Saros 109

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 109

Fred Espenak

Introduction

The periodicity and recurrence of solar eclipses is governed by the Saros cycle, a period of approximately 6,585.3 days (18 years 11 days 8 hours). When two eclipses are separated by a period of one Saros, they share a very similar geometry. The two eclipses occur at the same node with the Moon at nearly the same distance from Earth and the same time of year due to a harmonic in three cycles of the Moon's orbit. Thus, the Saros is useful for organizing eclipses into families or series. Each series typically lasts 12 to 13 centuries and contains 70 or more eclipses. Every saros series begins with a number of partial eclipses near one of Earth's polar regions. The series will then produce several dozen central eclipses before ending with a group of partial eclipses near the opposite pole. For more information, see Periodicity of Solar Eclipses.

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 109

The table below lists the concise characteristics of every solar eclipse belonging to Saros 109 . The date and time of each eclipse is given for the instant of Greatest Eclipse. For eclipses between the years -1999 to 3000, the calendar date links to a web page containing additional details and a map showing the geographic region of eclipse visibility for that eclipse. A description of each parameter in the catalog table can be found in Key to Saros Catalog of Solar Eclipses.

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 109
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QLE Gamma Ecl Mag Lat

°
Long

°
Sun Alt
°
Path Width km Central Dur
1-43 0416-Sep-0713:26:24 6496 158 -19583 Pb t- 1.5078 0.0636 72N 112E 0 - -
2-42 0434-Sep-1821:26:43 6318 154 -19360 P t- 1.4689 0.1350 72N 23W 0 - -
3-41 0452-Sep-2905:36:32 6140 150 -19137 P t- 1.4370 0.1937 72N 160W 0 - -
4-40 0470-Oct-1013:54:28 5962 146 -18914 P t- 1.4111 0.2411 72N 61E 0 - -
5-39 0488-Oct-2022:21:21 5785 142 -18691 P t- 1.3922 0.2759 71N 81W 0 - -
6-38 0506-Nov-0106:54:55 5609 138 -18468 P t- 1.3781 0.3018 70N 137E 0 - -
7-37 0524-Nov-1115:34:00 5432 134 -18245 P t- 1.3681 0.3199 69N 6W 0 - -
8-36 0542-Nov-2300:17:27 5257 130 -18022 P t- 1.3613 0.3323 68N 149W 0 - -
9-35 0560-Dec-0309:04:01 5083 127 -17799 P t- 1.3565 0.3410 67N 67E 0 - -
10-34 0578-Dec-1417:51:22 4910 123 -17576 P t- 1.3522 0.3486 66N 76W 0 - -
11-33 0596-Dec-2502:37:53 4739 120 -17353 P t- 1.3468 0.3583 65N 141E 0 - -
