Saros 116

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 116

Fred Espenak

Introduction

The periodicity and recurrence of solar eclipses is governed by the Saros cycle, a period of approximately 6,585.3 days (18 years 11 days 8 hours). When two eclipses are separated by a period of one Saros, they share a very similar geometry. The two eclipses occur at the same node with the Moon at nearly the same distance from Earth and the same time of year due to a harmonic in three cycles of the Moon's orbit. Thus, the Saros is useful for organizing eclipses into families or series. Each series typically lasts 12 to 13 centuries and contains 70 or more eclipses. Every saros series begins with a number of partial eclipses near one of Earth's polar regions. The series will then produce several dozen central eclipses before ending with a group of partial eclipses near the opposite pole. For more information, see Periodicity of Solar Eclipses.

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 116

The table below lists the concise characteristics of every solar eclipse belonging to Saros 116 . The date and time of each eclipse is given for the instant of Greatest Eclipse. For eclipses between the years -1999 to 3000, the calendar date links to a web page containing additional details and a map showing the geographic region of eclipse visibility for that eclipse. A description of each parameter in the catalog table can be found in Key to Saros Catalog of Solar Eclipses.

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 116
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QLE Gamma Ecl Mag Lat

°
Long

°
Sun Alt
°
Path Width km Central Dur
1-35 0727-Jun-2322:34:26 3545 95 -15739 Pb t- -1.4763 0.1081 65S 161W 0 - -
2-34 0745-Jul-0405:53:09 3389 92 -15516 P t- -1.4086 0.2380 65S 78E 0 - -
3-33 0763-Jul-1513:14:15 3236 89 -15293 P t- -1.3433 0.3624 64S 42W 0 - -
4-32 0781-Jul-2520:37:45 3085 86 -15070 P t- -1.2803 0.4814 63S 163W 0 - -
5-31 0799-Aug-0604:06:00 2938 83 -14847 P t- -1.2218 0.5908 62S 75E 0 - -
6-30 0817-Aug-1611:38:10 2794 80 -14624 P t- -1.1671 0.6920 62S 48W 0 - -
7-29 0835-Aug-2719:17:23 2653 78 -14401 P t- -1.1186 0.7804 61S 172W 0 - -
8-28 0853-Sep-0703:02:35 2516 75 -14178 P t- -1.0756 0.8577 61S 62E 0 - -
9-27 0871-Sep-1810:54:44 2383 72 -13955 P t- -1.0390 0.9223 61S 65W 0 - -
10-26 0889-Sep-2818:53:54 2254 69 -13732 P t- -1.0087 0.9746 61S 166E 0 - -
11-25 0907-Oct-1003:00:30 2129 67 -13509 A p- -0.9852 0.9869 63S 54E 9 29200m47s
12-24 0925-Oct-2011:13:54 2009 64 -13286 A p- -0.9677 0.9827 65S 67W 14 25001m03s
13-23 0943-Oct-3119:32:01 1893 61 -13063 A p- -0.9548 0.9783 68S 167E 17 26501m19s
14-22 0961-Nov-1103:56:10 1781 59 -12840 A p- -0.9476 0.9739 71S 36E 18 29801m35s
15-21 0979-Nov-2212:23:25 1674 56 -12617 A p- -0.9440 0.9699 75S 98W 19 33501m49s
16-20 0997-Dec-0220:53:23 1571 54 -12394 A p- -0.9430 0.9663 79S 123E 19 37402m02s
17-19 1015-Dec-1405:22:14 1473 52 -12171 A p- -0.9421 0.9633 82S 20W 19 40702m14s
18-18 1033-Dec-2413:51:08 1380 49 -11948 A p- -0.9419 0.9609 86S 180W 19 43502m24s
19-17 1052-Jan-0422:16:12 1291 47 -11725 A p- -0.9395 0.9591 86S 14W 20 44602m33s
20-16 1070-Jan-1506:36:58 1207 45 -11502 A p- -0.9346 0.9580 83S 175E 20 44002m42s
21-15 1088-Jan-2614:50:52 1128 43 -11279 A p- -0.9250 0.9575 79S 29E 22 41502m50s
22-14 1106-Feb-0522:58:13 1052 41 -11056 A p- -0.9107 0.9575 74S 107W 24 37802m59s
23-13 1124-Feb-1706:56:03 981 39 -10833 A p- -0.8894 0.9581 68S 123E 27 33503m08s
24-12 1142-Feb-2714:44:56 915 37 -10610 A p- -0.8615 0.9589 61S 3W 30 29403m17s
25-11 1160-Mar-0922:23:35 852 35 -10387 A p- -0.8260 0.9599 54S 125W 34 25603m28s
26-10 1178-Mar-2105:53:11 793 33 -10164 A p- -0.7839 0.9610 46S 116E 38 22503m39s
27 -9 1196-Mar-3113:11:05 738 31 -9941 A p- -0.7326 0.9621 38S 1E 43 20003m52s
28 -8 1214-Apr-1120:20:46 687 29 -9718 A p- -0.6752 0.9629 30S 111W 47 18004m05s
29 -7 1232-Apr-2203:20:12 639 28 -9495 A p- -0.6097 0.9636 22S 140E 52 16504m18s
30 -6 1250-May-0310:13:08 594 26 -9272 A p- -0.5397 0.9639 15S 34E 57 15504m32s
31 -5 1268-May-1316:56:19 552 24 -9049 A p- -0.4622 0.9638 7S 70W 62 14704m44s
32 -4 1286-May-2423:36:12 513 23 -8826 A p- -0.3826 0.9632 0S 172W 68 14404m55s
33 -3 1304-Jun-0406:09:33 476 21 -8603 A nn -0.2977 0.9622 6N 89E 73 14405m04s
34 -2 1322-Jun-1512:41:44 442 20 -8380 A nn -0.2127 0.9607 11N 10W 78 14605m11s
35 -1 1340-Jun-2519:10:35 410 20 -8157 A nn -0.1254 0.9587 16N 107W 83 15105m16s
36 0 1358-Jul-0701:41:43 380 20 -7934 Am nn -0.0405 0.9562 20N 157E 88 16005m22s
37 1 1376-Jul-1708:13:11 351 20 -7711 A nn 0.0439 0.9533 22N 60E 87 17105m30s
38 2 1394-Jul-2814:48:15 325 20 -7488 A nn 0.1248 0.9501 24N 37W 83 18405m40s
39 3 1412-Aug-0721:27:44 299 20 -7265 A nn 0.2018 0.9465 24N 134W 78 20105m55s
40 4 1430-Aug-1904:13:50 275 20 -7042 A np 0.2729 0.9428 24N 126E 74 21906m13s
Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 116
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QLE Gamma Ecl Mag Lat

