Saros 40

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 40

Fred Espenak

Introduction

The periodicity and recurrence of solar eclipses is governed by the Saros cycle, a period of approximately 6,585.3 days (18 years 11 days 8 hours). When two eclipses are separated by a period of one Saros, they share a very similar geometry. The two eclipses occur at the same node with the Moon at nearly the same distance from Earth and the same time of year due to a harmonic in three cycles of the Moon's orbit. Thus, the Saros is useful for organizing eclipses into families or series. Each series typically lasts 12 to 13 centuries and contains 70 or more eclipses. Every saros series begins with a number of partial eclipses near one of Earth's polar regions. The series will then produce several dozen central eclipses before ending with a group of partial eclipses near the opposite pole. For more information, see Periodicity of Solar Eclipses.

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 40

The table below lists the concise characteristics of every solar eclipse belonging to Saros 40 . The date and time of each eclipse is given for the instant of Greatest Eclipse. For eclipses between the years -1999 to 3000, the calendar date links to a web page containing additional details and a map showing the geographic region of eclipse visibility for that eclipse. A description of each parameter in the catalog table can be found in Key to Saros Catalog of Solar Eclipses.

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 40
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QLE Gamma Ecl Mag Lat

°
Long

°
Sun Alt
°
Path Width km Central Dur
1-36 -1653-May-2818:11:54 38362 2402 -45177 Pb t- -1.5360 0.0072 69S 95E 0 - -
2-35 -1635-Jun-0801:13:43 37965 2340 -44954 P t- -1.4668 0.1371 68S 24W 0 - -
3-34 -1617-Jun-1908:17:03 37569 2279 -44731 P t- -1.3993 0.2630 67S 143W 0 - -
4-33 -1599-Jun-2915:22:38 37176 2218 -44508 P t- -1.3343 0.3831 66S 98E 0 - -
5-32 -1581-Jul-1022:31:18 36784 2158 -44285 P t- -1.2723 0.4964 65S 21W 0 - -
6-31 -1563-Jul-2105:45:24 36395 2099 -44062 P t- -1.2153 0.5994 64S 142W 0 - -
7-30 -1545-Aug-0113:05:05 36008 2041 -43839 P t- -1.1632 0.6923 63S 97E 0 - -
8-29 -1527-Aug-1120:31:20 35623 1983 -43616 P t- -1.1172 0.7730 63S 25W 0 - -
9-28 -1509-Aug-2304:04:44 35239 1926 -43393 P t- -1.0777 0.8413 62S 150W 0 - -
10-27 -1491-Sep-0211:45:55 34858 1870 -43170 P t- -1.0449 0.8967 61S 85E 0 - -
11-26 -1473-Sep-1319:35:02 34479 1814 -42947 P t- -1.0193 0.9390 61S 43W 0 - -
12-25 -1455-Sep-2403:30:10 34102 1760 -42724 A- p- -0.9992 0.9714 61S 172W 0 - -
13-24 -1437-Oct-0511:33:07 33728 1706 -42501 As p- -0.9862 0.9459 59S 74E 9 - 03m49s
14-23 -1419-Oct-1519:40:53 33355 1652 -42278 A p- -0.9782 0.9420 60S 52W 11 106604m02s
15-22 -1401-Oct-2703:53:51 32984 1600 -42055 A p- -0.9747 0.9381 62S 177E 12 105904m13s
16-21 -1383-Nov-0612:07:45 32616 1548 -41832 A p- -0.9727 0.9348 65S 45E 13 108204m20s
17-20 -1365-Nov-1720:24:22 32249 1496 -41609 A p- -0.9737 0.9319 67S 90W 12 116604m25s
18-19 -1347-Nov-2804:39:18 31885 1446 -41386 A p- -0.9742 0.9298 70S 134E 12 122704m28s
19-18 -1329-Dec-0912:52:20 31522 1396 -41163 A p- -0.9738 0.9283 72S 2W 12 125104m30s
20-17 -1311-Dec-1921:00:03 31162 1347 -40940 A p- -0.9698 0.9277 76S 136W 13 117404m33s
21-16 -1293-Dec-3105:02:46 30803 1299 -40717 A p- -0.9622 0.9279 79S 90E 15 104004m35s
22-15 -1274-Jan-1012:57:27 30447 1251 -40494 A p- -0.9487 0.9288 84S 50W 18 87504m39s
23-14 -1256-Jan-2120:43:36 30093 1205 -40271 A p- -0.9289 0.9302 87S 107E 21 72304m45s
24-13 -1238-Feb-0104:20:01 29741 1158 -40048 A p- -0.9017 0.9321 82S 65W 25 59704m52s
25-12 -1220-Feb-1211:46:58 29391 1113 -39825 A p- -0.8675 0.9343 74S 168E 29 49705m01s
26-11 -1202-Feb-2219:02:11 29043 1069 -39602 A p- -0.8241 0.9367 66S 49E 34 41705m12s
27-10 -1184-Mar-0502:07:49 28697 1025 -39379 A p- -0.7731 0.9391 58S 65W 39 35505m26s
28 -9 -1166-Mar-1609:02:44 28354 982 -39156 A p- -0.7137 0.9415 49S 175W 44 30705m40s
29 -8 -1148-Mar-2615:49:38 28012 939 -38933 A p- -0.6483 0.9436 40S 77E 49 27105m55s
30 -7 -1130-Apr-0622:25:55 27672 898 -38710 A p- -0.5744 0.9456 31S 28W 55 24206m10s
31 -6 -1112-Apr-1704:56:58 27335 857 -38487 A p- -0.4965 0.9472 22S 131W 60 22206m25s
32 -5 -1094-Apr-2811:20:44 26999 817 -38264 A p- -0.4124 0.9484 13S 128E 66 20706m37s
33 -4 -1076-May-0817:42:07 26666 778 -38041 A pn -0.3267 0.9493 5S 28E 71 19606m46s
34 -3 -1058-May-1923:58:49 26334 739 -37818 A nn -0.2371 0.9496 4N 70W 76 19006m52s
35 -2 -1040-May-3006:16:53 26005 702 -37595 A nn -0.1486 0.9495 12N 167W 82 18706m53s
36 -1 -1022-Jun-1012:34:13 25678 665 -37372 A nn -0.0592 0.9489 19N 96E 87 18806m50s
37 0 -1004-Jun-2018:55:01 25353 629 -37149 Am nn 0.0274 0.9479 25N 0E 88 19206m43s
38 1 -0986-Jul-0201:19:21 25030 616 -36926 A nn 0.1114 0.9464 30N 96W 83 19906m35s
39 2 -0968-Jul-1207:50:28 24709 610 -36703 A nn 0.1899 0.9447 34N 167E 79 20806m28s
40 3 -0950-Jul-2314:28:45 24390 603 -36480 A nn 0.2630 0.9427 37N 69E 75 21906m24s
Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 40
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QLE Gamma Ecl Mag Lat

