Saros 28

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 28

Fred Espenak

Introduction

The periodicity and recurrence of solar eclipses is governed by the Saros cycle, a period of approximately 6,585.3 days (18 years 11 days 8 hours). When two eclipses are separated by a period of one Saros, they share a very similar geometry. The two eclipses occur at the same node with the Moon at nearly the same distance from Earth and the same time of year due to a harmonic in three cycles of the Moon's orbit. Thus, the Saros is useful for organizing eclipses into families or series. Each series typically lasts 12 to 13 centuries and contains 70 or more eclipses. Every saros series begins with a number of partial eclipses near one of Earth's polar regions. The series will then produce several dozen central eclipses before ending with a group of partial eclipses near the opposite pole. For more information, see Periodicity of Solar Eclipses.

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 28

The table below lists the concise characteristics of every solar eclipse belonging to Saros 28 . The date and time of each eclipse is given for the instant of Greatest Eclipse. For eclipses between the years -1999 to 3000, the calendar date links to a web page containing additional details and a map showing the geographic region of eclipse visibility for that eclipse. A description of each parameter in the catalog table can be found in Key to Saros Catalog of Solar Eclipses.

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 28
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QLE Gamma Ecl Mag Lat

°
Long

°
Sun Alt
°
Path Width km Central Dur
1-34 -1910-Mar-2203:40:18 44259 3362 -48358 Pb t- -1.5388 0.0265 71S 62E 0 - -
2-33 -1892-Apr-0110:34:23 43832 3290 -48135 P t- -1.4764 0.1369 72S 58W 0 - -
3-32 -1874-Apr-1217:18:51 43407 3219 -47912 P t- -1.4066 0.2599 72S 174W 0 - -
4-31 -1856-Apr-2223:57:53 42984 3148 -47689 P t- -1.3330 0.3895 71S 70E 0 - -
5-30 -1838-May-0406:30:38 42563 3078 -47466 P t- -1.2547 0.5270 71S 43W 0 - -
6-29 -1820-May-1413:01:08 42144 3009 -47243 P t- -1.1748 0.6666 70S 156W 0 - -
7-28 -1802-May-2519:29:16 41728 2941 -47020 P t- -1.0933 0.8083 70S 93E 0 - -
8-27 -1784-Jun-0501:57:00 41313 2873 -46797 A- t- -1.0116 0.9493 69S 18W 0 - -
9-26 -1766-Jun-1608:26:06 40900 2806 -46574 A t- -0.9313 0.9509 47S 133W 21 50005m03s
10-25 -1748-Jun-2614:58:16 40490 2740 -46351 A p- -0.8533 0.9496 36S 122E 31 35605m50s
11-24 -1730-Jul-0721:34:46 40081 2674 -46128 A p- -0.7793 0.9472 27S 18E 39 31006m33s
12-23 -1712-Jul-1804:16:45 39675 2609 -45905 A p- -0.7100 0.9441 21S 87W 45 29107m11s
13-22 -1694-Jul-2911:06:04 39270 2545 -45682 A p- -0.6468 0.9407 17S 168E 50 28507m41s
14-21 -1676-Aug-0818:03:25 38868 2481 -45459 A p- -0.5902 0.9371 14S 61E 54 28608m04s
15-20 -1658-Aug-2001:08:37 38468 2418 -45236 A p- -0.5404 0.9334 13S 48W 57 29108m21s
16-19 -1640-Aug-3008:23:21 38070 2356 -45013 A p- -0.4985 0.9298 13S 159W 60 29908m34s
17-18 -1622-Sep-1015:46:40 37674 2295 -44790 A p- -0.4641 0.9263 14S 88E 62 30808m44s
18-17 -1604-Sep-2023:19:40 37280 2234 -44567 A p- -0.4373 0.9232 16S 27W 64 31808m52s
19-16 -1586-Oct-0206:59:02 36888 2174 -44344 A p- -0.4158 0.9204 19S 144W 65 32708m59s
20-15 -1568-Oct-1214:47:13 36498 2115 -44121 A p- -0.4016 0.9181 23S 96E 66 33509m05s
21-14 -1550-Oct-2322:40:17 36110 2056 -43898 A p- -0.3915 0.9165 27S 24W 67 34209m09s
22-13 -1532-Nov-0306:38:51 35724 1998 -43675 A p- -0.3857 0.9154 31S 145W 67 34609m11s
23-12 -1514-Nov-1414:38:48 35341 1941 -43452 A p- -0.3810 0.9151 35S 94E 67 34809m12s
24-11 -1496-Nov-2422:40:42 34959 1885 -43229 A p- -0.3777 0.9155 39S 27W 68 34609m09s
25-10 -1478-Dec-0606:40:50 34579 1829 -43006 A p- -0.3728 0.9165 42S 146W 68 34209m04s
26 -9 -1460-Dec-1614:38:13 34202 1774 -42783 A p- -0.3655 0.9183 44S 96E 68 33308m56s
27 -8 -1442-Dec-2722:30:42 33827 1720 -42560 A p- -0.3541 0.9207 44S 20W 69 32108m46s
28 -7 -1423-Jan-0706:17:43 33453 1666 -42337 A n- -0.3383 0.9238 44S 134W 70 30608m33s
29 -6 -1405-Jan-1813:56:37 33082 1613 -42114 A n- -0.3153 0.9274 41S 113E 71 28808m17s
30 -5 -1387-Jan-2821:27:34 32713 1561 -41891 A n- -0.2854 0.9315 38S 1E 73 26807m59s
31 -4 -1369-Feb-0904:49:50 32346 1510 -41668 A nn -0.2482 0.9359 33S 110W 75 24607m38s
32 -3 -1351-Feb-1912:04:18 31981 1459 -41445 A nn -0.2043 0.9406 27S 140E 78 22507m12s
33 -2 -1333-Mar-0219:08:32 31618 1409 -41222 A nn -0.1514 0.9454 20S 31E 81 20306m43s
34 -1 -1315-Mar-1302:06:12 31257 1360 -40999 A nn -0.0925 0.9502 13S 76W 85 18306m10s
35 0 -1297-Mar-2408:55:41 30898 1312 -40776 A nn -0.0260 0.9550 5S 178E 88 16405m35s
36 1 -1279-Apr-0315:40:51 30541 1264 -40553 A nn 0.0446 0.9596 3N 73E 87 14704m58s
37 2 -1261-Apr-1422:18:43 30187 1217 -40330 Am nn 0.1219 0.9638 12N 31W 83 13204m21s
38 3 -1243-Apr-2504:55:24 29834 1171 -40107 A nn 0.2011 0.9677 20N 134W 78 11903m45s
39 4 -1225-May-0611:28:35 29484 1125 -39884 A nn 0.2842 0.9711 29N 125E 73 10803m12s
40 5 -1207-May-1618:02:25 29135 1080 -39661 A -p 0.3674 0.9740 37N 23E 68 10002m42s
Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 28
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QLE Gamma Ecl Mag Lat