°
Long

°
Sun Alt
°
Path Width km Central Dur
41 5 1448-Aug-2911:07:03 253 20 -6819 A -p 0.3380 0.9389 23N 24E 70 23906m37s
42 6 1466-Sep-0918:07:52 231 20 -6596 A -p 0.3965 0.9351 22N 80W 67 26007m05s
43 7 1484-Sep-2001:17:53 211 20 -6373 A -p 0.4474 0.9313 21N 172E 63 28307m39s
44 8 1502-Oct-0108:36:15 192 20 -6150 A -p 0.4913 0.9277 19N 63E 60 30608m16s
45 9 1520-Oct-1116:03:18 175 20 -5927 A -p 0.5277 0.9244 18N 49W 58 32908m57s
46 10 1538-Oct-2223:38:40 159 20 -5704 A -p 0.5572 0.9214 17N 164W 56 35109m41s
47 11 1556-Nov-0207:22:12 144 20 -5481 A -p 0.5798 0.9190 16N 79E 54 37010m24s
48 12 1574-Nov-1315:12:15 132 20 -5258 A -p 0.5970 0.9171 15N 40W 53 38711m03s
49 13 1592-Dec-0323:07:15 122 20 -5035 A -p 0.6102 0.9159 15N 160W 52 40111m36s
50 14 1610-Dec-1507:06:47 106 18 -4812 A -p 0.6195 0.9153 15N 78E 52 40911m56s
51 15 1628-Dec-2515:08:46 80 16 -4589 A -p 0.6264 0.9153 15N 44W 51 41312m02s
52 16 1647-Jan-0523:10:59 53 13 -4366 A -p 0.6336 0.9161 17N 167W 51 41311m50s
53 17 1665-Jan-1607:11:51 29 10 -4143 A -p 0.6419 0.9174 19N 71E 50 40911m24s
54 18 1683-Jan-2715:10:08 12 8 -3920 A -p 0.6525 0.9195 22N 51W 49 40110m44s
55 19 1701-Feb-0723:04:53 8 5 -3697 A -p 0.6662 0.9219 26N 172W 48 39309m55s
56 20 1719-Feb-1906:52:57 10 4 -3474 A -p 0.6855 0.9250 31N 69E 47 38409m01s
57 21 1737-Mar-0114:35:17 11 4 -3251 A -p 0.7098 0.9283 36N 50W 45 37808m04s
58 22 1755-Mar-1222:09:32 14 3 -3028 A -p 0.7413 0.9319 42N 167W 42 37507m07s
59 23 1773-Mar-2305:36:57 16 2 -2805 A -p 0.7785 0.9357 49N 76E 39 37806m13s
60 24 1791-Apr-0312:55:13 16 1 -2582 A -p 0.8236 0.9394 57N 40W 34 39405m21s
61 25 1809-Apr-1420:07:11 12 1 -2359 A -p 0.8742 0.9429 66N 157W 29 43504m35s
62 26 1827-Apr-2603:11:14 9 1 -2136 A -p 0.9316 0.9458 75N 73E 21 55903m53s
63 27 1845-May-0610:09:00 6 1 -1913 An -t 0.9945 0.9462 73N 111W 4 - 03m15s
64 28 1863-May-1717:00:45 7 0 -1690 P -t 1.0627 0.8607 69N 127E 0 - -
65 29 1881-May-2723:48:40 -5 0 -1467 P -t 1.1345 0.7370 68N 13E 0 - -
66 30 1899-Jun-0806:33:43 -4 0 -1244 P -t 1.2089 0.6077 67N 99W 0 - -
67 31 1917-Jun-1913:16:20 20 0 -1021 P -t 1.2857 0.4730 66N 150E 0 - -
68 32 1935-Jun-3019:59:46 24 0 -798 P -t 1.3623 0.3375 65N 39E 0 - -
69 33 1953-Jul-1102:44:14 30 0 -575 P -t 1.4388 0.2015 64N 72W 0 - -
70 34 1971-Jul-2209:31:55 42 0 -352 Pe -t 1.5130 0.0690 64N 177E 0 - -