12-32 0615-Jan-0511:22:47 4569 116 -17130 P t- 1.3397 0.3711 64N 1W 0 - -
13-31 0633-Jan-1520:04:35 4400 113 -16907 P t- 1.3296 0.3896 63N 141W 0 - -
14-30 0651-Jan-2704:40:31 4233 109 -16684 P t- 1.3145 0.4174 63N 80E 0 - -
15-29 0669-Feb-0613:11:12 4067 106 -16461 P t- 1.2949 0.4540 62N 57W 0 - -
16-28 0687-Feb-1721:34:37 3904 103 -16238 P t- 1.2692 0.5025 61N 167E 0 - -
17-27 0705-Feb-2805:51:56 3742 99 -16015 P t- 1.2380 0.5616 61N 33E 0 - -
18-26 0723-Mar-1114:00:10 3583 96 -15792 P t- 1.1993 0.6356 61N 98W 0 - -
19-25 0741-Mar-2122:02:27 3426 93 -15569 P t- 1.1554 0.7202 61N 132E 0 - -
20-24 0759-Apr-0205:56:07 3272 90 -15346 P t- 1.1045 0.8188 61N 4E 0 - -
21-23 0777-Apr-1213:44:05 3121 87 -15123 P t- 1.0486 0.9277 61N 122W 0 - -
22-22 0795-Apr-2321:24:47 2973 84 -14900 Tn t- 0.9864 1.0587 65N 131E 8 - 02m58s
23-21 0813-May-0405:01:45 2828 81 -14677 T t- 0.9210 1.0659 69N 43E 23 55703m34s
24-20 0831-May-1512:33:57 2686 78 -14454 T p- 0.8515 1.0705 70N 50W 31 43904m00s
25-19 0849-May-2520:03:17 2548 75 -14231 T p- 0.7795 1.0738 69N 145W 38 38304m22s
26-18 0867-Jun-0603:30:53 2414 73 -14008 T p- 0.7059 1.0760 67N 117E 45 34904m43s
27-17 0885-Jun-1610:57:58 2284 70 -13785 T p- 0.6321 1.0772 63N 16E 51 32305m02s
28-16 0903-Jun-2718:25:56 2159 67 -13562 T p- 0.5586 1.0773 57N 89W 56 30205m18s
29-15 0921-Jul-0801:54:57 2037 65 -13339 T p- 0.4863 1.0765 51N 163E 61 28405m32s
30-14 0939-Jul-1909:27:50 1920 62 -13116 T p- 0.4173 1.0748 45N 51E 65 26705m42s
31-13 0957-Jul-2917:04:28 1807 59 -12893 T n- 0.3519 1.0723 38N 63W 69 25105m46s
32-12 0975-Aug-1000:46:01 1699 57 -12670 T n- 0.2908 1.0692 31N 179W 73 23605m45s
33-11 0993-Aug-2008:33:34 1595 55 -12447 T n- 0.2351 1.0654 24N 62E 76 22005m37s
34-10 1011-Aug-3116:27:45 1496 52 -12224 T n- 0.1852 1.0612 17N 58W 79 20405m25s
35 -9 1029-Sep-1100:29:22 1402 50 -12001 T n- 0.1423 1.0567 10N 180E 82 18905m07s
36 -8 1047-Sep-2208:36:48 1312 48 -11778 T nn 0.1046 1.0519 4N 56E 84 17304m47s
37 -7 1065-Oct-0216:52:50 1227 46 -11555 T nn 0.0747 1.0471 2S 70W 86 15704m24s
38 -6 1083-Oct-1401:15:11 1146 43 -11332 T nn 0.0504 1.0424 7S 163E 87 14204m00s
39 -5 1101-Oct-2409:45:12 1070 41 -11109 T nn 0.0329 1.0378 12S 35E 88 12703m37s
40 -4 1119-Nov-0418:19:34 998 39 -10886 T nn 0.0194 1.0336 16S 94W 89 11303m14s
Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 109
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QLE Gamma Ecl Mag Lat

