Saros 123

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 123

Fred Espenak

Introduction

The periodicity and recurrence of solar eclipses is governed by the Saros cycle, a period of approximately 6,585.3 days (18 years 11 days 8 hours). When two eclipses are separated by a period of one Saros, they share a very similar geometry. The two eclipses occur at the same node with the Moon at nearly the same distance from Earth and the same time of year due to a harmonic in three cycles of the Moon's orbit. Thus, the Saros is useful for organizing eclipses into families or series. Each series typically lasts 12 to 13 centuries and contains 70 or more eclipses. Every saros series begins with a number of partial eclipses near one of Earth's polar regions. The series will then produce several dozen central eclipses before ending with a group of partial eclipses near the opposite pole. For more information, see Periodicity of Solar Eclipses.

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 123

The table below lists the concise characteristics of every solar eclipse belonging to Saros 123 . The date and time of each eclipse is given for the instant of Greatest Eclipse. For eclipses between the years -1999 to 3000, the calendar date links to a web page containing additional details and a map showing the geographic region of eclipse visibility for that eclipse. A description of each parameter in the catalog table can be found in Key to Saros Catalog of Solar Eclipses.

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 123
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QLE Gamma Ecl Mag Lat

°
Long

°
Sun Alt
°
Path Width km Central Dur
1-33 1074-Apr-2901:23:40 1188 44 -11449 Pb t- 1.4966 0.1151 62N 40E 0 - -
2-32 1092-May-0907:54:59 1109 42 -11226 P t- 1.4182 0.2480 63N 67W 0 - -
3-31 1110-May-2014:22:23 1035 40 -11003 P t- 1.3363 0.3875 64N 174W 0 - -
4-30 1128-May-3020:45:53 965 38 -10780 P t- 1.2508 0.5336 64N 80E 0 - -
5-29 1146-Jun-1103:09:11 900 36 -10557 P t- 1.1642 0.6816 65N 25W 0 - -
6-28 1164-Jun-2109:30:32 838 34 -10334 P t- 1.0754 0.8335 66N 131W 0 - -
7-27 1182-Jul-0215:55:45 780 33 -10111 An t- 0.9892 0.9368 75N 120E 7 - 03m50s
8-26 1200-Jul-1222:22:46 726 31 -9888 A t- 0.9039 0.9409 84N 101W 25 52104m12s
9-25 1218-Jul-2404:55:32 675 29 -9665 A p- 0.8225 0.9425 72N 135E 34 37604m34s
10-24 1236-Aug-0311:32:59 628 27 -9442 A p- 0.7442 0.9432 62N 30E 42 31404m57s
11-23 1254-Aug-1418:19:39 584 26 -9219 A p- 0.6727 0.9433 53N 76W 47 28205m23s
12-22 1272-Aug-2501:13:41 543 24 -8996 A p- 0.6068 0.9430 44N 177E 52 26405m50s
13-21 1290-Sep-0508:17:06 504 22 -8773 A p- 0.5480 0.9424 36N 68E 57 25306m17s
14-20 1308-Sep-1515:29:59 468 21 -8550 A p- 0.4965 0.9417 28N 43W 60 24706m43s
15-19 1326-Sep-2622:53:50 434 20 -8327 A p- 0.4532 0.9409 21N 156W 63 24407m07s
16-18 1344-Oct-0706:26:54 403 20 -8104 A p- 0.4170 0.9402 15N 88E 65 24207m29s
17-17 1362-Oct-1814:09:24 373 20 -7881 A p- 0.3879 0.9397 10N 29W 67 24107m48s
18-16 1380-Oct-2822:00:44 345 20 -7658 A p- 0.3656 0.9395 5N 148W 69 24008m01s
19-15 1398-Nov-0906:00:32 318 20 -7435 A p- 0.3494 0.9397 1N 91E 70 23808m07s
20-14 1416-Nov-1914:05:53 294 20 -7212 A p- 0.3371 0.9404 2S 32W 70 23408m05s
21-13 1434-Nov-3022:17:32 270 20 -6989 A n- 0.3291 0.9416 4S 155W 71 22907m54s
22-12 1452-Dec-1106:31:51 248 20 -6766 A n- 0.3224 0.9434 5S 81E 71 22107m32s
23-11 1470-Dec-2214:49:03 226 20 -6543 A n- 0.3176 0.9458 5S 43W 72 21007m02s
24-10 1489-Jan-0123:04:26 207 20 -6320 A n- 0.3102 0.9489 4S 167W 72 19706m24s
25 -9 1507-Jan-1307:20:08 188 20 -6097 A n- 0.3024 0.9526 3S 68E 72 18105m42s
26 -8 1525-Jan-2315:31:19 171 20 -5874 A n- 0.2898 0.9569 1S 55W 73 16304m58s
27 -7 1543-Feb-0323:38:50 155 20 -5651 A n- 0.2736 0.9617 1N 177W 74 14304m14s
28 -6 1561-Feb-1407:39:20 141 20 -5428 A n- 0.2507 0.9670 3N 63E 75 12203m30s
29 -5 1579-Feb-2515:34:46 129 20 -5205 A n- 0.2229 0.9728 6N 56W 77 10002m48s
30 -4 1597-Mar-1723:22:38 119 20 -4982 A n- 0.1879 0.9788 8N 173W 79 7702m08s
31 -3 1615-Mar-2907:03:23 100 18 -4759 A nn 0.1461 0.9851 11N 72E 82 5301m28s
32 -2 1633-Apr-0814:37:05 74 15 -4536 A nn 0.0976 0.9913 12N 41W 84 3100m51s
33 -1 1651-Apr-1922:04:36 47 12 -4313 A nn 0.0433 0.9976 14N 152W 87 800m14s
34 0 1669-Apr-3005:26:06 24 10 -4090 H nn -0.0170 1.0036 14N 98E 89 1300m22s
35 1 1687-May-1112:42:28 10 7 -3867 H nn -0.0827 1.0094 14N 10W 85 3300m57s
36 2 1705-May-2219:55:05 9 5 -3644 Hm nn -0.1525 1.0147 12N 117W 81 5101m32s
37 3 1723-Jun-0303:05:13 10 4 -3421 T nn -0.2251 1.0196 10N 136E 77 6902m05s
38 4 1741-Jun-1310:12:47 12 3 -3198 T -n -0.3007 1.0239 6N 29E 73 8502m35s
39 5 1759-Jun-2417:20:59 14 3 -2975 T -n -0.3768 1.0275 1N 78W 68 10102m59s
40 6 1777-Jul-0500:29:29 16 2 -2752 T -p -0.4531 1.0305 4S 174E 63 11503m17s
Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 123
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QLE Gamma Ecl Mag Lat