°
Long

°
Sun Alt
°
Path Width km Central Dur
41 6 -1189-May-2800:36:22 28789 1036 -39438 A -p 0.4514 0.9763 46N 77W 63 9502m18s
42 7 -1171-Jun-0707:14:17 28444 993 -39215 A -p 0.5329 0.9782 54N 177W 58 9201m58s
43 8 -1153-Jun-1813:56:17 28102 951 -38992 A -p 0.6119 0.9793 61N 85E 52 9301m44s
44 9 -1135-Jun-2820:43:17 27762 909 -38769 A -p 0.6877 0.9799 67N 11W 46 9901m34s
45 10 -1117-Jul-1003:37:38 27424 868 -38546 A -p 0.7581 0.9799 72N 101W 40 11001m28s
46 11 -1099-Jul-2010:39:55 27088 828 -38323 A -p 0.8230 0.9795 74N 174E 34 12901m25s
47 12 -1081-Jul-3117:51:41 26754 788 -38100 A -p 0.8807 0.9785 74N 87E 28 16301m25s
48 13 -1063-Aug-1101:12:24 26422 750 -37877 A -p 0.9321 0.9770 71N 7W 21 22901m27s
49 14 -1045-Aug-2208:44:39 26092 712 -37654 A -p 0.9750 0.9748 67N 106W 12 42501m31s
50 15 -1027-Sep-0116:26:54 25764 675 -37431 P -t 1.0108 0.9619 61N 154E 0 - -
51 16 -1009-Sep-1300:19:41 25439 638 -37208 P -t 1.0389 0.9121 61N 26E 0 - -
52 17 -0991-Sep-2308:22:05 25115 618 -36985 P -t 1.0602 0.8743 61N 105W 0 - -
53 18 -0973-Oct-0416:34:36 24793 611 -36762 P -t 1.0739 0.8501 61N 122E 0 - -
54 19 -0955-Oct-1500:54:52 24474 605 -36539 P -t 1.0825 0.8349 61N 13W 0 - -
55 20 -0937-Oct-2609:21:52 24156 598 -36316 P -t 1.0866 0.8280 61N 150W 0 - -
56 21 -0919-Nov-0517:54:25 23841 591 -36093 P -t 1.0870 0.8279 61N 72E 0 - -
57 22 -0901-Nov-1702:31:29 23528 584 -35870 P -t 1.0842 0.8336 62N 68W 0 - -
58 23 -0883-Nov-2711:09:35 23217 577 -35647 P -t 1.0815 0.8393 63N 152E 0 - -
59 24 -0865-Dec-0819:48:28 22908 570 -35424 P -t 1.0787 0.8453 64N 12E 0 - -
60 25 -0847-Dec-1904:24:57 22600 563 -35201 P -t 1.0786 0.8469 65N 128W 0 - -
61 26 -0829-Dec-3012:59:46 22295 557 -34978 P -t 1.0805 0.8448 66N 92E 0 - -
62 27 -0810-Jan-0921:28:13 21993 550 -34755 P -t 1.0880 0.8328 67N 47W 0 - -
63 28 -0792-Jan-2105:52:53 21692 543 -34532 P -t 1.0994 0.8136 68N 174E 0 - -
64 29 -0774-Jan-3114:09:24 21393 536 -34309 P -t 1.1178 0.7812 69N 37E 0 - -
65 30 -0756-Feb-1122:20:19 21096 529 -34086 P -t 1.1416 0.7385 70N 99W 0 - -
66 31 -0738-Feb-2206:22:01 20801 522 -33863 P -t 1.1736 0.6801 71N 127E 0 - -
67 32 -0720-Mar-0414:18:25 20509 516 -33640 P -t 1.2106 0.6117 71N 7W 0 - -
68 33 -0702-Mar-1522:06:33 20218 509 -33417 P -t 1.2548 0.5287 71N 139W 0 - -
69 34 -0684-Mar-2605:48:42 19930 501 -33194 P -t 1.3046 0.4343 72N 90E 0 - -
70 35 -0666-Apr-0613:24:21 19644 494 -32971 P -t 1.3603 0.3279 72N 39W 0 - -
71 36 -0648-Apr-1620:56:01 19359 487 -32748 P -t 1.4198 0.2131 71N 167W 0 - -
72 37 -0630-Apr-2804:23:22 19077 480 -32525 Pe -t 1.4831 0.0903 71N 67E 0 - -

