Saros 138

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 138

Fred Espenak

Introduction

The periodicity and recurrence of solar eclipses is governed by the Saros cycle, a period of approximately 6,585.3 days (18 years 11 days 8 hours). When two eclipses are separated by a period of one Saros, they share a very similar geometry. The two eclipses occur at the same node with the Moon at nearly the same distance from Earth and the same time of year due to a harmonic in three cycles of the Moon's orbit. Thus, the Saros is useful for organizing eclipses into families or series. Each series typically lasts 12 to 13 centuries and contains 70 or more eclipses. Every saros series begins with a number of partial eclipses near one of Earth's polar regions. The series will then produce several dozen central eclipses before ending with a group of partial eclipses near the opposite pole. For more information, see Periodicity of Solar Eclipses.

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 138

The table below lists the concise characteristics of every solar eclipse belonging to Saros 138 . The date and time of each eclipse is given for the instant of Greatest Eclipse. For eclipses between the years -1999 to 3000, the calendar date links to a web page containing additional details and a map showing the geographic region of eclipse visibility for that eclipse. A description of each parameter in the catalog table can be found in Key to Saros Catalog of Solar Eclipses.

Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 138
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QLE Gamma Ecl Mag Lat

°
Long

°
Sun Alt
°
Path Width km Central Dur
1-33 1472-Jun-0620:20:29 225 20 -6525 Pb t- -1.5448 0.0209 66S 132W 0 - -
2-32 1490-Jun-1802:55:28 205 20 -6302 P t- -1.4661 0.1592 65S 119E 0 - -
3-31 1508-Jun-2809:28:42 186 20 -6079 P t- -1.3860 0.2993 64S 10E 0 - -
4-30 1526-Jul-0916:02:40 169 20 -5856 P t- -1.3063 0.4379 64S 98W 0 - -
5-29 1544-Jul-1922:38:20 154 20 -5633 P t- -1.2282 0.5730 63S 154E 0 - -
6-28 1562-Jul-3105:16:44 140 20 -5410 P t- -1.1522 0.7033 62S 45E 0 - -
7-27 1580-Aug-1012:00:04 128 20 -5187 P t- -1.0803 0.8257 62S 65W 0 - -
8-26 1598-Aug-3118:48:46 119 20 -4964 A- t- -1.0126 0.9397 61S 176W 0 - -
9-25 1616-Sep-1101:44:04 98 17 -4741 A t- -0.9506 0.9319 54S 102E 18 80805m42s
10-24 1634-Sep-2208:47:03 72 15 -4518 A p- -0.8947 0.9300 52S 2E 26 57206m03s
11-23 1652-Oct-0215:58:29 45 12 -4295 A p- -0.8459 0.9275 51S 103W 32 49706m19s
12-22 1670-Oct-1323:19:00 22 9 -4072 A p- -0.8043 0.9247 52S 149E 36 46706m34s
13-21 1688-Oct-2406:46:41 9 7 -3849 A p- -0.7686 0.9221 54S 39E 39 45306m49s
14-20 1706-Nov-0514:23:56 9 5 -3626 A p- -0.7407 0.9196 57S 73W 42 44907m02s
15-19 1724-Nov-1522:07:37 10 4 -3403 A p- -0.7183 0.9174 60S 175E 44 44807m15s
16-18 1742-Nov-2705:58:59 12 3 -3180 A p- -0.7019 0.9156 63S 62E 45 45007m26s
17-17 1760-Dec-0713:53:44 14 3 -2957 A p- -0.6882 0.9144 65S 49W 46 45107m36s
18-16 1778-Dec-1821:53:53 17 2 -2734 A p- -0.6788 0.9137 66S 161W 47 45007m44s
19-15 1796-Dec-2905:54:58 15 1 -2511 A p- -0.6703 0.9136 66S 89E 48 44607m51s
20-14 1815-Jan-1013:57:06 12 1 -2288 A p- -0.6626 0.9143 64S 24W 48 43807m55s
21-13 1833-Jan-2021:56:55 6 1 -2065 A p- -0.6530 0.9155 61S 137W 49 42607m59s
22-12 1851-Feb-0105:54:27 7 1 -1842 A p- -0.6413 0.9175 56S 107E 50 40908m01s
23-11 1869-Feb-1113:46:39 2 0 -1619 A p- -0.6251 0.9201 51S 10W 51 38708m02s
24-10 1887-Feb-2221:33:03 -6 0 -1396 A p- -0.6040 0.9232 46S 127W 53 36208m01s
25 -9 1905-Mar-0605:12:26 4 0 -1173 A p- -0.5768 0.9269 40S 117E 55 33407m58s
26 -8 1923-Mar-1712:44:58 23 0 -950 A p- -0.5438 0.9310 33S 2E 57 30507m51s
27 -7 1941-Mar-2720:08:08 25 0 -727 A p- -0.5025 0.9355 26S 111W 60 27607m41s
28 -6 1959-Apr-0803:24:08 33 0 -504 A p- -0.4546 0.9401 19S 138E 63 24707m26s
29 -5 1977-Apr-1810:31:30 48 0 -281 A p- -0.3990 0.9449 12S 28E 66 22007m04s
30 -4 1995-Apr-2917:33:21 61 0 -58 A p- -0.3382 0.9497 5S 79W 70 19506m37s
31 -3 2013-May-1000:26:20 67 0 165 A pn -0.2694 0.9544 2N 175E 74 17306m03s
32 -2 2031-May-2107:16:04 75 2 388 A nn -0.1970 0.9589 9N 72E 79 15205m26s
33 -1 2049-May-3113:59:59 85 5 611 A nn -0.1187 0.9631 15N 30W 83 13404m45s
34 0 2067-Jun-1120:42:26 97 10 834 A nn -0.0387 0.9670 21N 130W 88 11904m05s
35 1 2085-Jun-2203:21:16 113 15 1057 A nn 0.0453 0.9704 26N 131E 87 10603m29s
36 2 2103-Jul-0410:01:48 131 22 1280 Am nn 0.1285 0.9734 30N 33E 82 9602m57s
37 3 2121-Jul-1416:42:38 151 29 1503 A nn 0.2125 0.9758 34N 65W 78 8802m32s
38 4 2139-Jul-2523:26:33 174 36 1726 A nn 0.2946 0.9778 36N 162W 73 8302m13s
39 5 2157-Aug-0506:14:19 200 44 1949 A -p 0.3743 0.9792 37N 99E 68 8001m59s
40 6 2175-Aug-1613:08:17 228 53 2172 A -p 0.4497 0.9802 38N 1W 63 7801m50s
Catalog of Solar Eclipses of Saros 138
Seq Num Rel Num Calendar Date TD of Greatest Eclipse ΔT