°
Long

°
Sun Alt
°
Path Width km Central Dur
41 7 1795-Jul-1607:41:36 15 1 -2529 T -p -0.5274 1.0327 10S 64E 58 13003m26s
42 8 1813-Jul-2714:55:35 12 1 -2306 T -p -0.6006 1.0341 17S 47W 53 14403m27s
43 9 1831-Aug-0722:15:59 7 1 -2083 T -p -0.6691 1.0349 25S 161W 48 15803m20s
44 10 1849-Aug-1805:40:49 7 1 -1860 T -p -0.7343 1.0349 33S 84E 43 17203m07s
45 11 1867-Aug-2913:13:07 3 0 -1637 T -p -0.7940 1.0344 41S 35W 37 18902m51s
46 12 1885-Sep-0820:51:52 -6 0 -1414 T -p -0.8489 1.0332 50S 157W 32 21102m31s
47 13 1903-Sep-2104:39:52 2 0 -1191 T -p -0.8967 1.0316 58S 77E 26 24102m12s
48 14 1921-Oct-0112:35:58 22 0 -968 T -p -0.9383 1.0293 66S 56W 20 29101m52s
49 15 1939-Oct-1220:40:23 24 0 -745 T -p -0.9737 1.0266 73S 155E 12 41801m32s
50 16 1957-Oct-2304:54:02 32 0 -522 T- -t -1.0022 1.0013 71S 23W 0 - -
51 17 1975-Nov-0313:15:54 46 0 -299 P -t -1.0248 0.9588 70S 162W 0 - -
52 18 1993-Nov-1321:45:51 60 0 -76 P -t -1.0411 0.9280 70S 58E 0 - -
53 19 2011-Nov-2506:21:25 67 0 147 P -t -1.0536 0.9047 69S 82W 0 - -
54 20 2029-Dec-0515:03:58 74 1 370 P -t -1.0609 0.8911 68S 136E 0 - -
55 21 2047-Dec-1623:50:12 84 5 593 P -t -1.0661 0.8817 66S 7W 0 - -
56 22 2065-Dec-2708:39:56 96 9 816 P -t -1.0688 0.8769 65S 149W 0 - -
57 23 2084-Jan-0717:30:24 111 15 1039 P -t -1.0715 0.8723 64S 68E 0 - -
58 24 2102-Jan-1902:21:30 129 21 1262 P -t -1.0741 0.8682 64S 74W 0 - -
59 25 2120-Jan-3011:09:56 149 28 1485 P -t -1.0792 0.8594 63S 145E 0 - -
60 26 2138-Feb-0919:55:23 172 36 1708 P -t -1.0872 0.8453 62S 5E 0 - -
61 27 2156-Feb-2104:36:02 198 44 1931 P -t -1.0995 0.8230 62S 134W 0 - -
62 28 2174-Mar-0313:11:54 226 53 2154 P -t -1.1162 0.7924 61S 88E 0 - -
63 29 2192-Mar-1321:40:00 256 62 2377 P -t -1.1395 0.7490 61S 47W 0 - -
64 30 2210-Mar-2606:01:57 289 72 2600 P -t -1.1680 0.6954 61S 178E 0 - -
65 31 2228-Apr-0514:15:36 325 82 2823 P -t -1.2036 0.6279 61S 47E 0 - -
66 32 2246-Apr-1622:23:23 363 93 3046 P -t -1.2445 0.5498 62S 84W 0 - -
67 33 2264-Apr-2706:21:41 404 105 3269 P -t -1.2931 0.4564 62S 148E 0 - -
68 34 2282-May-0814:15:15 448 117 3492 P -t -1.3458 0.3545 63S 20E 0 - -
69 35 2300-May-1922:00:39 494 129 3715 P -t -1.4049 0.2399 63S 105W 0 - -
70 36 2318-May-3105:42:33 542 142 3938 Pe -t -1.4670 0.1192 64S 130E 0 - -

