Saros 139

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 139

Fred Espenak

Introduction

The periodicity and recurrence of solar eclipses is governed by the Saros cycle, a period of approximately 6,585.3 days (18 years 11 days 8 hours). When two eclipses are separated by a period of one Saros, they share a very similar geometry. The two eclipses occur at the same node with the Moon at nearly the same distance from Earth and the same time of year due to a harmonic in three cycles of the Moon's orbit. Thus, the Saros is useful for organizing eclipses into families or series. Each series typically lasts 12 to 13 centuries and contains 70 or more eclipses. Every saros series begins with a number of partial eclipses near one of Earth's polar regions. The series will then produce several dozen central eclipses before ending with a group of partial eclipses near the opposite pole. For more information, see Periodicity of Solar Eclipses.

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 139

The table below lists the concise characteristics of every solar eclipse belonging to Saros 139 . The date and time of each eclipse is given for the instant of Greatest Eclipse. For eclipses between the years -1999 to 3000, the calendar date links to a web page containing additional details and a map showing the geographic region of eclipse visibility for that eclipse. A description of each parameter in the catalog table can be found in Key to Saros Catalog of Solar Eclipses.

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 139
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QLE Gamma Ecl Mag Lat

°
Long

°
Sun Alt
°
Path Width km Central Dur
1-35 1501-May-1703:27:42 194 20 -6167 Pb t- 1.5002 0.0905 64N 14W 0 - -
2-34 1519-May-2810:20:07 176 20 -5944 P t- 1.4188 0.2342 65N 126W 0 - -
3-33 1537-Jun-0717:14:04 160 20 -5721 P t- 1.3373 0.3795 65N 120E 0 - -
4-32 1555-Jun-1900:07:15 145 20 -5498 P t- 1.2542 0.5289 66N 7E 0 - -
5-31 1573-Jun-2907:03:34 133 20 -5275 P t- 1.1724 0.6769 67N 108W 0 - -
6-30 1591-Jul-2014:02:06 122 20 -5052 P t- 1.0911 0.8249 69N 136E 0 - -
7-29 1609-Jul-3021:07:07 107 19 -4829 P t- 1.0140 0.9656 69N 18E 0 - -
8-28 1627-Aug-1104:17:13 82 16 -4606 H t- 0.9401 1.0001 78N 173W 19 100m00s
9-27 1645-Aug-2111:34:17 55 13 -4383 H t- 0.8710 1.0040 68N 44E 29 2800m16s
10-26 1663-Sep-0118:59:08 30 10 -4160 H p- 0.8073 1.0065 59N 79W 36 3800m29s
11-25 1681-Sep-1202:33:12 13 8 -3937 H p- 0.7504 1.0083 50N 161E 41 4300m40s
12-24 1699-Sep-2310:16:12 8 5 -3714 H p- 0.6999 1.0095 42N 41E 45 4600m49s
13-23 1717-Oct-0418:08:27 10 4 -3491 H p- 0.6563 1.0104 35N 81W 49 4700m56s
14-22 1735-Oct-1602:10:33 11 4 -3268 H p- 0.6202 1.0110 28N 155E 51 4801m02s
15-21 1753-Oct-2610:22:00 13 3 -3045 H p- 0.5911 1.0115 23N 30E 54 4901m08s
16-20 1771-Nov-0618:41:02 16 2 -2822 H p- 0.5676 1.0120 18N 97W 55 5001m13s
17-19 1789-Nov-1703:08:34 16 1 -2599 H p- 0.5505 1.0126 14N 134E 57 5201m19s
18-18 1807-Nov-2911:42:09 12 1 -2376 H p- 0.5377 1.0135 11N 4E 57 5501m26s
19-17 1825-Dec-0920:21:45 9 1 -2153 H2 p- 0.5296 1.0148 9N 127W 58 6001m34s
20-16 1843-Dec-2105:03:26 6 1 -1930 T p- 0.5227 1.0165 8N 101E 58 6601m43s
21-15 1861-Dec-3113:49:06 8 0 -1707 T p- 0.5187 1.0186 8N 32W 59 7401m55s
22-14 1880-Jan-1122:34:25 -5 0 -1484 T p- 0.5136 1.0212 8N 164W 59 8402m07s
23-13 1898-Jan-2207:19:12 -5 0 -1261 T p- 0.5079 1.0244 9N 64E 59 9602m21s
24-12 1916-Feb-0316:00:21 18 0 -1038 T p- 0.4987 1.0280 11N 68W 60 10802m36s
25-11 1934-Feb-1400:38:41 24 0 -815 T p- 0.4868 1.0321 13N 162E 61 12302m53s
26-10 1952-Feb-2509:11:35 30 0 -592 T p- 0.4697 1.0366 16N 33E 62 13803m09s
27 -9 1970-Mar-0717:38:30 40 0 -369 T p- 0.4473 1.0414 18N 95W 63 15303m28s
28 -8 1988-Mar-1801:58:56 56 0 -146 T n- 0.4188 1.0464 21N 140E 65 16903m46s
29 -7 2006-Mar-2910:12:23 65 0 77 T n- 0.3843 1.0515 23N 17E 67 18404m07s
30 -6 2024-Apr-0818:18:29 71 1 300 T n- 0.3431 1.0566 25N 104W 70 19804m28s
31 -5 2042-Apr-2002:17:30 80 4 523 T n- 0.2956 1.0614 27N 137E 73 21004m51s
32 -4 2060-Apr-3010:10:00 92 8 746 T n- 0.2422 1.0660 28N 21E 76 22205m15s
33 -3 2078-May-1117:56:55 106 13 969 T n- 0.1838 1.0701 28N 94W 79 23205m40s
34 -2 2096-May-2201:37:14 123 19 1192 T nn 0.1196 1.0737 27N 153E 83 24106m06s
35 -1 2114-Jun-0309:14:09 143 26 1415 T nn 0.0525 1.0766 25N 41E 87 24806m32s
36 0 2132-Jun-1316:46:24 165 33 1638 Tm nn -0.0186 1.0788 22N 71W 89 25506m55s
37 1 2150-Jun-2500:17:25 189 41 1861 T nn -0.0911 1.0802 18N 178E 85 26007m14s
38 2 2168-Jul-0507:45:23 217 50 2084 T -n -0.1660 1.0807 13N 66E 81 26407m26s
39 3 2186-Jul-1615:14:54 246 59 2307 T -n -0.2396 1.0805 7N 47W 76 26707m29s
40 4 2204-Jul-2722:44:32 279 69 2530 T -n -0.3129 1.0793 1N 161W 72 26907m22s
Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 139
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QLE Gamma Ecl Mag Lat

