Saros 121

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 121

Fred Espenak

Introduction

The periodicity and recurrence of solar eclipses is governed by the Saros cycle, a period of approximately 6,585.3 days (18 years 11 days 8 hours). When two eclipses are separated by a period of one Saros, they share a very similar geometry. The two eclipses occur at the same node with the Moon at nearly the same distance from Earth and the same time of year due to a harmonic in three cycles of the Moon's orbit. Thus, the Saros is useful for organizing eclipses into families or series. Each series typically lasts 12 to 13 centuries and contains 70 or more eclipses. Every saros series begins with a number of partial eclipses near one of Earth's polar regions. The series will then produce several dozen central eclipses before ending with a group of partial eclipses near the opposite pole. For more information, see Periodicity of Solar Eclipses.

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 121

The table below lists the concise characteristics of every solar eclipse belonging to Saros 121 . The date and time of each eclipse is given for the instant of Greatest Eclipse. For eclipses between the years -1999 to 3000, the calendar date links to a web page containing additional details and a map showing the geographic region of eclipse visibility for that eclipse. A description of each parameter in the catalog table can be found in Key to Saros Catalog of Solar Eclipses.

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 121
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QLE Gamma Ecl Mag Lat

°
Long

°
Sun Alt
°
Path Width km Central Dur
1-36 0944-Apr-2510:56:06 1890 61 -13057 Pb t- 1.5044 0.0665 62N 97W 0 - -
2-35 0962-May-0618:15:16 1778 59 -12834 P t- 1.4335 0.1964 63N 144E 0 - -
3-34 0980-May-1701:31:56 1671 56 -12611 P t- 1.3593 0.3337 63N 25E 0 - -
4-33 0998-May-2808:46:11 1569 54 -12388 P t- 1.2820 0.4781 64N 94W 0 - -
5-32 1016-Jun-0716:00:51 1471 52 -12165 P t- 1.2043 0.6245 65N 147E 0 - -
6-31 1034-Jun-1823:16:17 1378 49 -11942 P t- 1.1262 0.7723 66N 28E 0 - -
7-30 1052-Jun-2906:33:26 1289 47 -11719 P t- 1.0488 0.9195 67N 92W 0 - -
8-29 1070-Jul-1013:54:25 1205 45 -11496 T t- 0.9739 1.0404 80N 134E 12 63702m05s
9-28 1088-Jul-2021:20:01 1125 43 -11273 T t- 0.9024 1.0453 81N 83W 25 35602m36s
10-27 1106-Aug-0104:51:29 1050 41 -11050 T p- 0.8348 1.0481 71N 142E 33 29203m00s
11-26 1124-Aug-1112:28:45 980 39 -10827 T p- 0.7716 1.0496 61N 20E 39 25903m19s
12-25 1142-Aug-2220:14:09 913 37 -10604 T p- 0.7148 1.0504 53N 101W 44 23803m36s
13-24 1160-Sep-0204:07:26 850 35 -10381 T p- 0.6641 1.0504 45N 137E 48 22203m49s
14-23 1178-Sep-1312:08:33 792 33 -10158 T p- 0.6196 1.0500 38N 13E 51 21003m59s
15-22 1196-Sep-2320:18:43 737 31 -9935 T p- 0.5822 1.0491 31N 112W 54 19904m06s
16-21 1214-Oct-0504:37:15 686 29 -9712 T p- 0.5513 1.0480 25N 120E 56 19004m11s
17-20 1232-Oct-1513:04:34 638 28 -9489 T p- 0.5277 1.0469 20N 9W 58 18304m14s
18-19 1250-Oct-2621:37:22 593 26 -9266 T p- 0.5086 1.0458 15N 139W 59 17704m16s
19-18 1268-Nov-0606:18:12 551 24 -9043 T p- 0.4959 1.0448 11N 89E 60 17204m16s
20-17 1286-Nov-1715:03:18 512 23 -8820 T p- 0.4865 1.0441 8N 44W 61 16804m17s
21-16 1304-Nov-2723:53:21 475 21 -8597 T p- 0.4813 1.0438 6N 178W 61 16704m17s
22-15 1322-Dec-0908:44:23 441 20 -8374 T n- 0.4767 1.0439 5N 48E 61 16704m17s
23-14 1340-Dec-1917:37:47 409 20 -8151 T n- 0.4741 1.0444 5N 86W 62 16804m17s
24-13 1358-Dec-3102:29:33 379 20 -7928 T n- 0.4702 1.0454 5N 140E 62 17104m18s
25-12 1377-Jan-1011:19:28 351 20 -7705 T n- 0.4646 1.0469 6N 7E 62 17504m19s
26-11 1395-Jan-2120:05:22 324 20 -7482 T n- 0.4555 1.0487 8N 126W 63 18104m21s
27-10 1413-Feb-0104:47:03 299 20 -7259 T n- 0.4430 1.0509 10N 103E 64 18704m25s
28 -9 1431-Feb-1213:21:48 275 20 -7036 T n- 0.4246 1.0534 12N 27W 65 19304m30s
29 -8 1449-Feb-2221:50:07 252 20 -6813 T n- 0.4008 1.0561 14N 155W 66 20004m36s
30 -7 1467-Mar-0606:10:40 231 20 -6590 T n- 0.3706 1.0588 17N 80E 68 20704m44s
31 -6 1485-Mar-1614:24:21 211 20 -6367 T n- 0.3345 1.0615 19N 44W 70 21304m53s
32 -5 1503-Mar-2722:28:19 192 20 -6144 T n- 0.2904 1.0640 21N 164W 73 21805m04s
33 -4 1521-Apr-0706:26:04 174 20 -5921 T n- 0.2414 1.0662 23N 77E 76 22205m15s
34 -3 1539-Apr-1814:15:06 158 20 -5698 T n- 0.1854 1.0680 24N 39W 79 22505m28s
35 -2 1557-Apr-2821:59:03 144 20 -5475 T nn 0.1251 1.0692 24N 153W 83 22705m42s
36 -1 1575-May-1005:34:43 131 20 -5252 Tm nn 0.0584 1.0697 23N 95E 87 22705m56s
37 0 1593-May-3013:07:29 121 20 -5029 T nn -0.0106 1.0696 21N 17W 90 22706m08s
38 1 1611-Jun-1020:34:24 105 18 -4806 T nn -0.0836 1.0686 18N 128W 85 22406m16s
39 2 1629-Jun-2103:59:23 80 16 -4583 T -n -0.1580 1.0670 15N 122E 81 22106m20s
40 3 1647-Jul-0211:21:20 52 13 -4360 T -n -0.2344 1.0643 10N 11E 77 21706m15s
Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 121
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QLE Gamma Ecl Mag Lat