Statistics for Solar Eclipses of Saros 28

Solar eclipses of Saros 28 all occur at the Moon’s descending node and the Moon moves northward with each eclipse. The series began with a partial eclipse in the southern hemisphere on -1910 Mar 22. The series ended with a partial eclipse in the northern hemisphere on -0630 Apr 28. The total duration of Saros series 28 is 1280.14 years.

Summary of Saros 28
First Eclipse -1910 Mar 22
Last Eclipse -0630 Apr 28
Series Duration 1280.14 Years
No. of Eclipses 72
Sequence 7P 42A 23P

Saros 28 is composed of 72 solar eclipses as follows:

Solar Eclipses of Saros 28
Eclipse Type Symbol Number Percent
All Eclipses - 72100.0%
PartialP 30 41.7%
AnnularA 42 58.3%
TotalT 0 0.0%
HybridH 0 0.0%

Umbral eclipses (annular, total and hybrid) can be further classified as either: 1) Central (two limits), 2) Central (one limit) or 3) Non-Central (one limit). The statistical distribution of these classes in Saros series 28 appears in the following table.

Umbral Eclipses of Saros 28
Classification Number Percent
All Umbral Eclipses 42100.0%
Central (two limits) 41 97.6%
Central (one limit) 0 0.0%
Non-Central (one limit) 1 2.4%

The 72 eclipses in Saros 28 occur in the following order : 7P 42A 23P

The longest and shortest central eclipses of Saros 28 as well as largest and smallest partial eclipses appear below.

Extreme Durations and Magnitudes of Solar Eclipses of Saros 28
Extrema Type Date Duration Magnitude
Longest Annular Solar Eclipse -1514 Nov 1409m12s -
Shortest Annular Solar Eclipse -1081 Jul 3101m25s -
Largest Partial Solar Eclipse -1027 Sep 01 - 0.96188
Smallest Partial Solar Eclipse -1910 Mar 22 - 0.02649

Links to Additional Solar Eclipse Predictions

Calendar

The Gregorian calendar (also called the Western calendar) is internationally the most widely used civil calendar. It is named for Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in 1582. On this website, the Gregorian calendar is used for all calendar dates from 1582 Oct 15 onwards. Before that date, the Julian calendar is used. For more information on this topic, see Calendar Dates.

The Julian calendar does not include the year 0. Thus the year 1 BCE is followed by the year 1 CE (See: BCE/CE Dating Conventions). This is awkward for arithmetic calculations. Years in this catalog are numbered astronomically and include the year 0. Historians should note there is a difference of one year between astronomical dates and BCE dates. Thus, the astronomical year 0 corresponds to 1 BCE, and astronomical year -1 corresponds to 2 BCE, etc..

Eclipse Predictions

The eclipse predictions presented here were generated using the JPL DE406 solar and lunar ephemerides. The lunar coordinates have been calculated with respect to the Moon's Center of Mass.

The largest uncertainty in the eclipse predictions is caused by fluctuations in Earth's rotation due primarily to tidal friction of the Moon. The resultant drift in apparent clock time is expressed as ΔT and is determined as follows:

  1. pre-1950's: ΔT calculated from empirical fits to historical records derived by Morrison and Stephenson (2004)
  2. 1955-present: ΔT obtained from published observations
  3. future: ΔT is extrapolated from current values weighted by the long term trend from tidal effects

A series of polynomial expressions have been derived to simplify the evaluation of ΔT for any time from -2999 to +3000. The uncertainty in ΔT over this period can be estimated from scatter in the measurements.

Acknowledgments

Some of the content on this web site is based on the books Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 and Thousand Year Canon of Solar Eclipses 1501 to 2500. All eclipse calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy.

Permission is granted to reproduce data from this page when accompanied by an acknowledgment:

"Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak, www.EclipseWise.com"

The use of diagrams and maps is permitted provided that they are NOT altered (except for re-sizing) and the embedded credit line is NOT removed or covered.