°
Long

°
Sun Alt
°
Path Width km Central Dur
41 5 2222-Aug-0806:17:05 313 79 2753 T -n -0.3837 1.0774 6S 84E 67 27007m06s
42 6 2240-Aug-1813:52:24 351 90 2976 T -p -0.4522 1.0746 13S 32W 63 27006m40s
43 7 2258-Aug-2921:33:04 391 101 3199 T -p -0.5161 1.0712 21S 150W 59 26906m09s
44 8 2276-Sep-0905:18:47 434 113 3422 T -p -0.5755 1.0671 29S 90E 55 26605m33s
45 9 2294-Sep-2013:09:57 479 125 3645 T -p -0.6300 1.0627 36S 31W 51 26304m56s
46 10 2312-Oct-0121:08:25 527 138 3868 T -p -0.6783 1.0578 44S 154W 47 25804m20s
47 11 2330-Oct-1305:13:41 577 151 4091 T -p -0.7208 1.0528 51S 81E 44 25103m46s
48 12 2348-Oct-2313:26:55 630 165 4314 T -p -0.7564 1.0476 58S 45W 41 24203m14s
49 13 2366-Nov-0321:46:04 685 179 4537 T -p -0.7868 1.0426 65S 171W 38 23102m46s
50 14 2384-Nov-1406:13:19 743 194 4760 T -p -0.8102 1.0377 71S 62E 36 21702m22s
51 15 2402-Nov-2514:45:40 804 208 4983 T -p -0.8292 1.0332 76S 61W 34 20202m02s
52 16 2420-Dec-0523:23:51 867 224 5206 T -p -0.8431 1.0291 80S 175W 32 18501m44s
53 17 2438-Dec-1708:05:39 933 240 5429 T -p -0.8539 1.0254 82S 83E 31 16801m30s
54 18 2456-Dec-2716:51:24 1001 256 5652 T -p -0.8614 1.0222 80S 23W 30 15101m19s
55 19 2475-Jan-0801:37:51 1072 273 5875 T -p -0.8680 1.0196 76S 143W 29 13601m10s
56 20 2493-Jan-1810:24:29 1146 290 6098 T -p -0.8743 1.0174 72S 90E 29 12301m02s
57 21 2511-Jan-3019:09:31 1222 307 6321 T -p -0.8817 1.0157 68S 41W 28 11400m57s
58 22 2529-Feb-1003:52:29 1301 325 6544 T -p -0.8909 1.0143 64S 172W 27 10800m53s
59 23 2547-Feb-2112:29:28 1382 343 6767 T -p -0.9046 1.0132 61S 58E 25 10600m50s
60 24 2565-Mar-0321:01:37 1466 362 6990 T -t -0.9220 1.0121 59S 70W 22 10700m46s
61 25 2583-Mar-1505:25:50 1552 381 7213 T -t -0.9457 1.0109 57S 165E 18 11500m42s
62 26 2601-Mar-2613:43:52 1641 400 7436 T -t -0.9741 1.0091 58S 44E 12 14200m35s
63 27 2619-Apr-0621:51:00 1732 420 7659 P -t -1.0108 0.9780 61S 62W 0 - -
64 28 2637-Apr-1705:51:31 1827 441 7882 P -t -1.0526 0.9012 62S 170E 0 - -
65 29 2655-Apr-2813:40:53 1923 461 8105 P -t -1.1024 0.8093 62S 44E 0 - -
66 30 2673-May-0821:23:20 2022 482 8328 P -t -1.1574 0.7080 63S 80W 0 - -
67 31 2691-May-2004:55:07 2124 503 8551 P -t -1.2203 0.5921 63S 158E 0 - -
68 32 2709-May-3112:21:15 2229 525 8774 P -t -1.2869 0.4696 64S 37E 0 - -
69 33 2727-Jun-1119:38:58 2336 547 8997 P -t -1.3591 0.3371 65S 81W 0 - -
70 34 2745-Jun-2202:51:27 2445 570 9220 P -t -1.4346 0.1991 66S 161E 0 - -
71 35 2763-Jul-0309:58:20 2557 593 9443 Pe -t -1.5132 0.0561 67S 44E 0 - -