°
Long

°
Sun Alt
°
Path Width km Central Dur
41 4 1665-Jul-1218:44:05 28 10 -4137 T -n -0.3095 1.0611 4N 101W 72 21106m02s
42 5 1683-Jul-2402:06:59 12 7 -3914 T -p -0.3838 1.0569 2S 147E 67 20305m38s
43 6 1701-Aug-0409:31:44 8 5 -3691 T -p -0.4558 1.0521 9S 34E 63 19305m06s
44 7 1719-Aug-1516:59:51 10 4 -3468 T -p -0.5243 1.0466 17S 81W 58 18104m27s
45 8 1737-Aug-2600:32:08 11 3 -3245 T -p -0.5885 1.0407 24S 163E 54 16703m44s
46 9 1755-Sep-0608:09:45 14 3 -3022 T -p -0.6478 1.0342 32S 44E 49 15003m00s
47 10 1773-Sep-1615:52:23 16 2 -2799 T -p -0.7020 1.0275 40S 76W 45 13002m18s
48 11 1791-Sep-2723:42:29 16 1 -2576 T -p -0.7492 1.0206 48S 162E 41 10601m38s
49 12 1809-Oct-0907:38:41 12 1 -2353 T -p -0.7904 1.0137 55S 38E 37 7701m02s
50 13 1827-Oct-2015:42:05 8 1 -2130 H -p -0.8251 1.0070 62S 88W 34 4300m30s
51 14 1845-Oct-3023:51:57 6 1 -1907 H -p -0.8537 1.0005 69S 145E 31 300m02s
52 15 1863-Nov-1108:09:03 7 0 -1684 A -p -0.8759 0.9943 75S 15E 28 4200m22s
53 16 1881-Nov-2116:31:10 -5 0 -1461 A -p -0.8930 0.9887 81S 115W 26 9000m43s
54 17 1899-Dec-0300:57:28 -3 0 -1238 A -p -0.9061 0.9836 87S 121E 25 14001m01s
55 18 1917-Dec-1409:27:20 20 0 -1015 A -t -0.9157 0.9791 88S 125E 23 18901m17s
56 19 1935-Dec-2517:59:52 24 0 -792 A -t -0.9228 0.9753 84S 9E 22 23401m30s
57 20 1954-Jan-0502:32:01 31 0 -569 A -t -0.9296 0.9720 79S 121W 21 27801m42s
58 21 1972-Jan-1611:03:22 42 0 -346 A -t -0.9365 0.9692 75S 108E 20 32101m53s
59 22 1990-Jan-2619:31:24 57 0 -123 A -t -0.9457 0.9670 71S 22W 18 37302m03s
60 23 2008-Feb-0703:56:10 66 0 100 A -t -0.9570 0.9650 68S 151W 16 44402m12s
61 24 2026-Feb-1712:13:06 72 1 323 A -t -0.9743 0.9630 65S 87E 12 61602m20s
62 25 2044-Feb-2820:24:40 82 4 546 As -t -0.9954 0.9600 62S 26W 4 - 02m27s
63 26 2062-Mar-1104:26:16 93 8 769 P -t -1.0238 0.9331 61S 147W 0 - -
64 27 2080-Mar-2112:20:15 108 14 992 P -t -1.0578 0.8734 61S 86E 0 - -
65 28 2098-Apr-0120:02:31 125 20 1215 P -t -1.1005 0.7984 61S 38W 0 - -
66 29 2116-Apr-1303:36:55 145 26 1438 P -t -1.1487 0.7138 61S 161W 0 - -
67 30 2134-Apr-2410:59:59 167 34 1661 P -t -1.2052 0.6147 62S 80E 0 - -
68 31 2152-May-0418:14:02 192 42 1884 P -t -1.2680 0.5044 62S 37W 0 - -
69 32 2170-May-1601:18:33 219 51 2107 P -t -1.3371 0.3831 63S 152W 0 - -
70 33 2188-May-2608:15:53 249 60 2330 P -t -1.4109 0.2538 64S 94E 0 - -
71 34 2206-Jun-0715:05:59 282 70 2553 Pe -t -1.4894 0.1166 65S 18W 0 - -