Statistics for Solar Eclipses of Saros 116

Solar eclipses of Saros 116 all occur at the Moon’s descending node and the Moon moves northward with each eclipse. The series began with a partial eclipse in the southern hemisphere on 0727 Jun 23. The series ended with a partial eclipse in the northern hemisphere on 1971 Jul 22. The total duration of Saros series 116 is 1244.08 years.

Summary of Saros 116
First Eclipse 0727 Jun 23
Last Eclipse 1971 Jul 22
Series Duration 1244.08 Years
No. of Eclipses 70
Sequence 10P 53A 7P

Saros 116 is composed of 70 solar eclipses as follows:

Solar Eclipses of Saros 116
Eclipse Type Symbol Number Percent
All Eclipses - 70100.0%
PartialP 17 24.3%
AnnularA 53 75.7%
TotalT 0 0.0%
HybridH 0 0.0%

Umbral eclipses (annular, total and hybrid) can be further classified as either: 1) Central (two limits), 2) Central (one limit) or 3) Non-Central (one limit). The statistical distribution of these classes in Saros series 116 appears in the following table.

Umbral Eclipses of Saros 116
Classification Number Percent
All Umbral Eclipses 53100.0%
Central (two limits) 52 98.1%
Central (one limit) 1 1.9%
Non-Central (one limit) 0 0.0%

The 70 eclipses in Saros 116 occur in the following order : 10P 53A 7P

The longest and shortest central eclipses of Saros 116 as well as largest and smallest partial eclipses appear below.

Extreme Durations and Magnitudes of Solar Eclipses of Saros 116
Extrema Type Date Duration Magnitude
Longest Annular Solar Eclipse 1628 Dec 2512m02s -
Shortest Annular Solar Eclipse 0907 Oct 1000m47s -
Largest Partial Solar Eclipse 0889 Sep 28 - 0.97462
Smallest Partial Solar Eclipse 1971 Jul 22 - 0.06899

Links to Additional Solar Eclipse Predictions

Calendar

The Gregorian calendar (also called the Western calendar) is internationally the most widely used civil calendar. It is named for Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in 1582. On this website, the Gregorian calendar is used for all calendar dates from 1582 Oct 15 onwards. Before that date, the Julian calendar is used. For more information on this topic, see Calendar Dates.

The Julian calendar does not include the year 0. Thus the year 1 BCE is followed by the year 1 CE (See: BCE/CE Dating Conventions). This is awkward for arithmetic calculations. Years in this catalog are numbered astronomically and include the year 0. Historians should note there is a difference of one year between astronomical dates and BCE dates. Thus, the astronomical year 0 corresponds to 1 BCE, and astronomical year -1 corresponds to 2 BCE, etc..

Eclipse Predictions

The eclipse predictions presented here were generated using the JPL DE406 solar and lunar ephemerides. The lunar coordinates have been calculated with respect to the Moon's Center of Mass.

The largest uncertainty in the eclipse predictions is caused by fluctuations in Earth's rotation due primarily to tidal friction of the Moon. The resultant drift in apparent clock time is expressed as ΔT and is determined as follows:

  1. pre-1950's: ΔT calculated from empirical fits to historical records derived by Morrison and Stephenson (2004)
  2. 1955-present: ΔT obtained from published observations
  3. future: ΔT is extrapolated from current values weighted by the long term trend from tidal effects

A series of polynomial expressions have been derived to simplify the evaluation of ΔT for any time from -2999 to +3000. The uncertainty in ΔT over this period can be estimated from scatter in the measurements.

Acknowledgments

Some of the content on this web site is based on the books Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 and Thousand Year Canon of Solar Eclipses 1501 to 2500. All eclipse calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy.

Permission is granted to reproduce data from this page when accompanied by an acknowledgment:

"Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak, www.EclipseWise.com"

The use of diagrams and maps is permitted provided that they are NOT altered (except for re-sizing) and the embedded credit line is NOT removed or covered.