°
Long

°
Sun Alt
°
Path Width km Central Dur
41 -3 1137-Nov-1503:00:17 930 37 -10663 Tm nn 0.0117 1.0297 20S 136E 89 10102m53s
42 -2 1155-Nov-2611:43:34 867 35 -10440 T nn 0.0063 1.0263 22S 6E 90 8902m34s
43 -1 1173-Dec-0620:29:26 807 33 -10217 T nn 0.0035 1.0234 23S 125W 90 8002m17s
44 0 1191-Dec-1805:15:18 751 32 -9994 T nn 0.0009 1.0209 24S 105E 90 7102m02s
45 1 1209-Dec-2814:00:50 699 30 -9771 T nn -0.0017 1.0190 23S 26W 90 6501m50s
46 2 1228-Jan-0822:42:50 650 28 -9548 H3 nn -0.0068 1.0176 22S 155W 89 6001m40s
47 3 1246-Jan-1907:20:30 604 26 -9325 H nn -0.0150 1.0166 20S 76E 89 5701m34s
48 4 1264-Jan-3015:52:23 562 25 -9102 H nn -0.0276 1.0159 17S 51W 88 5501m29s
49 5 1282-Feb-1000:17:55 522 23 -8879 H nn -0.0450 1.0156 14S 177W 87 5401m26s
50 6 1300-Feb-2108:33:57 485 22 -8656 H nn -0.0698 1.0154 12S 59E 86 5301m24s
51 7 1318-Mar-0316:42:08 450 20 -8433 H -n -0.1002 1.0153 9S 63W 84 5301m24s
52 8 1336-Mar-1400:40:13 417 20 -8210 H -n -0.1385 1.0152 6S 177E 82 5201m23s
53 9 1354-Mar-2508:30:18 387 20 -7987 H -n -0.1828 1.0149 4S 60E 79 5201m23s
54 10 1372-Apr-0416:08:59 358 20 -7764 H -n -0.2358 1.0143 3S 54W 76 5001m22s
55 11 1390-Apr-1523:40:33 331 20 -7541 H -n -0.2940 1.0133 3S 167W 73 4801m19s
56 12 1408-Apr-2607:02:08 305 20 -7318 H -p -0.3594 1.0119 3S 83E 69 4401m13s
57 13 1426-May-0714:17:30 281 20 -7095 H -p -0.4293 1.0100 5S 26W 65 3801m03s
58 14 1444-May-1721:24:40 258 20 -6872 H -p -0.5052 1.0074 8S 133W 60 2900m48s
59 15 1462-May-2904:28:00 236 20 -6649 H -p -0.5832 1.0042 12S 120E 54 1800m28s
60 16 1480-Jun-0811:26:06 216 20 -6426 H -p -0.6644 1.0002 18S 14E 48 100m02s
61 17 1498-Jun-1918:21:37 197 20 -6203 A -p -0.7466 0.9956 25S 92W 42 2300m29s
62 18 1516-Jun-3001:15:14 179 20 -5980 A -t -0.8291 0.9899 34S 161E 34 6401m03s
63 19 1534-Jul-1108:08:45 162 20 -5757 A -t -0.9103 0.9833 45S 52E 24 14401m35s
64 20 1552-Jul-2115:03:46 147 20 -5534 As -t -0.9892 0.9742 63S 65W 7 - 02m05s
65 21 1570-Aug-0122:00:20 134 20 -5311 P -t -1.0655 0.8624 70S 172E 0 - -
66 22 1588-Aug-2205:01:46 124 20 -5088 P -t -1.1364 0.7355 71S 54E 0 - -
67 23 1606-Sep-0212:07:22 111 19 -4865 P -t -1.2026 0.6183 72S 66W 0 - -
68 24 1624-Sep-1219:19:25 87 16 -4642 P -t -1.2624 0.5133 72S 171E 0 - -
69 25 1642-Sep-2402:37:36 60 14 -4419 P -t -1.3163 0.4200 72S 48E 0 - -
70 26 1660-Oct-0410:03:43 34 11 -4196 P -t -1.3629 0.3402 72S 78W 0 - -
71 27 1678-Oct-1517:36:58 15 8 -3973 P -t -1.4026 0.2731 72S 154E 0 - -
72 28 1696-Oct-2601:17:06 8 5 -3750 P -t -1.4361 0.2173 71S 26E 0 - -
73 29 1714-Nov-0709:04:34 9 4 -3527 P -t -1.4630 0.1731 70S 104W 0 - -
74 30 1732-Nov-1716:58:50 11 4 -3304 P -t -1.4841 0.1390 69S 125E 0 - -
75 31 1750-Nov-2900:58:14 13 3 -3081 P -t -1.5004 0.1130 68S 6W 0 - -
76 32 1768-Dec-0909:01:38 16 2 -2858 P -t -1.5129 0.0933 67S 138W 0 - -
77 33 1786-Dec-2017:07:24 16 2 -2635 P -t -1.5232 0.0773 66S 90E 0 - -
78 34 1805-Jan-0101:14:56 12 1 -2412 P -t -1.5315 0.0642 65S 42W 0 - -
79 35 1823-Jan-1209:20:12 11 1 -2189 P -t -1.5413 0.0484 64S 173W 0 - -
80 36 1841-Jan-2217:24:15 5 1 -1966 P -t -1.5515 0.0317 63S 57E 0 - -
Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 109
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QLE Gamma Ecl Mag Lat

°
Long

°
Sun Alt
°
Path Width km Central Dur
81 37 1859-Feb-0301:22:42 7 0 -1743 Pe -t -1.5659 0.0077 62S 72W 0 - -

Statistics for Solar Eclipses of Saros 109

Solar eclipses of Saros 109 all occur at the Moon’s ascending node and the Moon moves southward with each eclipse. The series began with a partial eclipse in the northern hemisphere on 0416 Sep 07. The series ended with a partial eclipse in the southern hemisphere on 1859 Feb 03. The total duration of Saros series 109 is 1442.41 years.