°
Long

°
Sun Alt
°
Path Width km Central Dur
41 4 -0932-Aug-0221:14:46 24073 596 -36257 A np 0.3299 0.9405 39N 30W 71 23306m22s
42 5 -0914-Aug-1404:10:44 23758 589 -36034 A -p 0.3889 0.9382 39N 132W 67 24806m25s
43 6 -0896-Aug-2411:15:52 23445 582 -35811 A -p 0.4409 0.9360 38N 123E 64 26306m32s
44 7 -0878-Sep-0418:31:39 23135 575 -35588 A -p 0.4843 0.9338 36N 15E 61 27906m42s
45 8 -0860-Sep-1501:56:51 22826 569 -35365 A -p 0.5203 0.9319 34N 97W 58 29306m55s
46 9 -0842-Sep-2609:32:56 22520 562 -35142 A -p 0.5479 0.9304 31N 148E 57 30607m11s
47 10 -0824-Oct-0617:17:35 22215 555 -34919 A -p 0.5689 0.9292 28N 30E 55 31607m29s
48 11 -0806-Oct-1801:10:37 21913 548 -34696 A -p 0.5834 0.9286 25N 91W 54 32207m47s
49 12 -0788-Oct-2809:10:35 21612 541 -34473 A -p 0.5928 0.9286 22N 146E 54 32508m04s
50 13 -0770-Nov-0817:16:36 21314 534 -34250 A -p 0.5973 0.9292 19N 22E 53 32408m19s
51 14 -0752-Nov-1901:25:42 21018 527 -34027 A -p 0.6003 0.9305 17N 103W 53 32008m28s
52 15 -0734-Nov-3009:36:49 20724 521 -33804 A -p 0.6022 0.9324 15N 131E 53 31208m30s
53 16 -0716-Dec-1017:47:56 20432 514 -33581 A -p 0.6046 0.9351 14N 6E 53 30108m22s
54 17 -0698-Dec-2201:58:31 20142 507 -33358 A -p 0.6079 0.9384 14N 120W 52 28708m03s
55 18 -0679-Jan-0110:04:16 19854 500 -33135 A -p 0.6159 0.9423 14N 116E 52 27107m32s
56 19 -0661-Jan-1218:06:31 19568 492 -32912 A -p 0.6273 0.9466 16N 8W 51 25206m51s
57 20 -0643-Jan-2302:01:22 19284 485 -32689 A -p 0.6455 0.9515 19N 130W 50 23206m02s
58 21 -0625-Feb-0309:51:23 19003 478 -32466 A -p 0.6682 0.9567 23N 109E 48 21105m09s
59 22 -0607-Feb-1317:31:46 18723 471 -32243 A -p 0.6994 0.9620 28N 10W 45 19104m14s
60 23 -0589-Feb-2501:06:48 18446 464 -32020 A -p 0.7357 0.9675 34N 129W 42 17103m23s
61 24 -0571-Mar-0708:32:42 18170 457 -31797 A -p 0.7801 0.9728 41N 114E 38 15402m36s
62 25 -0553-Mar-1815:52:48 17897 450 -31574 A -p 0.8299 0.9779 49N 4W 34 14001m56s
63 26 -0535-Mar-2823:04:50 17625 444 -31351 A -p 0.8873 0.9823 58N 123W 27 13601m23s
64 27 -0517-Apr-0906:13:07 17356 437 -31128 A -t 0.9483 0.9858 68N 108E 18 16100m59s
65 28 -0499-Apr-1913:16:13 17085 430 -30905 P -t 1.0143 0.9618 71N 66W 0 - -
66 29 -0481-Apr-3020:16:22 16766 423 -30682 P -t 1.0835 0.8387 71N 175E 0 - -
67 30 -0463-May-1103:14:35 16456 417 -30459 P -t 1.1552 0.7096 70N 56E 0 - -
68 31 -0445-May-2210:13:03 16154 410 -30236 P -t 1.2276 0.5780 69N 62W 0 - -
69 32 -0427-Jun-0117:12:31 15861 404 -30013 P -t 1.2998 0.4455 68N 180W 0 - -
70 33 -0409-Jun-1300:13:51 15576 397 -29790 P -t 1.3712 0.3138 67N 63E 0 - -
71 34 -0391-Jun-2307:19:31 15298 391 -29567 P -t 1.4399 0.1864 66N 55W 0 - -
72 35 -0373-Jul-0414:30:17 15026 385 -29344 Pe -t 1.5053 0.0646 65N 175W 0 - -