Statistics for Solar Eclipses of Saros 123

Solar eclipses of Saros 123 all occur at the Moon’s ascending node and the Moon moves southward with each eclipse. The series began with a partial eclipse in the northern hemisphere on 1074 Apr 29. The series will end with a partial eclipse in the southern hemisphere on 2318 May 31. The total duration of Saros series 123 is 1244.08 years.

Summary of Saros 123
First Eclipse 1074 Apr 29
Last Eclipse 2318 May 31
Series Duration 1244.08 Years
No. of Eclipses 70
Sequence 6P 27A 3H 14T 20P

Saros 123 is composed of 70 solar eclipses as follows:

Solar Eclipses of Saros 123
Eclipse Type Symbol Number Percent
All Eclipses - 70100.0%
PartialP 26 37.1%
AnnularA 27 38.6%
TotalT 14 20.0%
HybridH 3 4.3%

Umbral eclipses (annular, total and hybrid) can be further classified as either: 1) Central (two limits), 2) Central (one limit) or 3) Non-Central (one limit). The statistical distribution of these classes in Saros series 123 appears in the following table.

Umbral Eclipses of Saros 123
Classification Number Percent
All Umbral Eclipses 44100.0%
Central (two limits) 42 95.5%
Central (one limit) 1 2.3%
Non-Central (one limit) 1 2.3%

The 70 eclipses in Saros 123 occur in the following order : 6P 27A 3H 14T 20P

The longest and shortest central eclipses of Saros 123 as well as largest and smallest partial eclipses appear below.

Extreme Durations and Magnitudes of Solar Eclipses of Saros 123
Extrema Type Date Duration Magnitude
Longest Annular Solar Eclipse 1398 Nov 0908m07s -
Shortest Annular Solar Eclipse 1651 Apr 1900m14s -
Longest Total Solar Eclipse 1813 Jul 2703m27s -
Shortest Total Solar Eclipse 1939 Oct 1201m32s -
Longest Hybrid Solar Eclipse 1705 May 2201m32s -
Shortest Hybrid Solar Eclipse 1669 Apr 3000m22s -
Largest Partial Solar Eclipse 1975 Nov 03 - 0.95883
Smallest Partial Solar Eclipse 1074 Apr 29 - 0.11506

Links to Additional Solar Eclipse Predictions

Calendar

The Gregorian calendar (also called the Western calendar) is internationally the most widely used civil calendar. It is named for Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in 1582. On this website, the Gregorian calendar is used for all calendar dates from 1582 Oct 15 onwards. Before that date, the Julian calendar is used. For more information on this topic, see Calendar Dates.

The Julian calendar does not include the year 0. Thus the year 1 BCE is followed by the year 1 CE (See: BCE/CE Dating Conventions). This is awkward for arithmetic calculations. Years in this catalog are numbered astronomically and include the year 0. Historians should note there is a difference of one year between astronomical dates and BCE dates. Thus, the astronomical year 0 corresponds to 1 BCE, and astronomical year -1 corresponds to 2 BCE, etc..

Eclipse Predictions

The eclipse predictions presented here were generated using the JPL DE406 solar and lunar ephemerides. The lunar coordinates have been calculated with respect to the Moon's Center of Mass.

The largest uncertainty in the eclipse predictions is caused by fluctuations in Earth's rotation due primarily to tidal friction of the Moon. The resultant drift in apparent clock time is expressed as ΔT and is determined as follows:

  1. pre-1950's: ΔT calculated from empirical fits to historical records derived by Morrison and Stephenson (2004)
  2. 1955-present: ΔT obtained from published observations
  3. future: ΔT is extrapolated from current values weighted by the long term trend from tidal effects

A series of polynomial expressions have been derived to simplify the evaluation of ΔT for any time from -2999 to +3000. The uncertainty in ΔT over this period can be estimated from scatter in the measurements.

Acknowledgments

Some of the content on this web site is based on the books Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 and Thousand Year Canon of Solar Eclipses 1501 to 2500. All eclipse calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy.

Permission is granted to reproduce data from this page when accompanied by an acknowledgment:

"Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak, www.EclipseWise.com"

The use of diagrams and maps is permitted provided that they are NOT altered (except for re-sizing) and the embedded credit line is NOT removed or covered.