-1102:59:05 2418 73 -14014 A p- -0.4164 0.9210 48S 140E 65 32908m22s
24-11 0884-Dec-2111:02:32 2288 70 -13791 A p- -0.4102 0.9203 48S 23E 66 33208m35s
25-10 0903-Jan-0119:04:52 2162 67 -13568 A p- -0.4033 0.9202 47S 94W 66 33108m44s
26 -9 0921-Jan-1203:02:20 2040 65 -13345 A p- -0.3926 0.9207 44S 149E 67 32708m51s
27 -8 0939-Jan-2310:54:36 1923 62 -13122 A p- -0.3778 0.9219 40S 33E 68 31908m55s
28 -7 0957-Feb-0218:39:38 1810 60 -12899 A n- -0.3574 0.9236 36S 83W 69 30808m57s
29 -6 0975-Feb-1402:17:36 1702 57 -12676 A n- -0.3315 0.9258 30S 162E 70 29608m56s
30 -5 0993-Feb-2409:45:22 1598 55 -12453 A nn -0.2972 0.9283 24S 49E 73 28108m51s
31 -4 1011-Mar-0717:04:46 1499 52 -12230 A nn -0.2559 0.9311 17S 63W 75 26608m44s
32 -3 1029-Mar-1800:14:00 1404 50 -12007 A nn -0.2065 0.9342 10S 172W 78 25008m31s
33 -2 1047-Mar-2907:15:56 1314 48 -11784 A nn -0.1511 0.9373 3S 80E 81 23608m15s
34 -1 1065-Apr-0814:06:42 1229 46 -11561 A nn -0.0864 0.9403 5N 25W 85 22207m54s
35 0 1083-Apr-1920:52:12 1148 43 -11338 A nn -0.0173 0.9432 12N 129W 89 21007m28s
36 1 1101-Apr-3003:29:09 1072 41 -11115 Am nn 0.0593 0.9459 20N 130E 86 20006m57s
37 2 1119-May-1110:02:56 1000 39 -10892 A nn 0.1386 0.9484 27N 31E 82 19206m24s
38 3 1137-May-2116:30:19 932 37 -10669 A nn 0.2235 0.9504 35N 66W 77 18705m51s
39 4 1155-Jun-0122:57:40 868 35 -10446 A np 0.3087 0.9520 41N 162W 72 18505m19s
40 5 1173-Jun-1205:22:41 809 33 -10223 A -p 0.3965 0.9531 47N 105E 66 18704m51s
Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 104
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QLE Gamma Ecl Mag Lat

°
Long

°
Sun Alt
°
Path Width km Central Dur
41 6 1191-Jun-2311:49:21 753 32 -10000 A -p 0.4832 0.9539 52N 13E 61 19304m28s
42 7 1209-Jul-0318:17:39 700 30 -9777 A -p 0.5691 0.9540 56N 77W 55 20404m11s
43 8 1227-Jul-1500:51:01 651 28 -9554 A -p 0.6512 0.9537 58N 167W 49 22203m59s
44 9 1245-Jul-2507:29:38 606 26 -9331 A -p 0.7295 0.9528 60N 102E 43 25003m52s
45 10 1263-Aug-0514:14:39 563 25 -9108 A -p 0.8029 0.9516 60N 10E 36 29403m49s
46 11 1281-Aug-1521:07:53 523 23 -8885 A -p 0.8702 0.9497 60N 84W 29 36903m50s
47 12 1299-Aug-2704:09:34 486 22 -8662 A -p 0.9311 0.9474 60N 180E 21 52503m53s
48 13 1317-Sep-0611:21:02 451 20 -8439 An -t 0.9843 0.9439 61N 88E 9 - 03m55s
49 14 1335-Sep-1718:41:51 418 20 -8216 P -t 1.0305 0.9135 61N 12W 0 - -
50 15 1353-Sep-2802:13:50 388 20 -7993 P -t 1.0683 0.8482 61N 134W 0 - -
51 16 1371-Oct-0909:55:22 359 20 -7770 P -t 1.0990 0.7953 61N 102E 0 - -
52 17 1389-Oct-1917:46:24 332 20 -7547 P -t 1.1226 0.7546 62N 25W 0 - -
53 18 1407-Oct-3101:46:20 306 20 -7324 P -t 1.1397 0.7251 62N 154W 0 - -
54 19 1425-Nov-1009:54:26 282 20 -7101 P -t 1.1506 0.7065 63N 75E 0 - -
55 20 1443-Nov-2118:08:45 259 20 -6878 P -t 1.1575 0.6947 64N 58W 0 - -
56 21 1461-Dec-0202:27:43 237 20 -6655 P -t 1.1614 0.6883 65N 167E 0 - -
57 22 1479-Dec-1310:50:13 216 20 -6432 P -t 1.1630 0.6859 66N 32E 0 - -
58 23 1497-Dec-2319:14:56 197 20 -6209 P -t 1.1634 0.6856 67N 105W 0 - -
59 24 1516-Jan-0403:38:39 179 20 -5986 P -t 1.1652 0.6830 68N 118E 0 - -
60 25 1534-Jan-1412:01:17 163 20 -5763 P -t 1.1685 0.6779 69N 20W 0 - -
61 26 1552-Jan-2520:19:42 148 20 -5540 P -t 1.1760 0.6656 70N 157W 0 - -
62 27 1570-Feb-0504:34:48 135 20 -5317 P -t 1.1866 0.6475 71N 67E 0 - -
63 28 1588-Feb-2612:42:30 124 20 -5094 P -t 1.2038 0.6178 71N 69W 0 - -
64 29 1606-Mar-0820:45:38 111 19 -4871 P -t 1.2253 0.5801 72N 156E 0 - -
65 30 1624-Mar-1904:40:35 88 16 -4648 P -t 1.2540 0.5288 72N 23E 0 - -
66 31 1642-Mar-3012:29:28 60 14 -4425 P -t 1.2883 0.4669 72N 108W 0 - -
67 32 1660-Apr-0920:10:11 35 11 -4202 P -t 1.3301 0.3907 72N 123E 0 - -
68 33 1678-Apr-2103:45:49 15 8 -3979 P -t 1.3765 0.3050 71N 4W 0 - -
69 34 1696-May-0111:15:19 8 6 -3756 P -t 1.4286 0.2079 70N 130W 0 - -
70 35 1714-May-1318:39:34 9 4 -3533 Pe -t 1.4855 0.1008 69N 107E 0 - -