Statistics for Solar Eclipses of Saros 40

Solar eclipses of Saros 40 all occur at the Moon’s descending node and the Moon moves northward with each eclipse. The series began with a partial eclipse in the southern hemisphere on -1653 May 28. The series ended with a partial eclipse in the northern hemisphere on -0373 Jul 04. The total duration of Saros series 40 is 1280.14 years.

Summary of Saros 40
First Eclipse -1653 May 28
Last Eclipse -0373 Jul 04
Series Duration 1280.14 Years
No. of Eclipses 72
Sequence 11P 53A 8P

Saros 40 is composed of 72 solar eclipses as follows:

Solar Eclipses of Saros 40
Eclipse Type Symbol Number Percent
All Eclipses - 72100.0%
PartialP 19 26.4%
AnnularA 53 73.6%
TotalT 0 0.0%
HybridH 0 0.0%

Umbral eclipses (annular, total and hybrid) can be further classified as either: 1) Central (two limits), 2) Central (one limit) or 3) Non-Central (one limit). The statistical distribution of these classes in Saros series 40 appears in the following table.

Umbral Eclipses of Saros 40
Classification Number Percent
All Umbral Eclipses 53100.0%
Central (two limits) 51 96.2%
Central (one limit) 1 1.9%
Non-Central (one limit) 1 1.9%

The 72 eclipses in Saros 40 occur in the following order : 11P 53A 8P

The longest and shortest central eclipses of Saros 40 as well as largest and smallest partial eclipses appear below.

Extreme Durations and Magnitudes of Solar Eclipses of Saros 40
Extrema Type Date Duration Magnitude
Longest Annular Solar Eclipse -0734 Nov 3008m30s -
Shortest Annular Solar Eclipse -0517 Apr 0900m59s -
Largest Partial Solar Eclipse -0499 Apr 19 - 0.96183
Smallest Partial Solar Eclipse -1653 May 28 - 0.00724

Links to Additional Solar Eclipse Predictions

Calendar

The Gregorian calendar (also called the Western calendar) is internationally the most widely used civil calendar. It is named for Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in 1582. On this website, the Gregorian calendar is used for all calendar dates from 1582 Oct 15 onwards. Before that date, the Julian calendar is used. For more information on this topic, see Calendar Dates.

The Julian calendar does not include the year 0. Thus the year 1 BCE is followed by the year 1 CE (See: BCE/CE Dating Conventions). This is awkward for arithmetic calculations. Years in this catalog are numbered astronomically and include the year 0. Historians should note there is a difference of one year between astronomical dates and BCE dates. Thus, the astronomical year 0 corresponds to 1 BCE, and astronomical year -1 corresponds to 2 BCE, etc..

Eclipse Predictions

The eclipse predictions presented here were generated using the JPL DE406 solar and lunar ephemerides. The lunar coordinates have been calculated with respect to the Moon's Center of Mass.

The largest uncertainty in the eclipse predictions is caused by fluctuations in Earth's rotation due primarily to tidal friction of the Moon. The resultant drift in apparent clock time is expressed as ΔT and is determined as follows:

  1. pre-1950's: ΔT calculated from empirical fits to historical records derived by Morrison and Stephenson (2004)
  2. 1955-present: ΔT obtained from published observations
  3. future: ΔT is extrapolated from current values weighted by the long term trend from tidal effects

A series of polynomial expressions have been derived to simplify the evaluation of ΔT for any time from -2999 to +3000. The uncertainty in ΔT over this period can be estimated from scatter in the measurements.

Acknowledgments

Some of the content on this web site is based on the books Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 and Thousand Year Canon of Solar Eclipses 1501 to 2500. All eclipse calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy.

Permission is granted to reproduce data from this page when accompanied by an acknowledgment:

"Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak, www.EclipseWise.com"

The use of diagrams and maps is permitted provided that they are NOT altered (except for re-sizing) and the embedded credit line is NOT removed or covered.