Statistics for Solar Eclipses of Saros 121

Solar eclipses of Saros 121 all occur at the Moon’s ascending node and the Moon moves southward with each eclipse. The series began with a partial eclipse in the northern hemisphere on 0944 Apr 25. The series will end with a partial eclipse in the southern hemisphere on 2206 Jun 07. The total duration of Saros series 121 is 1262.11 years.

Summary of Saros 121
First Eclipse 0944 Apr 25
Last Eclipse 2206 Jun 07
Series Duration 1262.11 Years
No. of Eclipses 71
Sequence 7P 42T 2H 11A 9P

Saros 121 is composed of 71 solar eclipses as follows:

Solar Eclipses of Saros 121
Eclipse Type Symbol Number Percent
All Eclipses - 71100.0%
PartialP 16 22.5%
AnnularA 11 15.5%
TotalT 42 59.2%
HybridH 2 2.8%

Umbral eclipses (annular, total and hybrid) can be further classified as either: 1) Central (two limits), 2) Central (one limit) or 3) Non-Central (one limit). The statistical distribution of these classes in Saros series 121 appears in the following table.

Umbral Eclipses of Saros 121
Classification Number Percent
All Umbral Eclipses 55100.0%
Central (two limits) 54 98.2%
Central (one limit) 1 1.8%
Non-Central (one limit) 0 0.0%

The 71 eclipses in Saros 121 occur in the following order : 7P 42T 2H 11A 9P

The longest and shortest central eclipses of Saros 121 as well as largest and smallest partial eclipses appear below.

Extreme Durations and Magnitudes of Solar Eclipses of Saros 121
Extrema Type Date Duration Magnitude
Longest Annular Solar Eclipse 2044 Feb 2802m27s -
Shortest Annular Solar Eclipse 1863 Nov 1100m22s -
Longest Total Solar Eclipse 1629 Jun 2106m20s -
Shortest Total Solar Eclipse 1809 Oct 0901m02s -
Longest Hybrid Solar Eclipse 1827 Oct 2000m30s -
Shortest Hybrid Solar Eclipse 1845 Oct 3000m02s -
Largest Partial Solar Eclipse 2062 Mar 11 - 0.93309
Smallest Partial Solar Eclipse 0944 Apr 25 - 0.06654

Links to Additional Solar Eclipse Predictions

Calendar

The Gregorian calendar (also called the Western calendar) is internationally the most widely used civil calendar. It is named for Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in 1582. On this website, the Gregorian calendar is used for all calendar dates from 1582 Oct 15 onwards. Before that date, the Julian calendar is used. For more information on this topic, see Calendar Dates.

The Julian calendar does not include the year 0. Thus the year 1 BCE is followed by the year 1 CE (See: BCE/CE Dating Conventions). This is awkward for arithmetic calculations. Years in this catalog are numbered astronomically and include the year 0. Historians should note there is a difference of one year between astronomical dates and BCE dates. Thus, the astronomical year 0 corresponds to 1 BCE, and astronomical year -1 corresponds to 2 BCE, etc..

Eclipse Predictions

The eclipse predictions presented here were generated using the JPL DE406 solar and lunar ephemerides. The lunar coordinates have been calculated with respect to the Moon's Center of Mass.

The largest uncertainty in the eclipse predictions is caused by fluctuations in Earth's rotation due primarily to tidal friction of the Moon. The resultant drift in apparent clock time is expressed as ΔT and is determined as follows:

  1. pre-1950's: ΔT calculated from empirical fits to historical records derived by Morrison and Stephenson (2004)
  2. 1955-present: ΔT obtained from published observations
  3. future: ΔT is extrapolated from current values weighted by the long term trend from tidal effects

A series of polynomial expressions have been derived to simplify the evaluation of ΔT for any time from -2999 to +3000. The uncertainty in ΔT over this period can be estimated from scatter in the measurements.

Acknowledgments

Some of the content on this web site is based on the books Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 and Thousand Year Canon of Solar Eclipses 1501 to 2500. All eclipse calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy.

Permission is granted to reproduce data from this page when accompanied by an acknowledgment:

"Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak, www.EclipseWise.com"

The use of diagrams and maps is permitted provided that they are NOT altered (except for re-sizing) and the embedded credit line is NOT removed or covered.