Statistics for Solar Eclipses of Saros 104

Solar eclipses of Saros 104 all occur at the Moon’s descending node and the Moon moves northward with each eclipse. The series began with a partial eclipse in the southern hemisphere on 0470 Apr 17. The series ended with a partial eclipse in the northern hemisphere on 1714 May 13. The total duration of Saros series 104 is 1244.08 years.

Summary of Saros 104
First Eclipse 0470 Apr 17
Last Eclipse 1714 May 13
Series Duration 1244.08 Years
No. of Eclipses 70
Sequence 7P 41A 22P

Saros 104 is composed of 70 solar eclipses as follows:

Solar Eclipses of Saros 104
Eclipse Type Symbol Number Percent
All Eclipses - 70100.0%
PartialP 29 41.4%
AnnularA 41 58.6%
TotalT 0 0.0%
HybridH 0 0.0%

Umbral eclipses (annular, total and hybrid) can be further classified as either: 1) Central (two limits), 2) Central (one limit) or 3) Non-Central (one limit). The statistical distribution of these classes in Saros series 104 appears in the following table.

Umbral Eclipses of Saros 104
Classification Number Percent
All Umbral Eclipses 41100.0%
Central (two limits) 39 95.1%
Central (one limit) 1 2.4%
Non-Central (one limit) 1 2.4%

The 70 eclipses in Saros 104 occur in the following order : 7P 41A 22P

The longest and shortest central eclipses of Saros 104 as well as largest and smallest partial eclipses appear below.

Extreme Durations and Magnitudes of Solar Eclipses of Saros 104
Extrema Type Date Duration Magnitude
Longest Annular Solar Eclipse 0957 Feb 0208m57s -
Shortest Annular Solar Eclipse 0614 Jul 1202m41s -
Largest Partial Solar Eclipse 1335 Sep 17 - 0.91353
Smallest Partial Solar Eclipse 0470 Apr 17 - 0.08657

Links to Additional Solar Eclipse Predictions

Calendar

The Gregorian calendar (also called the Western calendar) is internationally the most widely used civil calendar. It is named for Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in 1582. On this website, the Gregorian calendar is used for all calendar dates from 1582 Oct 15 onwards. Before that date, the Julian calendar is used. For more information on this topic, see Calendar Dates.

The Julian calendar does not include the year 0. Thus the year 1 BCE is followed by the year 1 CE (See: BCE/CE Dating Conventions). This is awkward for arithmetic calculations. Years in this catalog are numbered astronomically and include the year 0. Historians should note there is a difference of one year between astronomical dates and BCE dates. Thus, the astronomical year 0 corresponds to 1 BCE, and astronomical year -1 corresponds to 2 BCE, etc..

Eclipse Predictions

The eclipse predictions presented here were generated using the JPL DE406 solar and lunar ephemerides. The lunar coordinates have been calculated with respect to the Moon's Center of Mass.

The largest uncertainty in the eclipse predictions is caused by fluctuations in Earth's rotation due primarily to tidal friction of the Moon. The resultant drift in apparent clock time is expressed as ΔT and is determined as follows:

  1. pre-1950's: ΔT calculated from empirical fits to historical records derived by Morrison and Stephenson (2004)
  2. 1955-present: ΔT obtained from published observations
  3. future: ΔT is extrapolated from current values weighted by the long term trend from tidal effects

A series of polynomial expressions have been derived to simplify the evaluation of ΔT for any time from -2999 to +3000. The uncertainty in ΔT over this period can be estimated from scatter in the measurements.

Acknowledgments

Some of the content on this web site is based on the books Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 and Thousand Year Canon of Solar Eclipses 1501 to 2500. All eclipse calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy.

Permission is granted to reproduce data from this page when accompanied by an acknowledgment:

"Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak, www.EclipseWise.com"

The use of diagrams and maps is permitted provided that they are NOT altered (except for re-sizing) and the embedded credit line is NOT removed or covered.