s
ΔT Sigma
s
Luna Num Ecl Type QLE Gamma Ecl Mag Lat

°
Long

°
Sun Alt
°
Path Width km Central Dur
41 7 2193-Aug-2620:09:19 259 63 2395 A -p 0.5200 0.9806 37N 104W 58 8001m45s
42 8 2211-Sep-0803:17:18 292 73 2618 A -p 0.5855 0.9808 37N 152E 54 8301m43s
43 9 2229-Sep-1810:34:51 328 83 2841 A -p 0.6439 0.9805 36N 44E 50 8901m44s
44 10 2247-Sep-2918:01:05 366 94 3064 A -p 0.6961 0.9801 36N 67W 46 9601m47s
45 11 2265-Oct-1001:37:34 408 106 3287 A -p 0.7405 0.9796 35N 179E 42 10501m51s
46 12 2283-Oct-2109:23:10 451 118 3510 A -p 0.7783 0.9790 35N 62E 39 11601m56s
47 13 2301-Nov-0117:19:33 497 130 3733 A -p 0.8080 0.9786 35N 58W 36 12602m01s
48 14 2319-Nov-1301:24:38 546 143 3956 A -p 0.8314 0.9784 35N 179E 33 13602m04s
49 15 2337-Nov-2309:37:55 597 157 4179 A -p 0.8488 0.9786 35N 53E 32 14202m05s
50 16 2355-Dec-0417:58:36 651 170 4402 A -p 0.8609 0.9792 36N 75W 30 14502m02s
51 17 2373-Dec-1502:25:54 708 185 4625 A -p 0.8678 0.9803 37N 154E 29 14101m56s
52 18 2391-Dec-2610:57:14 767 199 4848 A -p 0.8724 0.9820 38N 23E 29 13101m46s
53 19 2410-Jan-0519:31:38 829 215 5071 A -p 0.8749 0.9842 39N 109W 29 11601m31s
54 20 2428-Jan-1704:07:20 893 230 5294 A -p 0.8770 0.9870 41N 118E 28 9601m13s
55 21 2446-Jan-2712:43:50 960 246 5517 A -p 0.8790 0.9903 43N 15W 28 7200m53s
56 22 2464-Feb-0721:17:15 1029 262 5740 A -p 0.8840 0.9941 46N 148W 28 4400m31s
57 23 2482-Feb-1805:48:51 1101 279 5963 A -p 0.8912 0.9982 49N 80E 27 1400m09s
58 24 2500-Mar-0114:14:46 1176 297 6186 H -p 0.9038 1.0026 54N 52W 25 2100m12s
59 25 2518-Mar-1222:37:00 1253 314 6409 T -p 0.9200 1.0071 59N 176E 23 6300m31s
60 26 2536-Mar-2306:51:05 1332 332 6632 T -p 0.9435 1.0115 65N 41E 19 12100m46s
61 27 2554-Apr-0315:00:49 1415 351 6855 T -p 0.9714 1.0153 72N 103W 13 23200m56s
62 28 2572-Apr-1323:02:06 1499 369 7078 P -t 1.0068 0.9901 72N 81E 0 - -
63 29 2590-Apr-2506:57:44 1587 389 7301 P -t 1.0476 0.9166 71N 51W 0 - -
64 30 2608-May-0614:45:30 1677 408 7524 P -t 1.0955 0.8287 70N 179E 0 - -
65 31 2626-May-1722:28:38 1769 428 7747 P -t 1.1477 0.7317 69N 52E 0 - -
66 32 2644-May-2806:05:55 1864 449 7970 P -t 1.2052 0.6236 68N 73W 0 - -
67 33 2662-Jun-0813:38:40 1962 469 8193 P -t 1.2667 0.5067 67N 163E 0 - -
68 34 2680-Jun-1821:08:06 2062 490 8416 P -t 1.3315 0.3826 66N 40E 0 - -
69 35 2698-Jun-3004:35:41 2165 512 8639 P -t 1.3984 0.2539 65N 81W 0 - -
70 36 2716-Jul-1112:01:40 2271 534 8862 Pe -t 1.4666 0.1218 64N 158E 0 - -