Statistics for Solar Eclipses of Saros 139

Solar eclipses of Saros 139 all occur at the Moon’s ascending node and the Moon moves southward with each eclipse. The series began with a partial eclipse in the northern hemisphere on 1501 May 17. The series will end with a partial eclipse in the southern hemisphere on 2763 Jul 03. The total duration of Saros series 139 is 1262.11 years.

Summary of Saros 139
First Eclipse 1501 May 17
Last Eclipse 2763 Jul 03
Series Duration 1262.11 Years
No. of Eclipses 71
Sequence 7P 12H 43T 9P

Saros 139 is composed of 71 solar eclipses as follows:

Solar Eclipses of Saros 139
Eclipse Type Symbol Number Percent
All Eclipses - 71100.0%
PartialP 16 22.5%
AnnularA 0 0.0%
TotalT 43 60.6%
HybridH 12 16.9%

Umbral eclipses (annular, total and hybrid) can be further classified as either: 1) Central (two limits), 2) Central (one limit) or 3) Non-Central (one limit). The statistical distribution of these classes in Saros series 139 appears in the following table.

Umbral Eclipses of Saros 139
Classification Number Percent
All Umbral Eclipses 55100.0%
Central (two limits) 55100.0%
Central (one limit) 0 0.0%
Non-Central (one limit) 0 0.0%

The 71 eclipses in Saros 139 occur in the following order : 7P 12H 43T 9P

The longest and shortest central eclipses of Saros 139 as well as largest and smallest partial eclipses appear below.

Extreme Durations and Magnitudes of Solar Eclipses of Saros 139
Extrema Type Date Duration Magnitude
Longest Total Solar Eclipse 2186 Jul 1607m29s -
Shortest Total Solar Eclipse 2601 Mar 2600m35s -
Longest Hybrid Solar Eclipse 1825 Dec 0901m34s -
Shortest Hybrid Solar Eclipse 1627 Aug 1100m00s -
Largest Partial Solar Eclipse 2619 Apr 06 - 0.97805
Smallest Partial Solar Eclipse 2763 Jul 03 - 0.05609

Links to Additional Solar Eclipse Predictions

Calendar

The Gregorian calendar (also called the Western calendar) is internationally the most widely used civil calendar. It is named for Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in 1582. On this website, the Gregorian calendar is used for all calendar dates from 1582 Oct 15 onwards. Before that date, the Julian calendar is used. For more information on this topic, see Calendar Dates.

The Julian calendar does not include the year 0. Thus the year 1 BCE is followed by the year 1 CE (See: BCE/CE Dating Conventions). This is awkward for arithmetic calculations. Years in this catalog are numbered astronomically and include the year 0. Historians should note there is a difference of one year between astronomical dates and BCE dates. Thus, the astronomical year 0 corresponds to 1 BCE, and astronomical year -1 corresponds to 2 BCE, etc..

Eclipse Predictions

The eclipse predictions presented here were generated using the JPL DE406 solar and lunar ephemerides. The lunar coordinates have been calculated with respect to the Moon's Center of Mass.

The largest uncertainty in the eclipse predictions is caused by fluctuations in Earth's rotation due primarily to tidal friction of the Moon. The resultant drift in apparent clock time is expressed as ΔT and is determined as follows:

  1. pre-1950's: ΔT calculated from empirical fits to historical records derived by Morrison and Stephenson (2004)
  2. 1955-present: ΔT obtained from published observations
  3. future: ΔT is extrapolated from current values weighted by the long term trend from tidal effects

A series of polynomial expressions have been derived to simplify the evaluation of ΔT for any time from -2999 to +3000. The uncertainty in ΔT over this period can be estimated from scatter in the measurements.

Acknowledgments

Some of the content on this web site is based on the books Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 and Thousand Year Canon of Solar Eclipses 1501 to 2500. All eclipse calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy.

Permission is granted to reproduce data from this page when accompanied by an acknowledgment:

"Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak, www.EclipseWise.com"

The use of diagrams and maps is permitted provided that they are NOT altered (except for re-sizing) and the embedded credit line is NOT removed or covered.