Summary of Saros 109
First Eclipse 0416 Sep 07
Last Eclipse 1859 Feb 03
Series Duration 1442.41 Years
No. of Eclipses 81
Sequence 21P 24T 15H 4A 17P

Saros 109 is composed of 81 solar eclipses as follows:

Solar Eclipses of Saros 109
Eclipse Type Symbol Number Percent
All Eclipses - 81100.0%
PartialP 38 46.9%
AnnularA 4 4.9%
TotalT 24 29.6%
HybridH 15 18.5%

Umbral eclipses (annular, total and hybrid) can be further classified as either: 1) Central (two limits), 2) Central (one limit) or 3) Non-Central (one limit). The statistical distribution of these classes in Saros series 109 appears in the following table.

Umbral Eclipses of Saros 109
Classification Number Percent
All Umbral Eclipses 43100.0%
Central (two limits) 41 95.3%
Central (one limit) 2 4.7%
Non-Central (one limit) 0 0.0%

The 81 eclipses in Saros 109 occur in the following order : 21P 24T 15H 4A 17P

The longest and shortest central eclipses of Saros 109 as well as largest and smallest partial eclipses appear below.

Extreme Durations and Magnitudes of Solar Eclipses of Saros 109
Extrema Type Date Duration Magnitude
Longest Annular Solar Eclipse 1552 Jul 2102m05s -
Shortest Annular Solar Eclipse 1498 Jun 1900m29s -
Longest Total Solar Eclipse 0957 Jul 2905m46s -
Shortest Total Solar Eclipse 1209 Dec 2801m50s -
Longest Hybrid Solar Eclipse 1228 Jan 0801m40s -
Shortest Hybrid Solar Eclipse 1480 Jun 0800m02s -
Largest Partial Solar Eclipse 0777 Apr 12 - 0.92772
Smallest Partial Solar Eclipse 1859 Feb 03 - 0.00775

Links to Additional Solar Eclipse Predictions

Calendar

The Gregorian calendar (also called the Western calendar) is internationally the most widely used civil calendar. It is named for Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in 1582. On this website, the Gregorian calendar is used for all calendar dates from 1582 Oct 15 onwards. Before that date, the Julian calendar is used. For more information on this topic, see Calendar Dates.

The Julian calendar does not include the year 0. Thus the year 1 BCE is followed by the year 1 CE (See: BCE/CE Dating Conventions). This is awkward for arithmetic calculations. Years in this catalog are numbered astronomically and include the year 0. Historians should note there is a difference of one year between astronomical dates and BCE dates. Thus, the astronomical year 0 corresponds to 1 BCE, and astronomical year -1 corresponds to 2 BCE, etc..

Eclipse Predictions

The eclipse predictions presented here were generated using the JPL DE406 solar and lunar ephemerides. The lunar coordinates have been calculated with respect to the Moon's Center of Mass.

The largest uncertainty in the eclipse predictions is caused by fluctuations in Earth's rotation due primarily to tidal friction of the Moon. The resultant drift in apparent clock time is expressed as ΔT and is determined as follows:

  1. pre-1950's: ΔT calculated from empirical fits to historical records derived by Morrison and Stephenson (2004)
  2. 1955-present: ΔT obtained from published observations
  3. future: ΔT is extrapolated from current values weighted by the long term trend from tidal effects

A series of polynomial expressions have been derived to simplify the evaluation of ΔT for any time from -2999 to +3000. The uncertainty in ΔT over this period can be estimated from scatter in the measurements.

Acknowledgments

Some of the content on this web site is based on the books Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 and Thousand Year Canon of Solar Eclipses 1501 to 2500. All eclipse calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy.

Permission is granted to reproduce data from this page when accompanied by an acknowledgment:

"Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak, www.EclipseWise.com"

The use of diagrams and maps is permitted provided that they are NOT altered (except for re-sizing) and the embedded credit line is NOT removed or covered.