Statistics for Solar Eclipses of Saros 138

Solar eclipses of Saros 138 all occur at the Moon’s descending node and the Moon moves northward with each eclipse. The series began with a partial eclipse in the southern hemisphere on 1472 Jun 06. The series will end with a partial eclipse in the northern hemisphere on 2716 Jul 11. The total duration of Saros series 138 is 1244.08 years.

Summary of Saros 138
First Eclipse 1472 Jun 06
Last Eclipse 2716 Jul 11
Series Duration 1244.08 Years
No. of Eclipses 70
Sequence 7P 50A 1H 3T 9P

Saros 138 is composed of 70 solar eclipses as follows:

Solar Eclipses of Saros 138
Eclipse Type Symbol Number Percent
All Eclipses - 70100.0%
PartialP 16 22.9%
AnnularA 50 71.4%
TotalT 3 4.3%
HybridH 1 1.4%

Umbral eclipses (annular, total and hybrid) can be further classified as either: 1) Central (two limits), 2) Central (one limit) or 3) Non-Central (one limit). The statistical distribution of these classes in Saros series 138 appears in the following table.

Umbral Eclipses of Saros 138
Classification Number Percent
All Umbral Eclipses 54100.0%
Central (two limits) 53 98.1%
Central (one limit) 0 0.0%
Non-Central (one limit) 1 1.9%

The 70 eclipses in Saros 138 occur in the following order : 7P 50A 1H 3T 9P

The longest and shortest central eclipses of Saros 138 as well as largest and smallest partial eclipses appear below.

Extreme Durations and Magnitudes of Solar Eclipses of Saros 138
Extrema Type Date Duration Magnitude
Longest Annular Solar Eclipse 1869 Feb 1108m02s -
Shortest Annular Solar Eclipse 2482 Feb 1800m09s -
Longest Total Solar Eclipse 2554 Apr 0300m56s -
Shortest Total Solar Eclipse 2518 Mar 1200m31s -
Longest Hybrid Solar Eclipse 2500 Mar 0100m12s -
Shortest Hybrid Solar Eclipse 2500 Mar 0100m12s -
Largest Partial Solar Eclipse 2572 Apr 13 - 0.99014
Smallest Partial Solar Eclipse 1472 Jun 06 - 0.02087

Links to Additional Solar Eclipse Predictions

Calendar

The Gregorian calendar (also called the Western calendar) is internationally the most widely used civil calendar. It is named for Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in 1582. On this website, the Gregorian calendar is used for all calendar dates from 1582 Oct 15 onwards. Before that date, the Julian calendar is used. For more information on this topic, see Calendar Dates.

The Julian calendar does not include the year 0. Thus the year 1 BCE is followed by the year 1 CE (See: BCE/CE Dating Conventions). This is awkward for arithmetic calculations. Years in this catalog are numbered astronomically and include the year 0. Historians should note there is a difference of one year between astronomical dates and BCE dates. Thus, the astronomical year 0 corresponds to 1 BCE, and astronomical year -1 corresponds to 2 BCE, etc..

Eclipse Predictions

The eclipse predictions presented here were generated using the JPL DE406 solar and lunar ephemerides. The lunar coordinates have been calculated with respect to the Moon's Center of Mass.

The largest uncertainty in the eclipse predictions is caused by fluctuations in Earth's rotation due primarily to tidal friction of the Moon. The resultant drift in apparent clock time is expressed as ΔT and is determined as follows:

  1. pre-1950's: ΔT calculated from empirical fits to historical records derived by Morrison and Stephenson (2004)
  2. 1955-present: ΔT obtained from published observations
  3. future: ΔT is extrapolated from current values weighted by the long term trend from tidal effects

A series of polynomial expressions have been derived to simplify the evaluation of ΔT for any time from -2999 to +3000. The uncertainty in ΔT over this period can be estimated from scatter in the measurements.

Acknowledgments

Some of the content on this web site is based on the books Five Millennium Canon of Solar Eclipses: -1999 to +3000 and Thousand Year Canon of Solar Eclipses 1501 to 2500. All eclipse calculations are by Fred Espenak, and he assumes full responsibility for their accuracy.

Permission is granted to reproduce data from this page when accompanied by an acknowledgment:

"Eclipse Predictions by Fred Espenak, www.EclipseWise.com"

The use of diagrams and maps is permitted provided that they are NOT altered (except for re-sizing) and the embedded credit line is NOT removed or covered.